Podcasts about Mao Zedong

Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China

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Lejano Este
El CONFLICTO entre CHINA y TAIWÁN resumido en 10 minutos

Lejano Este

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 16, 2023 10:58


En 1972, durante la guerra fría, se llevó a cabo una reunión histórica entre el presidente de Estados Unidos, Richard Nixon y el líder chino, Mao Zedong. En un momento de la conversación, y con el tema de Taiwán todavía en discusión y una tensión palpable, Mao preguntó acerca del dirigente taiwanés, su enemigo Chiang Kai-Shek. Nixon respondió que ambos se insultaban mutuamente, y Mao intentó colocar a China en una posición de superioridad en la negociación, desaprobando el acercamiento estadounidense a Taiwán. Sin embargo, desde entonces, ambos líderes han fallecido y la reunificación entre China y Taiwán sigue sin lograrse, pero con el aumento del poder de China como potencia mundial, se vuelve a plantear esta situación. Pero, ¿estamos realmente al borde de la tercera guerra mundial? ¿Es el estrecho de Formosa la zona de mayor tensión del planeta? Y sobre todo, ¿Cómo hemos llegado hasta aquí?

Idaho Speaks
Keep Right-Detached & Vulnerable

Idaho Speaks

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 16, 2023 9:42


Would you like to share your thoughts with Ralph?  Please email your comments to hello@idahospeaks.com or post your comments on @IdahoSpeaks on Twitter.Idaho Speaks is a listener supported production.  Please visit idahospeaks.com/support to learn more.Do you have something so say?  Interested in learning more about publishing on the Idaho Speaks Network?  Our nation was built on ideas and your idea could be the next political advancement for Idaho.  Call Ed at (208) 209-7170 or email hello@idahospeaks.com to start the conversation.Transcript:"You are yourself, plus your circumstances."  The early 20th Century Spanish philosopher, Jose Ortega y Gasset, was correct when he described an individual's identity as being a fusion of internal qualities and external context.Each of us is awash in a sea of circumstances which define who we are, what we do, and how we think about the world.  Our lives are lived within a precise moment in history and culture.Everything extrinsic to us, from our language to our expectations about life, derives from whether we were born in 1962 or in 1992, in New York City or in Rathdrum, Idaho, in the USA or in Zimbabwe.   We are shaped by whether we were raised by a gentle soul or by a martinet, by a Doctor or by a Day Laborer, by a Christian or by a Communist, by a married father and mother or by a single parent.Taken in isolation, we are each vulnerable.  Alone in a treacherous world, we are hard-pressed just to survive.  Very few of us can thrive without others.  In fact, a stark and unremitting solitude will drive many of us mad.Fortunately, the circumstances of everyday life provide many opportunities for isolated individuals to connect meaningfully with others.  The birth family, neighborhoods, churches, schools, military service, jobs, clubs, teams, romantic partners and chosen families that we experience all offer us opportunities for meaningful relationships.  Such connections make life worth living.We can find purpose and satisfaction by associating with others of similar faith, ideals, ethnic heritage & culture, life experiences, vocations, avocations, and nationality.  Or, we can enjoy discussing our differing notions with those of divergent views.With functional linkages to other human beings, our stark solitary existence is energized by the vitality and enthusiasm of others.  With the involvement and help of family, friends, associates, colleagues, and other companions, our efforts reshape our world.In short, we human beings are social animals.  One of our most fundamental needs is companionship.  With it we thrive, and without it we wither.Given our social nature, the inescapable consequences of certain "woke" progressive ideas on human relationships is nothing less than appalling.  In their unremitting eagerness to destroy the imperfections of the past and build an entirely new utopia of justice, these zealots are prepared to wreck our established connections to the wider world.Woke progressives advocate that every human tradition, religion, philosophy, ideology, business, workplace, symphony, opera, song, poem, book, play, movie, video game, comic book, art object, sport, contract, or social custom be reevaluated.  Nothing, not even the unstructured play of preadolescent children, must be allowed to flow naturally.  Every work of human hands and the human mind must be scrutinized to determine how power is distributed.Who has power, and who lacks it?  Which parties have been privileged by traditions and which have been systematically disenfranchised?A stark equality of result, the touchstone of all variant Communisms, is becoming the new universal standard of value and virtue.  Perceived past wrongs must be righted, and all must conform to the strictures of reward and punishment necessary to redistribute power and bring about a new order of righteous equity.This type of unrelenting fanaticism is well-known throughout history.  "The Cause" varies from epoch to epoch, but the totalitarian methods are always consistent: an uncompromising and doctrinaire pursuit of ideological purity at all costs.The impure receive terror, pogroms, purges, Holy Inquisitions, and Star Chamber Courts.  The pure receive the power to sit in judgment over everything and everyone; to play god and decide who lives and who dies.This violent winnowing of human society from anything discordant from their woke ideal is not truly about justice.  It is designed to detach the individual from all healthy relationships, making the solitary person isolated, vulnerable, and more easily subjugated.This pattern is ubiquitous in abusive relationships.  The abuser always attempts to detach their victim from their family, friends, and other worldly contacts.  Alone, the victim is at the mercy of the abuser.  Despite their talk of social justice, the woke among us mean to abuse us.  As Robespierre said during the French Revolution, virtue without terror is useless.We each must insist that our naturally evolved human relationships, personal associations, faiths, and traditions not be reduced to the raw calculus of a dogmatic understanding of power and justice.In China during the Cultural Revolution, adolescents were given Mao's "Little Red Book", a summary of the expressed insights of the greatest mass murderer in human history.  These Middle Schoolers were organized into Red Guard cadres, given AK-47 assault rifles, and entrusted with the power of judgment over everyone and everything in the People's Republic.  30-50 million Chinese were murdered in 10 years, and every survivor was brutalized; left carrying scars to this day.  The fictional "Lord of the Flies" had nothing on this hellscape reality!This is the dystopia we are abetting if we continue to abide woke progressives savaging everything that is not of them as being indecently racist or obscenely oppressive.  This extremist cult has already spread from college campuses into corporate boardrooms.  How long until armed thugs fill our streets, holding "People's Courts" where "Enemies of the People" are identified, tried, punished, and even executed; all in one afternoon?We must stand by plain friendship and free play, straightforward associations and time-honored traditions.  We must insist that most of the relationships in which we engage have nothing to do with power politics.We must defend the sublime complexity of real human societies, and the needs of most every man, woman, and child to be free to fully engage without permission from would-be Political Commissars.  We must do these things and more, because if we don't then we risk the extermination of everything spontaneous in this world that makes life worth living.

CHINA RISING
Zhou Enlai, the global face of 20th century China, died this day in 1976. China Rising Radio Sinoland 230108

CHINA RISING

Play Episode Listen Later Jan 8, 2023 7:48


NOW IN 22 DIFFERENT LANGUAGES. CLICK ON THE LOWER LEFT HAND CORNER “TRANSLATE” TAB TO FIND YOURS! By Jeff J. Brown Pictured above: Zhou Enlai, left and Mao Zedong, right, during China's civil war, circa 1937, in Yan'an, Shaanxi Province, kicking butt and evicting fascist Westerners and Japanese out of the country. Through thick and...

The History of Computing
Hackers and Chinese Food: Origins of a Love Affair

The History of Computing

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 30, 2022 19:37


Research into the history of computers sometimes leads down some interesting alleys - or wormholes even. My family would always go out to eat Chinese food, or pick it up, on New Year's day. None of the one Chinese restaurants in the area actually closed, so it just made sense. The Christmas leftovers were gone by then and no one really wanted to cook. My dad mentioned there were no Chinese restaurants in our area in the 1970s - so it was a relatively new entrant to the cuisine of my North Georgia town. Whether it's the Tech Model Railroad or hobbyists from Cambridge, stories abound of young engineers debating the merits of this programming technique or chipset or that. So much so that while reading Steven Levy's Hackers or Tom Lean's Electronic Dreams, I couldn't help but hop on Door Dash and order up some yummy fried rice. Then I started to wonder, why this obsession?  For one, many of these hackers didn't have a ton of money. Chinese food was quick and cheap. The restaurants were often family-owned and small. There were higher end restaurants but concepts like P.F. Chang's hadn't sprung up yet. That wouldn't come until 1993. Another reason it was cheap is that many of the proprietors of the restaurants were recent immigrants. Some were from Hunan, others from Taipei or Sichuan, Shanghai, or Peking (the Romanized name for Beijing). Chinese immigrants began to flow into the United States during the Gold Rush of California in the late 1840s and early 1850s.  The Qing Empire had been at its height at the end of the 1700s and China ruled over a third of humans in the world. Not only that - it was one of the top economies in the world. But rapid growth in population meant less farmland for everyone - less jobs to go around. Poverty spread, just as colonial powers began to pick away at parts of the empire. Britain had banned the slave trade in 1807 and Chinese laborers had been used to replace the slaves. The use of opium spread throughout the colonies and with the laborers, back into China. The Chinese tried to ban the opium trade and seized opium in Canton. The British had better ships, better guns, and when the First Opium War broke out, China was forced to give up Hong Kong to the British in 1842, which began what some historians refer to as a century of humiliation while China gave up land until they were able to modernize. Hong Kong became a British colony under Queen Victoria and the Victorian obsession with China grew. Art, silks (as with the Romans), vases, and anything the British could get their hands on flowed through Hong Kong. Then came the Taiping Rebellion, which lasted from 1851 to 1864. A Christian was named theocrat and China was forced to wage a war internally with around 20 million people dying and scores more being displaced. The scent of an empire in decay was in the air. Set against a backdrop of more rebellions, the Chinese army was weakened to the point that during the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894, and more intervention from colonial powers. By 1900, the anti-colonial and anti-Christian Boxer Uprising saw missionaries slaughtered and foreigners expelled. Great powers of the day sent ships and troops to retrieve their peoples and soon declared war on the empire and seized Beijing. This was all expensive, led to reparations, a prohibition on importing arms, razing of forts, and more foreign powers occupying areas of China. The United States put over $10 million of its take from the Boxer Indemnity as they called it, to help support Chinese students who came to the United States. The Qing court had lost control and by 1911 the Wuchang Uprising began and by 1912 2,000 years of Chinese dynasties was over with the Republic of China founded in 1912, and internal conflicts for power continuing until Mao Zedong and his followers finally seized power, established the People's Republic of China as a communist nation, and cleansed the country of detractors during what they called the Great Leap Forward, resulting in 45 million dead. China itself was diplomatically disconnected with the United States at the time, who had backed the government now in exile in the capital city of Taiwan, Taipei - or the Republic of China as they were called during the Civil War.  The food, though. Chinese food began to come into the United States during the Gold Rush. Cantonese merchants flowed into the sparkling bay of San Francisco, and emigrants could find jobs mining, laying railroad tracks, and in agriculture. Hard work means you get real hungry, and they cooked food like they had at home. China had a better restaurant and open market cooking industry than the US at the time (and arguably still does). Some of he Chinese who settled in San Francisco started restaurants - many better than those run by Americans. The first known restaurant owned by a Chinese proprietor was Canton Restaurant in 1849. As San Francisco grew, so grew the Chinese food industry.  Every group of immigrants faces xenophobia or racism. The use of the Chinese laborers had led to laws in England that attempted to limit their use. In some cases they were subjugated into labor. The Chinese immigrants came into the California Gold Rush and many stayed. More restaurants were opened and some catered to white people more than the Chinese. The Transcontinental Railroad was completed in 1869 and tourists began to visit San Francisco from the east. China Towns began to spring up in other major cities across the United States. Restaurants, laundries, and other even eastern pharmacies. New people bring new ways and economies go up and down. Prejudice reared its ugly head. There was an economic recession in the 1870s. There were fears that the Chinese were taking jobs, causing wages to go down, and crime. Anti-Chinese sentiment became law in the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882, which halted immigration into the US. That would be repealed in 1943. Conservative approaches to immigration did nothing to limit the growing appeal of Chinese food in the United States. Merchants, like those who owned Chinese restaurants, could get special visas. They could bring relatives and workers. Early Chinese restaurants had been called “chow chow houses” and by the early 1900s there were new Chop Suey restaurants in big cities, that were affordable. Chop Suey basically means “odds and ends” and most of the dishes were heavily westernized but still interesting and delicious. The food was fried in ways it hadn't been in China, and sweeter. Ideas from other asian nations also began to come in, like fortune cookies, initially from Japan. Americans began to return home from World War II in the late 1940s. Many had experienced new culinary traditions in lands they visited. Initially Cantonese-inspired, more people flowed in from other parts of China like Taiwan and they brought food inspired from their native lands. Areas like New York and San Francisco got higher end restaurants. Once the Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed, plenty of immigrants fled wars and cleansing in China. Meanwhile, Americans embraced access to different types of foods - like Italian, Chinese, and fast food. Food became a part of the national identity. Further, new ways to preserve food became possible as people got freezers and canneries helped spread foods - like pasta sauce.  This was the era of the spread of Spam and other types of early processed foods. The military helped spread the practice - as did Jen Paulucci, who bought Chun King Corporation in 1947. The Great Depression proved there needed to be new ways to distribute foods. Some capitalized on that. 4,000+ Chinese restaurants in the US in the 1940s meant there were plenty of companies to buy those goods rather than make them fresh. Chop Suey, possibly created by the early Chinese migrants. A new influx of immigrants would have new opportunities to diversify the American pallate.  The 1960s saw an increase in legislation to protect human rights. Amidst the civil rights movement, the Hart-Celler Act of 1965 stopped the long-standing practice of controlling immigration effectively by color. The post-war years saw shifting borders and wars throughout the world - especially in Eastern Europe and Asia. The Marshal Plan helped rebuild the parts of Asia that weren't communist, and opened the ability for more diverse people to move to the US. Many that we've covered went into computing and helped develop a number of aspects of computing. They didn't just come from China - they came from Russia, Poland, India, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, and throughout. Their food came with them. This is the world the Hackers that Steven Levy described lived in. The first Chinese restaurant opened in London in 1907 and as well when people who lived in Hong Kong moved to the UK, especially after World War II. That number of Chinese restaurants in the US grew to tens of thousands in the decades since Richard Nixon visited Beijing in 1972 to open relations back up with China. But the impact at the time was substantial, even on technologists. It wasn't just those hackers from MIT that loved their Chinese food, but those in Cambridge as well in the 1980s, who partook in a more Americanized Chinese cuisine, like “Chow mein” - which loosely translates from “fried noodles” and emerged in the US in the early 1900s.  Not all dishes have such simple origins to track down. Egg rolls emerged in the 1930s, a twist on the more traditional Chinese sprint roll. Ding Baozhen, a governor of the Sichuan province in the Qing Dynasty, discovered a spicy marinated chicken dish in the mid-1800s that spread quickly. He was the Palace Guardian, or Kung Pao, as the dish is still known. Zuo Zongtang, better known as General Tso, was a Qing Dynasty statesman and military commander who helped put down the Taiping Rebellion in the later half of the 1800s. Chef Peng Chang-kuei escaped communist China to Taiwan, where he developed General Tso's chicken and named it after the war hero. It came to New York in the 1970s. Sweet and Sour pork also got its start in the Qing era, in 18th century Cantonese cuisine and spread to the US with the Gold Rush. Some dishes are far older. Steamed dumplings were popular from Afghanistan to Japan and go back to the Han Dynasty - possibly invented by the Chinese doctor Zhang Zhongjing in the centuries before or after the turn of the millennia. Peking duck is far older, getting its start in 1300s Ming Dynasty, or Yuan - but close to Shanghai. Otto Reichardt brought the ducks to San Francisco to be served in restaurants in 1901. Chinese diplomats helped popularize the dish in the 1940s as some of their staffs stayed in the US and the dish exploded in popularity in the 1970s - especially after Nixon's trip to China, which included a televised meal on Tiananmen Square where he and Henry Kissinger ate the dish.   There are countless stories of Chinese-born immigrants bringing their food to the world. Some are emblematic of larger population shifts globally. Cecilia Chiang grew up in Shanghai until Japan invaded, when she and her sister fled to Chengdu, only to flee the Chinese Communists and emigrate to the US in 1959. She opened The Mandarin in 1960 in San Francisco and a second location in 1967. It was an upscale restaurant and introduced a number of new dishes to the US from China. She went on to serve everyone from John Lennon to Julia Child - and her son Philip replaced her in 1989 before starting a more mainstream chain of restaurants he called P.F. Chang's in 1993. The American dream, as it had come to be known. Plenty of other immigrants from countries around the world were met with open arms. Chemists, biologists, inventors, spies, mathematicians, doctors, physicists, and yes, computer scientists. And of course, chefs. Diversity of thought, diversity of ideas, and diversity-driven innovation can only come from diverse peoples. The hackers innovated over their Americanized versions of Chinese food - many making use of technology developed by immigrants from China, their children, or those who came from other nations. Just as those from nearly every industry did.

CHINA RISING
Merry Maomas! Mao Zedong was born 129 years ago today. Whether you realize it or not, he changed your life forever, for the better. China Rising Radio Sinoland 221226

CHINA RISING

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 26, 2022 3:59


By Jeff J. Brown Pictured above: the massive, open air statue of young Mao Zedong, in Changsha, Hunan, which I got to visit. Never forget that the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people agree with his socialist, anti-imperialist, anti-global capitalist world view.   Right here, it takes just a second… Support my many hours of...

Kinapodden i P1
Historien om Mao Zedong – diktatorn som hänger kvar

Kinapodden i P1

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 26, 2022 40:18


Miljontals människor dog när Mao Zedongs Kina skulle ta "det stora språnget". Men trots politiska experiment, massvält och utrensningar, verkar den store ledarens gloria aldrig riktigt falla. Mellan 40 och 70 miljoner människor uppskattas ha dött under Mao Zedongs styre, vilket gör honom till en av förra seklets värsta diktatorer. Ändå fortsätter Mao att dyrkas av många i Kina. Som utropare av Folkrepubliken Kina 1949 har han fått rollen som befriare i historieskrivningen. Hans ansikte återfinns än i dag på landets sedlar och ett Mao-porträtt hängande från backspegeln anses, av vissa, medföra tur och beskydd.I det här specialavsnittet om Mao Zedong hör vi journalisten och författaren Göran Leijonhufvud berätta om hur han reste till Kina på 1960-talet och tvingades ompröva sina idéer om ett harmoniskt styre i Kina. Han återvände senare till Kina som Dagens Nyheters korrespondent.Sinologen Göran Sommardal har studerat Maos ideologiska tankegods. Hör honom berätta om Maos lilla röda den skrift som så starkt förknippas med kulturrevolutionen och som brukar sägas vara världens mest sålda bok.Hör också Sveriges Radios Hanna Sahlberg om hur 2000-talets och dagens Kina förhåller sig till Mao. Fortfarande är det Maos porträtt som hänger ovanför Himmelska fridens port i Peking. Kommer Mao för evigt att behålla denna upphöjda position?Programledare: Axel Kronholm Producent: Therese Rosenvinge Tekniker: Adam Alvin

Betrouwbare Bronnen
317 - Extra winteraflevering: PG tipt boeken!

Betrouwbare Bronnen

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 23, 2022 85:25


Kerst komt en ook die magische dagen 'zwischen den Jahren', zoals onze oosterburen zo mooi zeggen. Alle reden voor Betrouwbare Bronnen om inspiratie te leveren voor lezen, reflecteren en inspireren met belangrijke nieuwe boeken. Jaap Jansen en PG Kroeger nemen je mee naar de krochten van het Kremlin, het Catshuis van Joop den Uyl en Dries van Agt, het China van Mao en Deng, het Amerika van Donald Trump en het Duitsland van filosofie, politiek en kunst de 19e eeuw.***Op Apple kun je soms niet alles lezen. De complete tekst van de aflevering (en alle voorgaande episodes) vind je altijd hier***Het eerste wat we bespreken is volgens PG de ‘roman van het jaar'. 'Le Mage du Kremlin' van Giuliano da Empoli - nét vertaald bij ons als De Kremlinfluisteraar - is een tour de force van fictie en realiteit, vervlochten in een roman over de pr-adviseur van Poetin. Vadim Baranov, de maker van soaps en experimenteel, absurdistisch theater, en zijn chef, 'Le Tsar', zullen je lang bijblijven. "Die andere wereldleiders, ze behandelen me als een president van Finland. En wat erger is, ze beschouwen Finland tenminste als een geciviliseerde natie."Ten tweede: Grote idealen, smalle marges, het nieuwste monumentale boek onder redactie van Carla van Baalen en Anne Bos van het Centrum voor Parlementaire Geschiedenis over de turbulente jaren 1971 - 1982. Van de nasleep van 'mei '68' en de decennia van de verzuiling tot de no-nonsense van Lubbers en het nieuwe CDA. Met kleurrijk personeel, controverses, incidenten, grote hervormingen en spanningen.‘Ome' Joop den Uyl. Dries van Agt. Hans van Mierlo. Hans Wiegel. Kruisraketten. Olieboycot. Abortus. Middenschool. Gijzelingen. Bestek ‘81. 50 jaar na dato kijken we anders, maar met empathie en nog steeds gefascineerd naar toen en de lessen voor nu over polarisatie, energieperikelen en angst voor het Kremlin.Ten derde: China na Mao van Frank Dikötter. Het vierde en laatste deel van zijn indrukwekkende tetralogie over Mao Zedong, diens revoluties en chaos en de redding én herlancering van dat grote land door de hoogbejaarde Deng Xiaoping.Dikötter dook in regionale archieven door heel China en kwam zo de werkelijkheid op het spoor, ver weg vaak van de pretenties en propaganda in Beijing. Met een verrassend portret van Oompje Deng als visonair én rode dictator.Ten vierde: 'Confidence Man' én 'The Divider'. Beide portretten en analyses van Donald Trump zijn onmisbaar. Dat eerste van Maggie Haberman – in het Nederlands vertaald als Maskerade Man - om de sluiers die zij oplicht van de jonge, ruige vastgoedman die in New York een ster wil zijn. Ze overtuigt met de complexe vader-zoon verhouding met Fred Trump en helemaal met de ware mentor van 'the Donald', Roy Cohn.Dat tweede van Peter Baker en Susan Glasser is een onthutsend portret van Trump in het witte Huis. Over generaal Mark Milley die koos voor Amerika, desnoods tegen zijn president. Over de zus van Kim. Over wappiegeneraal Michael Flynn. Over Trumps verliefdheid op Erdogan. En over de onversneden haat van Melania voor Ivanka.Tot slot: Marx, Wagner, Nietzsche van Herfried Münkler. Deze drie hebben in de 19e eeuw revoluties in denken, kunst, economie en politiek aangewakkerd die nog vandaag en straks doorwerken. Münkler schetst hoe de contrasten daartussen de opmerkelijke overeenkomsten niet kunnen wegpoetsen. Elk van hen zocht een vorm van 'Totalkunstwerk' en een soort 'Kunst der Zukunft' voorbij de tradities van geloof, politiek en samenleving van hun tijd. Marx mopperde over Wagner in de horeca. Nietzsche vereerde 'der Meister', maar brak radicaal met hem. Het waarom werkt ook nu nog door! En daarom tot slot het einde van Wagners 'Ring' dat hij componeerde toen Nietzsche hem zijn eerste boek kwam brengen en aan hem opdroeg.***Tijdlijn00:00:00 – Deel 1: De Kremlinfluisteraar00:17:33 – Deel 2: Grote idealen, smalle marges00:34:45 – Deel 3: China na Mao00:48:10 – Deel 4: Maskerademan en The Divider01:10:01 – Deel 5: Marx, Wagner, Nietzsche01:25:15 – Einde ***Deze aflevering is mede mogelijk gemaakt met donaties van luisteraars die we hiervoor hartelijk danken. Word ook vriend van de show!Heeft u belangstelling om in onze podcast te adverteren of ons te sponsoren? Dat zou helemaal mooi zijn! Stuur voor informatie een mailtje naar adverteren@dagennacht.nl***Nog meer boekentips286 - Extra zomeraflevering: PG tipt boeken!269 - Vijf boeken die je moet lezen om Europa beter te begrijpen259 - De omgevallen boekenkast: leestips van PG!207 - Zomer 2021: Boekentips van PG!133 - Amerikaanse presidenten: boeken die je volgens PG móet lezen!99 - Tips voor thuis: de omgevallen boekenkast van PG!***Verder luisteren (onderwerpen waarnaar in deze aflevering wordt verwezen)314 - Prins Heinrich XIII en het verlangen naar een autoritair Duisland310 – Nu 40 jaar geleden: Lubbers premier en de polder sluit historisch Akkoord van Wassenaar258 - De kille vriendschap tussen Rusland en China253 - Poetins bizarre toespraak: hoe de president de geschiedenis van Oekraïne herschrijft245 - Oompje neemt de trein – de reis die China naar de 21e eeuw bracht225 - Nixon in China: Henry Kissinger's geheime (en hilarische) trip naar Beijing213 - Van Agt/Den Uyl/Terlouw (1981), de verschrikkelijkste kabinetsformatie ooit206 - 'Aardverschuiving': Michael Wolff over Donald Trumps laatste dagen als president. En: zijn bezoek aan Mar-a-Lago170 - Waarom linkse samenwerking altijd weer mislukt164 - Dries van Agt 90 - Eigenzinnig politicus, paradijsvogel, wereldburger88 - Leven en werk van onderwijsvernieuwer Jos van Kemenade58 - PG over 70 jaar China, de Volksrepubliek van Mao, Deng en Xi25 - Hoe China ondanks boycot toch zaken wilde doen met Nederland24 - Ties Dams over Xi Jinping19 - Anne Applebaum over Poetin en de destabilisering van het WestenZie het privacybeleid op https://art19.com/privacy en de privacyverklaring van Californië op https://art19.com/privacy#do-not-sell-my-info.

World Review
How the CIA tried to overthrow Mao Zedong - with John Delury

World Review

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 19, 2022 28:41


As the contemporary rivalry between the US and China heats up, Katie Stallard speaks to the Cold War historian John Delury about the history of subversion and mutual suspicion between the two powers. They discuss Delury's new book Agents of Subversion: The Fate of John T Downey and the CIA's Covert War in China, the extent of US intelligence operations in China during the early Cold War, and the lessons for the future of US-China relations.If you have a question for You Ask Us go to newstatesman.com/YouaskusRead more: What Kim Jong Un really wantsNixon in China: the complicated legacy of a week that changed the worldHow Xi Jinping views the world Hosted on Acast. See acast.com/privacy for more information.

New Books in Economics
Jeremy L. Wallace, "Seeking Truth and Hiding Facts: Information, Ideology, and Authoritarianism in China" (Oxford UP, 2022)

New Books in Economics

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 18, 2022 57:07


For decades, a few numbers came to define Chinese politics--until those numbers did not count what mattered and what they counted did not measure up.  Seeking Truth and Hiding Facts: Information, Ideology, and Authoritarianism in China (Oxford UP, 2022) argues that the Chinese government adopted a system of limited, quantified vision in order to survive the disasters unleashed by Mao Zedong's ideological leadership. Political scientist Jeremy Wallace explains how that system worked and analyzes how the problems that accumulated in its blind spots led Xi Jinping to take drastic action. Xi's neopolitical turn--aggressive anti-corruption campaigns, reassertion of party authority, and personalization of power--is an attempt fix the problems of the prior system, as well as a hedge against an inability to do so. The book argues that while of course dictators stay in power through coercion and cooptation, they also do so by convincing their populations and themselves of their right to rule. Quantification is one tool in this persuasive arsenal, but it comes with its own perils. Jeremy Wallace is an associate professor of Government at Cornell University, who studies authoritarianism with a focus on China, cities, statistics, and climate change. His academic research has appeared in the American Political Science Review, the China Quarterly, International Organization, and other prominent journals. His popular writing has appeared in the Washington Post, the LA Times, and Foreign Policy. His first book was Cities and Stability: Urbanization, Redistribution, and Regime Survival in China. This episode is co-hosted by Lizzi C. Lee, an MIT-trained economist who is currently working as a reporter and host in Chinese for the New York-based independent media outlet Wall Street TV and in English for ChinaEdge, which is part of the English language media company The China Project. Host Peter Lorentzen is the Chair of the Economics Department at the University of San Francisco. His research focus is the political economy of governance in China. He is a member of the National Committee on US-China Relations (NCUSCR) and USF's new Center on Business Studies and Innovation in the Asia-Pacific. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/economics

New Books in Political Science
Jeremy L. Wallace, "Seeking Truth and Hiding Facts: Information, Ideology, and Authoritarianism in China" (Oxford UP, 2022)

New Books in Political Science

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 18, 2022 57:07


For decades, a few numbers came to define Chinese politics--until those numbers did not count what mattered and what they counted did not measure up.  Seeking Truth and Hiding Facts: Information, Ideology, and Authoritarianism in China (Oxford UP, 2022) argues that the Chinese government adopted a system of limited, quantified vision in order to survive the disasters unleashed by Mao Zedong's ideological leadership. Political scientist Jeremy Wallace explains how that system worked and analyzes how the problems that accumulated in its blind spots led Xi Jinping to take drastic action. Xi's neopolitical turn--aggressive anti-corruption campaigns, reassertion of party authority, and personalization of power--is an attempt fix the problems of the prior system, as well as a hedge against an inability to do so. The book argues that while of course dictators stay in power through coercion and cooptation, they also do so by convincing their populations and themselves of their right to rule. Quantification is one tool in this persuasive arsenal, but it comes with its own perils. Jeremy Wallace is an associate professor of Government at Cornell University, who studies authoritarianism with a focus on China, cities, statistics, and climate change. His academic research has appeared in the American Political Science Review, the China Quarterly, International Organization, and other prominent journals. His popular writing has appeared in the Washington Post, the LA Times, and Foreign Policy. His first book was Cities and Stability: Urbanization, Redistribution, and Regime Survival in China. This episode is co-hosted by Lizzi C. Lee, an MIT-trained economist who is currently working as a reporter and host in Chinese for the New York-based independent media outlet Wall Street TV and in English for ChinaEdge, which is part of the English language media company The China Project. Host Peter Lorentzen is the Chair of the Economics Department at the University of San Francisco. His research focus is the political economy of governance in China. He is a member of the National Committee on US-China Relations (NCUSCR) and USF's new Center on Business Studies and Innovation in the Asia-Pacific. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/political-science

New Books in Chinese Studies
Jeremy L. Wallace, "Seeking Truth and Hiding Facts: Information, Ideology, and Authoritarianism in China" (Oxford UP, 2022)

New Books in Chinese Studies

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 18, 2022 57:07


For decades, a few numbers came to define Chinese politics--until those numbers did not count what mattered and what they counted did not measure up.  Seeking Truth and Hiding Facts: Information, Ideology, and Authoritarianism in China (Oxford UP, 2022) argues that the Chinese government adopted a system of limited, quantified vision in order to survive the disasters unleashed by Mao Zedong's ideological leadership. Political scientist Jeremy Wallace explains how that system worked and analyzes how the problems that accumulated in its blind spots led Xi Jinping to take drastic action. Xi's neopolitical turn--aggressive anti-corruption campaigns, reassertion of party authority, and personalization of power--is an attempt fix the problems of the prior system, as well as a hedge against an inability to do so. The book argues that while of course dictators stay in power through coercion and cooptation, they also do so by convincing their populations and themselves of their right to rule. Quantification is one tool in this persuasive arsenal, but it comes with its own perils. Jeremy Wallace is an associate professor of Government at Cornell University, who studies authoritarianism with a focus on China, cities, statistics, and climate change. His academic research has appeared in the American Political Science Review, the China Quarterly, International Organization, and other prominent journals. His popular writing has appeared in the Washington Post, the LA Times, and Foreign Policy. His first book was Cities and Stability: Urbanization, Redistribution, and Regime Survival in China. This episode is co-hosted by Lizzi C. Lee, an MIT-trained economist who is currently working as a reporter and host in Chinese for the New York-based independent media outlet Wall Street TV and in English for ChinaEdge, which is part of the English language media company The China Project. Host Peter Lorentzen is the Chair of the Economics Department at the University of San Francisco. His research focus is the political economy of governance in China. He is a member of the National Committee on US-China Relations (NCUSCR) and USF's new Center on Business Studies and Innovation in the Asia-Pacific. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/chinese-studies

New Books Network
Jeremy L. Wallace, "Seeking Truth and Hiding Facts: Information, Ideology, and Authoritarianism in China" (Oxford UP, 2022)

New Books Network

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 18, 2022 57:07


For decades, a few numbers came to define Chinese politics--until those numbers did not count what mattered and what they counted did not measure up.  Seeking Truth and Hiding Facts: Information, Ideology, and Authoritarianism in China (Oxford UP, 2022) argues that the Chinese government adopted a system of limited, quantified vision in order to survive the disasters unleashed by Mao Zedong's ideological leadership. Political scientist Jeremy Wallace explains how that system worked and analyzes how the problems that accumulated in its blind spots led Xi Jinping to take drastic action. Xi's neopolitical turn--aggressive anti-corruption campaigns, reassertion of party authority, and personalization of power--is an attempt fix the problems of the prior system, as well as a hedge against an inability to do so. The book argues that while of course dictators stay in power through coercion and cooptation, they also do so by convincing their populations and themselves of their right to rule. Quantification is one tool in this persuasive arsenal, but it comes with its own perils. Jeremy Wallace is an associate professor of Government at Cornell University, who studies authoritarianism with a focus on China, cities, statistics, and climate change. His academic research has appeared in the American Political Science Review, the China Quarterly, International Organization, and other prominent journals. His popular writing has appeared in the Washington Post, the LA Times, and Foreign Policy. His first book was Cities and Stability: Urbanization, Redistribution, and Regime Survival in China. This episode is co-hosted by Lizzi C. Lee, an MIT-trained economist who is currently working as a reporter and host in Chinese for the New York-based independent media outlet Wall Street TV and in English for ChinaEdge, which is part of the English language media company The China Project. Host Peter Lorentzen is the Chair of the Economics Department at the University of San Francisco. His research focus is the political economy of governance in China. He is a member of the National Committee on US-China Relations (NCUSCR) and USF's new Center on Business Studies and Innovation in the Asia-Pacific. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/new-books-network

New Books in Economic and Business History
Jeremy L. Wallace, "Seeking Truth and Hiding Facts: Information, Ideology, and Authoritarianism in China" (Oxford UP, 2022)

New Books in Economic and Business History

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 18, 2022 57:07


For decades, a few numbers came to define Chinese politics--until those numbers did not count what mattered and what they counted did not measure up.  Seeking Truth and Hiding Facts: Information, Ideology, and Authoritarianism in China (Oxford UP, 2022) argues that the Chinese government adopted a system of limited, quantified vision in order to survive the disasters unleashed by Mao Zedong's ideological leadership. Political scientist Jeremy Wallace explains how that system worked and analyzes how the problems that accumulated in its blind spots led Xi Jinping to take drastic action. Xi's neopolitical turn--aggressive anti-corruption campaigns, reassertion of party authority, and personalization of power--is an attempt fix the problems of the prior system, as well as a hedge against an inability to do so. The book argues that while of course dictators stay in power through coercion and cooptation, they also do so by convincing their populations and themselves of their right to rule. Quantification is one tool in this persuasive arsenal, but it comes with its own perils. Jeremy Wallace is an associate professor of Government at Cornell University, who studies authoritarianism with a focus on China, cities, statistics, and climate change. His academic research has appeared in the American Political Science Review, the China Quarterly, International Organization, and other prominent journals. His popular writing has appeared in the Washington Post, the LA Times, and Foreign Policy. His first book was Cities and Stability: Urbanization, Redistribution, and Regime Survival in China. This episode is co-hosted by Lizzi C. Lee, an MIT-trained economist who is currently working as a reporter and host in Chinese for the New York-based independent media outlet Wall Street TV and in English for ChinaEdge, which is part of the English language media company The China Project. Host Peter Lorentzen is the Chair of the Economics Department at the University of San Francisco. His research focus is the political economy of governance in China. He is a member of the National Committee on US-China Relations (NCUSCR) and USF's new Center on Business Studies and Innovation in the Asia-Pacific. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

Powojnie
Wielki Skok w Chinach. Szalony pomysł Mao i 40 milionów ofiar. Największa zbrodnia w historii?

Powojnie

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 16, 2022 18:11


Cześć! W tym odcinku serii Powojnie postanowiłem zająć się tematem Wielkiego Skoku Naprzód w Chinach. Była to jedna z największych zbrodni komunistów w historii. Realizując swój szalony plan Mao Zedong zamordował prawie 40 milionów ludzi. Dyktator stwierdził, że gospodarkę Chińskiej Republiki Ludowej "uratuje" system komun ludowych, gdzie wszystko będzie wspólne, a największą wartością będzie praca. Jednocześnie wprowadzony został wysoki podatek od zebranych plonów co w połączeniu z absurdalnymi zaleceniami Pekinu doprowadziło do gigantycznej klęski głodu. Więcej na ten temat dowiecie się słuchając najnowszej odsłony serii Powojnie.

Peor Caso - Ciencia, Historia, Cultura, Horror y Ficcion en Español
187 - Cuando Estudiantes Mataron a sus Profesores - La Revolución Cultural China

Peor Caso - Ciencia, Historia, Cultura, Horror y Ficcion en Español

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 12, 2022 21:33


Los horrores de la Revolución Cultural China de Mao Zedong es historia que todavía afecta la cultura china y es parte importante en el libro El Problema de los 3 Cuerpos de Cixin Liu, próximamente una serie de Netflix.

Choses à Savoir HISTOIRE
Qu'est-ce que la Longue Marche ?

Choses à Savoir HISTOIRE

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 8, 2022 2:33


La Longue Marche joue un rôle essentiel dans l'histoire du parti communiste chinois et l'affirmation de l'autorité de Mao Zedong. Ce long périple à travers la Chine dure environ un an, entre octobre 1934 et octobre 1935. Cet épisode s'inscrit dans la guerre civile qui, de 1927 à 1950, oppose les communistes chinois à l'armée du Guomindang, fondé par Sun Yat-sen, le fondateur de la République chinoise, et dirigé, depuis 1925, par Tchang-Kaï-chek. En 1934, les troupes du Guomindang attaquent les communistes dans leur bastion principal, le Jiangxi, dans le centre du pays. Même si la décision ne fait pas l'unanimité, les troupes communistes, fortes d'environ 130.000 hommes, décident de fuir. Elles s'échappent donc vers l'ouest et le nord-ouest, divisées en trois colonnes principales. C'est à cette occasion que s'est affirmé l'ascendant de Mao sur l'armée et les autres dirigeants du parti. La principale formation, forte d'environ 90.000 hommes, et dans laquelle se trouve Mao, se dirige d'abord vers l'ouest. Elle atteint la province du Guizhou à la mi-janvier 1935. Dès lors, les avis divergent sur la conduite à tenir et la direction à prendre. C'est à ce moment-là, semble-t-il, que Mao, par la rigueur de son raisonnement, s'impose comme le chef incontesté des communistes. C'est lui qui convainc ses hommes de se diriger vers le nord. Dès lors commence une marche éreintante, dans des régions arides ou enneigées. En outre, les communistes doivent faire face aux nationalistes de Tchang-KaI-chek, qui les poursuivent et, du haut de leurs avions, mitraillent leurs colonnes. Ajoutée aux combats, aux rigueurs du climat et à la maladie, la fatigue a souvent raison de ces hommes exténués. Les historiens estiment que la Longue Marche aurait coûté la vie à 90.000 ou même 100.000 hommes. En février 1935, la colonne de Mao, élu entretemps chef du parti communiste, rencontre celle d'un autre dirigeant, qui emmène ses hommes vers l'ouest. Se dirigeant toujours vers le nord, Mao arrive au Shanxi, terme du voyage, le 19 octobre 1935, après une odyssée de 12.000 kilomètres. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

Uncommon Decency
72. Biden vs Europe: Trade Wars & Confronting China [BONUS]

Uncommon Decency

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 7, 2022 51:35


"I think this administration—and President Biden personally—is very much attached to Europe, but when you look at the situation today, there is indeed a de-synchronization.” In an interview with CBS' 60 Minutes, French President Emmanuel Macron highlighted the growing tension in the transatlantic relationship as the United States and Europe rift apart in a number of areas such as economics and energy. The EU has raised concerns that the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA), a major package of legislation signed into law by President Biden earlier this year, will severely damage European industry through its use of subsidies and tax credits to promote manufacturing in the US. The dispute was at the core of discussions between the US and France during President Macron's state visit to the US last week. Another area of disconnect relates to the differing approaches the EU and the US take towards China. While the US views China as a threat, European countries have a more dovish approach, favoring cooperation to competition. This was underscored by the recent visits of German Chancellor Olaf Scholz and European Council President Charles Michel to Beijing to meet with Chinese President Xi Jinping, the former of whom recently declared in an essay for Foreign Affairs that the world is facing a "Zeitenwende"—the end of an era. Both visits were criticized by China hawks given their proximity to the party congress where President Xi was enshrined for another five years, becoming its most powerful leader since Mao Zedong. This week in a bonus episode, Jorge, Francois, and Julian discussed the fractious state of US-EU trade relations, as well as the diverging approaches to China. As always, please rate and review Uncommon Decency on Apple Podcasts, and send us your comments or questions either on Twitter at @UnDecencyPod or by e-mail at undecencypod@gmail.com. And please consider supporting the show through Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/undecencypod.

CHINA RISING
TRANSCRIPT: How eating at a Cultural Revolution-themed restaurant in the boondocks of Southwest Sichuan changed my life for the better. China Rising Radio Sinoland 221031

CHINA RISING

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 5, 2022 15:29


NOW IN 22 DIFFERENT LANGUAGES. CLICK ON THE LOWER LEFT HAND CORNER “TRANSLATE” TAB TO FIND YOURS! By Jeff J. Brown Pictured above: During my 44-day journey across China, here is an aging poster of Mao Zedong in the hostel, where I stayed in Langmusi, Sichuan. He was popularly featured everywhere I went. The cognitive...

Idaho Speaks
Live Free Or Die!

Idaho Speaks

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 5, 2022 9:18


Would you like to share your thoughts with Ralph?  Please email your comments to hello@idahospeaks.com or post your comments on @IdahoSpeaks on Facebook.Idaho Speaks is a listener supported production.  Please visit idahospeaks.com/support to learn more.Do you have something so say?  Interested in learning more about publishing on the Idaho Speaks Network?  Our nation was built on ideas and your idea could be the next political advancement for Idaho.  Call Ed at (208) 209-7170 or email hello@idahospeaks.com to start the conversation.

The Truth with Lisa Boothe
The Chinese Communist Party with Xi Van Fleet

The Truth with Lisa Boothe

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 5, 2022 27:12


Xi Van Fleet suffered under Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution before fleeing for the United States at 26. She has made it her mission to fight for freedom in the United States, so we don't turn into a communist country. Xi joins Lisa to shine a light on the White Paper Revolution underway in China and why so many have had enough of Xi Jingping's Zero COVID dystopia. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

New Books in East Asian Studies
John Delury, "Agents of Subversion: The Fate of John T. Downey and the CIA's Covert War in China" (Cornell UP, 2022)

New Books in East Asian Studies

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 4, 2022 69:30


Agents of Subversion: The Fate of John T. Downey and the CIA's Covert War in China (Cornell University Press, 2022) by Dr. John Delury reconstructs the remarkable story of a botched mission into Manchuria, showing how it fit into a wider CIA campaign against Communist China and highlighting the intensity—and futility—of clandestine operations to overthrow Mao. In the winter of 1952, at the height of the Korean War, the CIA flew a covert mission into China to pick up an agent. Trained on a remote Pacific island, the agent belonged to an obscure anti-communist group known as the Third Force based out of Hong Kong. The exfiltration would fail disastrously, and one of the Americans on the mission, a recent Yale graduate named John T. Downey, ended up a prisoner of Mao Zedong's government for the next twenty years. Unraveling the truth behind decades of Cold War intrigue, Dr. Delury documents the damage that this hidden foreign policy did to American political life. The US government kept the public in the dark about decades of covert activity directed against China, while Downey languished in a Beijing prison and his mother lobbied desperately for his release. Mining little-known Chinese sources, Dr. Delury sheds new light on Mao's campaigns to eliminate counterrevolutionaries and how the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party used captive spies in diplomacy with the West. Agents of Subversion is an innovative work of transnational history, and it demonstrates both how the Chinese Communist regime used the fear of special agents to tighten its grip on society and why intellectuals in Cold War America presciently worried that subversion abroad could lead to repression at home. This interview was conducted by Dr. Miranda Melcher whose doctoral work focused on post-conflict military integration, understanding treaty negotiation and implementation in civil war contexts, with qualitative analysis of the Angolan and Mozambican civil wars. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/east-asian-studies

New Books in Chinese Studies
John Delury, "Agents of Subversion: The Fate of John T. Downey and the CIA's Covert War in China" (Cornell UP, 2022)

New Books in Chinese Studies

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 4, 2022 69:30


Agents of Subversion: The Fate of John T. Downey and the CIA's Covert War in China (Cornell University Press, 2022) by Dr. John Delury reconstructs the remarkable story of a botched mission into Manchuria, showing how it fit into a wider CIA campaign against Communist China and highlighting the intensity—and futility—of clandestine operations to overthrow Mao. In the winter of 1952, at the height of the Korean War, the CIA flew a covert mission into China to pick up an agent. Trained on a remote Pacific island, the agent belonged to an obscure anti-communist group known as the Third Force based out of Hong Kong. The exfiltration would fail disastrously, and one of the Americans on the mission, a recent Yale graduate named John T. Downey, ended up a prisoner of Mao Zedong's government for the next twenty years. Unraveling the truth behind decades of Cold War intrigue, Dr. Delury documents the damage that this hidden foreign policy did to American political life. The US government kept the public in the dark about decades of covert activity directed against China, while Downey languished in a Beijing prison and his mother lobbied desperately for his release. Mining little-known Chinese sources, Dr. Delury sheds new light on Mao's campaigns to eliminate counterrevolutionaries and how the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party used captive spies in diplomacy with the West. Agents of Subversion is an innovative work of transnational history, and it demonstrates both how the Chinese Communist regime used the fear of special agents to tighten its grip on society and why intellectuals in Cold War America presciently worried that subversion abroad could lead to repression at home. This interview was conducted by Dr. Miranda Melcher whose doctoral work focused on post-conflict military integration, understanding treaty negotiation and implementation in civil war contexts, with qualitative analysis of the Angolan and Mozambican civil wars. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/chinese-studies

New Books in National Security
John Delury, "Agents of Subversion: The Fate of John T. Downey and the CIA's Covert War in China" (Cornell UP, 2022)

New Books in National Security

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 4, 2022 69:30


Agents of Subversion: The Fate of John T. Downey and the CIA's Covert War in China (Cornell University Press, 2022) by Dr. John Delury reconstructs the remarkable story of a botched mission into Manchuria, showing how it fit into a wider CIA campaign against Communist China and highlighting the intensity—and futility—of clandestine operations to overthrow Mao. In the winter of 1952, at the height of the Korean War, the CIA flew a covert mission into China to pick up an agent. Trained on a remote Pacific island, the agent belonged to an obscure anti-communist group known as the Third Force based out of Hong Kong. The exfiltration would fail disastrously, and one of the Americans on the mission, a recent Yale graduate named John T. Downey, ended up a prisoner of Mao Zedong's government for the next twenty years. Unraveling the truth behind decades of Cold War intrigue, Dr. Delury documents the damage that this hidden foreign policy did to American political life. The US government kept the public in the dark about decades of covert activity directed against China, while Downey languished in a Beijing prison and his mother lobbied desperately for his release. Mining little-known Chinese sources, Dr. Delury sheds new light on Mao's campaigns to eliminate counterrevolutionaries and how the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party used captive spies in diplomacy with the West. Agents of Subversion is an innovative work of transnational history, and it demonstrates both how the Chinese Communist regime used the fear of special agents to tighten its grip on society and why intellectuals in Cold War America presciently worried that subversion abroad could lead to repression at home. This interview was conducted by Dr. Miranda Melcher whose doctoral work focused on post-conflict military integration, understanding treaty negotiation and implementation in civil war contexts, with qualitative analysis of the Angolan and Mozambican civil wars. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/national-security

New Books in Military History
John Delury, "Agents of Subversion: The Fate of John T. Downey and the CIA's Covert War in China" (Cornell UP, 2022)

New Books in Military History

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 4, 2022 69:30


Agents of Subversion: The Fate of John T. Downey and the CIA's Covert War in China (Cornell University Press, 2022) by Dr. John Delury reconstructs the remarkable story of a botched mission into Manchuria, showing how it fit into a wider CIA campaign against Communist China and highlighting the intensity—and futility—of clandestine operations to overthrow Mao. In the winter of 1952, at the height of the Korean War, the CIA flew a covert mission into China to pick up an agent. Trained on a remote Pacific island, the agent belonged to an obscure anti-communist group known as the Third Force based out of Hong Kong. The exfiltration would fail disastrously, and one of the Americans on the mission, a recent Yale graduate named John T. Downey, ended up a prisoner of Mao Zedong's government for the next twenty years. Unraveling the truth behind decades of Cold War intrigue, Dr. Delury documents the damage that this hidden foreign policy did to American political life. The US government kept the public in the dark about decades of covert activity directed against China, while Downey languished in a Beijing prison and his mother lobbied desperately for his release. Mining little-known Chinese sources, Dr. Delury sheds new light on Mao's campaigns to eliminate counterrevolutionaries and how the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party used captive spies in diplomacy with the West. Agents of Subversion is an innovative work of transnational history, and it demonstrates both how the Chinese Communist regime used the fear of special agents to tighten its grip on society and why intellectuals in Cold War America presciently worried that subversion abroad could lead to repression at home. This interview was conducted by Dr. Miranda Melcher whose doctoral work focused on post-conflict military integration, understanding treaty negotiation and implementation in civil war contexts, with qualitative analysis of the Angolan and Mozambican civil wars. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/military-history

New Books in History
John Delury, "Agents of Subversion: The Fate of John T. Downey and the CIA's Covert War in China" (Cornell UP, 2022)

New Books in History

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 4, 2022 69:30


Agents of Subversion: The Fate of John T. Downey and the CIA's Covert War in China (Cornell University Press, 2022) by Dr. John Delury reconstructs the remarkable story of a botched mission into Manchuria, showing how it fit into a wider CIA campaign against Communist China and highlighting the intensity—and futility—of clandestine operations to overthrow Mao. In the winter of 1952, at the height of the Korean War, the CIA flew a covert mission into China to pick up an agent. Trained on a remote Pacific island, the agent belonged to an obscure anti-communist group known as the Third Force based out of Hong Kong. The exfiltration would fail disastrously, and one of the Americans on the mission, a recent Yale graduate named John T. Downey, ended up a prisoner of Mao Zedong's government for the next twenty years. Unraveling the truth behind decades of Cold War intrigue, Dr. Delury documents the damage that this hidden foreign policy did to American political life. The US government kept the public in the dark about decades of covert activity directed against China, while Downey languished in a Beijing prison and his mother lobbied desperately for his release. Mining little-known Chinese sources, Dr. Delury sheds new light on Mao's campaigns to eliminate counterrevolutionaries and how the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party used captive spies in diplomacy with the West. Agents of Subversion is an innovative work of transnational history, and it demonstrates both how the Chinese Communist regime used the fear of special agents to tighten its grip on society and why intellectuals in Cold War America presciently worried that subversion abroad could lead to repression at home. This interview was conducted by Dr. Miranda Melcher whose doctoral work focused on post-conflict military integration, understanding treaty negotiation and implementation in civil war contexts, with qualitative analysis of the Angolan and Mozambican civil wars. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/history

New Books in American Studies
John Delury, "Agents of Subversion: The Fate of John T. Downey and the CIA's Covert War in China" (Cornell UP, 2022)

New Books in American Studies

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 4, 2022 69:30


Agents of Subversion: The Fate of John T. Downey and the CIA's Covert War in China (Cornell University Press, 2022) by Dr. John Delury reconstructs the remarkable story of a botched mission into Manchuria, showing how it fit into a wider CIA campaign against Communist China and highlighting the intensity—and futility—of clandestine operations to overthrow Mao. In the winter of 1952, at the height of the Korean War, the CIA flew a covert mission into China to pick up an agent. Trained on a remote Pacific island, the agent belonged to an obscure anti-communist group known as the Third Force based out of Hong Kong. The exfiltration would fail disastrously, and one of the Americans on the mission, a recent Yale graduate named John T. Downey, ended up a prisoner of Mao Zedong's government for the next twenty years. Unraveling the truth behind decades of Cold War intrigue, Dr. Delury documents the damage that this hidden foreign policy did to American political life. The US government kept the public in the dark about decades of covert activity directed against China, while Downey languished in a Beijing prison and his mother lobbied desperately for his release. Mining little-known Chinese sources, Dr. Delury sheds new light on Mao's campaigns to eliminate counterrevolutionaries and how the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party used captive spies in diplomacy with the West. Agents of Subversion is an innovative work of transnational history, and it demonstrates both how the Chinese Communist regime used the fear of special agents to tighten its grip on society and why intellectuals in Cold War America presciently worried that subversion abroad could lead to repression at home. This interview was conducted by Dr. Miranda Melcher whose doctoral work focused on post-conflict military integration, understanding treaty negotiation and implementation in civil war contexts, with qualitative analysis of the Angolan and Mozambican civil wars. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/american-studies

New Books Network
John Delury, "Agents of Subversion: The Fate of John T. Downey and the CIA's Covert War in China" (Cornell UP, 2022)

New Books Network

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 4, 2022 69:30


Agents of Subversion: The Fate of John T. Downey and the CIA's Covert War in China (Cornell University Press, 2022) by Dr. John Delury reconstructs the remarkable story of a botched mission into Manchuria, showing how it fit into a wider CIA campaign against Communist China and highlighting the intensity—and futility—of clandestine operations to overthrow Mao. In the winter of 1952, at the height of the Korean War, the CIA flew a covert mission into China to pick up an agent. Trained on a remote Pacific island, the agent belonged to an obscure anti-communist group known as the Third Force based out of Hong Kong. The exfiltration would fail disastrously, and one of the Americans on the mission, a recent Yale graduate named John T. Downey, ended up a prisoner of Mao Zedong's government for the next twenty years. Unraveling the truth behind decades of Cold War intrigue, Dr. Delury documents the damage that this hidden foreign policy did to American political life. The US government kept the public in the dark about decades of covert activity directed against China, while Downey languished in a Beijing prison and his mother lobbied desperately for his release. Mining little-known Chinese sources, Dr. Delury sheds new light on Mao's campaigns to eliminate counterrevolutionaries and how the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party used captive spies in diplomacy with the West. Agents of Subversion is an innovative work of transnational history, and it demonstrates both how the Chinese Communist regime used the fear of special agents to tighten its grip on society and why intellectuals in Cold War America presciently worried that subversion abroad could lead to repression at home. This interview was conducted by Dr. Miranda Melcher whose doctoral work focused on post-conflict military integration, understanding treaty negotiation and implementation in civil war contexts, with qualitative analysis of the Angolan and Mozambican civil wars. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/new-books-network

The Steve Gruber Show
Steve Gruber, In China the massive protests against the months long Covid lockdowns are continuing to grow as citizens are fighting back against military and police

The Steve Gruber Show

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 30, 2022 11:00


Live from the no panic zone—I'm Steve Gruber—I am America's Voice— I am an anti- socialist     Here are three big things you need to know right now—   ONE— Farmers are being targeted for elimination by the Dutch government—despite the fact that it will result in food shortages, starvation and death in the EU—   TWO— In Germany the first state has now declared a financial and energy emergency because of the reckless policies of the last 10 years—and its getting worse—   THREE— In China the massive protests against the months long Covid lockdowns are continuing to grow—as citizens are fighting back against military and police—   For those that have fled the Communist dictatorship of Xi Jinping—they know that he and the CCP will stop at nothing to maintain power and control—and what an embarrassment it should be to the likes of Apple, Nike and the NBA—as they are among some of the biggest American names—taking boatloads of cash from the Chi-Comms—to sell out America—and push the communist narrative—   Plus all the politicians like Congressman Eric Swallwell who likely sold his soul for his former girlfriend—Chinese spy and lady of the night Fang Fang—   Those that know how it works inside the communist machine and survived the brutal dictatorship of Mao Zedong— who was responsible for the deaths of as many as 100 million Chinese after his communist revolution took control of the country in 1949—say the CCP—the party will stop at nothing and also are calling this a watershed moment in the history of China—that could finally bring down the totalitarian regime—   Mao and those that followed have been brutal in killing anyone that got in the way of the party—and destroyed anything in its path—the people have been brutalized for decades—BUT it has been the ZERO Tolerance policies surrounding the Covid-19 Pandemic—that have lasted three years now—that seems to have pushed the country of 1.5 billion people to the breaking point—   And what is truly remarkable as we are witnessing the battles in the streets is just how far some of the American apologists will go to defend the communists and their ruthless tactics—   The United States has said almost nothing—as Joe Biden is proving to be among the weakest of all American Presidents when it comes to Foreign Policy—the bottom line is this: Joe Biden is not capable of being in charge of dealing with the Chinese or anyone else—and what is really frightening—is that everyone, even Democrats know that—   And sadly as the United Kingdom steps up and takes a leadership role—Democrats in America are collectively hiding and doing absolutely nothing—it makes you wonder how much money is actually on that gravy train running from Beijing to Washington— Because there must be quite a bit—to buy this much passive behavior and this much weakness—from a country that used to stand for human rights—freedom—and dignity—   Under this class of clowns—it seems we aren't going to get any of that—  

The Charlie Kirk Show
Power from the Barrel of a Gun with Bill Gertz and Gordon Chang

The Charlie Kirk Show

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 30, 2022 34:16


Mao Zedong said that political power grows out of the barrel of a gun, so it's no surprise that as China gains economic power it seeks military supremacy as well. Bill Gertz joins to describe China's growing imperialism, as well as its push to match America's deployed nuclear arsenal over the next decade. Plus, Gordon Chang weighs in on the scope of China's ongoing protests and how dangerous they are to Xi Jinping's regime. Can a regime that holds all the weapons and places no value on human life ever be toppled?Support the show: http://www.charliekirk.com/supportSee omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.

Histoires de Musique
Que cent fleurs s'épanouissent, que cent écoles rivalisent

Histoires de Musique

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 27, 2022 10:56


durée : 00:10:56 - Que cent fleurs s'épanouissent, que cent écoles rivalisent - par : Marianne Vourch - Le 1er octobre 1949 est proclamée la République populaire de Chine qui a Mao Zedong pour Président. De longues années pour transformer la culture du pays, pour la libérer de la vieille idéologie. Cela mène à l'arrestation de 100000 "contre-révolutionnaires" entre 1955 et 1957. - réalisé par : Sophie Pichon

People's History of Ideas Podcast
Vagrants, Mercenaries, and Rich Peasants (November 1928)

People's History of Ideas Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 27, 2022 41:10 Transcription Available


A close reading of a couple portions of Mao's November 25, 1928 report to the Central Committee.Further reading:Stephen Averill, Revolution in the Highlands: China's Jinggangshan Base AreaStuart Schram, ed., Mao's Road to Power, vol. 3: From the Jinggangshan to the Establishment of the Jiangxi Soviets, July 1927-December 1930Stuart Schram, ed., Mao's Road to Power, vol. 2: National Revolution and Social Revolution, December 1920-June 1927Pang Xianzhi and Jin Chongji, Mao Zedong: A Biography, vol. 1: 1893-1949Mao Zedong, “The Struggle in the Chingkang Mountains”Names listed as having attended Nov. 6 meeting mentioned near the beginning of the episode:Zhu De, Chen Yi, He Tingying, He Changgong, Yuan Wencai, Wang Zuo, Tan Zhenlin, Deng Ganyuan, Li Quefei, Chen Zhengren, Wang Zuonong, Xiao Wanxia, Liu Huixiao, Xie Chunbiao, Liu Di, Xiong Shouqi, Yang Kaiming, Cao Shuo, Deng Jiuting, Mao Zedong, Song Qiaosheng, Peng Gu, and Yuan Desheng.Support the show

The Cārvāka Podcast
Xi Jinping Is No Mao Zedong

The Cārvāka Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 21, 2022 61:06


In this podcast, Kushal speaks with Sreemoy Talukdar as they discuss what Sreemoy calls "China's ‘Great Leap' 2.0". How are these two leaders different? What are the specific policy differences that make the trajectory of China unique from the Great Leap 1.0? Follow Sreemoy: Twitter: @sreemoytalukdar Read his article here: https://tinyurl.com/bddwz6dk #XiJinping #Mao #GreatLeap ---------------------------------------------------- Listen to the podcasts on: SoundCloud: https://soundcloud.com/kushal-mehra-99891819 Spotify: https://open.spotify.com/show/1rVcDV3upgVurMVW1wwoBp Apple Podcasts: https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/the-c%C4%81rv%C4%81ka-podcast/id1445348369 Stitcher: https://www.stitcher.com/show/the-carvaka-podcast ------------------------------------------------------------ Support The Cārvāka Podcast: Become a Member on YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCKPxuul6zSLAfKSsm123Vww/join Become a Member on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/carvaka UPI: kushalmehra@icici To buy The Carvaka Podcast Exclusive Merch please visit: http://kushalmehra.com/shop ------------------------------------------------------------ Follow Kushal: Twitter: https://twitter.com/kushal_mehra?ref_src=twsrc%5Egoogle%7Ctwcamp%5Eserp%7Ctwgr%5Eauthor Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/KushalMehraOfficial/? Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thecarvakapodcast/?hl=en Koo: https://www.kooapp.com/profile/kushal_mehra Inquiries: https://kushalmehra.com/ Feedback: kushalmehra81@gmail.com

Kings and Generals: History for our Future
3.23 Fall and Rise of China: Second Opium War #5: Burning of the Summer Palace

Kings and Generals: History for our Future

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 21, 2022 38:10


Last time we spoke the Europeans licked their wounds after their nasty defeat to the Taku Forts. Elgin returned to China and a even larger coalition force now set itself on a warpath to march upon Beijing, but this time they went around the Taku Forts. They seized Kowloon, Chusan, Shanghai, Beitang, Tianjin, Danggu and then exacted their revenge upon the Taku Forts. The key to their success was the devastating Armstrong field gun which ripped asunder anything the Qing threw at them. Prince Seng lost the battle for Zhangjiawan utterly humiliating the Qing, but the great General did not simply call it quits, for now he reorganized the forces and put together a last stand at Baliqao. Could Prince Seng stop the European menace before they got to Beijing? Only time will tell.   Welcome to the Fall and Rise of China Podcast, I am your dutiful host Craig Watson. But, before we start I want to also remind you this podcast is only made possible through the efforts of Kings and Generals over at Youtube. Perhaps you want to learn more about the history of Asia? Kings and Generals have an assortment of episodes on history of asia and much more  so go give them a look over on Youtube. So please subscribe to Kings and Generals over at Youtube and to continue helping us produce this content please check out www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. If you are still hungry for some more history related content, over on my channel, the Pacific War Channel where I cover the history of China and Japan from the 19th century until the end of the Pacific War. #23 This episode is Part 6 of the Second Opium War: The Burning of the Summer Palace   Prince Seng and Prince Sengbao, the brother of Emperor Xianfeng had gathered a force of the Green Standard Army, reinforced by imperial guards of the 8 Banner Army, for a combined force nearly 30,000 strong. After their victory at Zhangjiawan, both Grant and Montauban were overly confident that they could simply march on Beijing. As they marched, the 101st regiment led by General Jamin arrived to increase their numbers. On the morning of September 21st as the European columns moved past Tongzhou they saw the Qing force in position in front of the Baliqao bridges. The Qing force was formidable with its left on the canal, reinforced by the village of Baliqao, another village in the center and a third on the far right. The road to Beijing passed through a rolling wooden terrain veering towards the canal and the Baliqao bridges. Seng had re-established order to his army and strengthened their resolve by bringing 100 guns and positioning them in the villages, on the other side of the canal and along his entire front. The Green Standard army were the majority, while the 8 Banner Army units were kept in reserve at the bridges. Seng also had of course a large cavalry force which was being led by Sengbao on their formation flanks. Grant kept inline with what he had done in the previous battle, he took the left while Montauban took the center and right to protect his flank. Montauban used the wooden terrain to hide his lack of numbers, sending the first column to hit the Qing center. General Jamin moved to Collineau's right to hit the Qing left. Grant moved to the far left of Collineau hoping to flank the Qing. General Collineau took the advance guard consisting of the elite companies of the 101 and 12nd regiments, two companies of the 2nd Chasseuers a pied, an engineer detachment, two batteries of horse artillery and a battery of 4 pound foot artillery. Montauban and Jamin commanded the 101 regiment along with the 2nd Chasseurs a pied, a battery of 12 pounders and a Congreve rocket section. Collineau's infantry sped through the woods towards the Qing center and their speed shocked Sengbao as he moved most of the cavalry from the wings to protect the center. The French advance guard moved into skirmish order forming a long line towards Baliqao. Montauban ordered Jamin to go forward as two large bodies of Qing cavalry, around 12,000 charged at each of the French columns. Collineau's artillery rained hell into the Mongol and Manchu cavalry, while the elite company's rifle fired from secure locations along the sides of the main road. The accurate rifle fire took a massive toll on the cavalry, but Collineau soon found himself embroiled in hand to hand combat. Montauban and Jamin also used their artillery to devastating effect while their infantry formed two squares before the cavalry hit their position. The French 12 pound battery was positioned between Collineau and Jamin, continuously shelling the enemy. After some time the Qing cavalry broke off their attack having failed to break the French square formations or to overrun Collineau's men. A brief lull allowed Montauban to re-form and advance upon the villages being defended by Green Standard battalions. Prince Sengbao and Seng did not renew their cavalry assaults, because Grants column was marching onto their right flank. The 101st stormed into the village of Oua-kaua-ye in the center scattering the defenders with each and suffering little casualties from the enemies artillery. Montauban followed this up by sending both brigades to march upon the village of Baliqao. Collineau advanced along a road with his elite companies firing upon Qing forces trying to hold the road towards the village. Large cannons in the streets and across the canal fired upon the french columns,but Jamin brought up his batteries to fire upon the cannons easily overwhelming them. The village and bridge of Baliqao were defended by the 8 banner army units and they did not falter nor give ground. Collineau brought up his artillery to form a crossfire with Jamins batteries slaughtering the 8 bannermen. Collineau then formed his forces into a column and stormed the village. Fighting raged on at close quarters for 30 minutes as Montauban led the 101st to Collineaus support securing the village. Suddenly a Qing messenger was sent from Sengbao to Montauban proclaiming that they had two captured colleagues, the French cleric named Abbe Duluc and the British Captain Brabazon of the royal artillery on one of the bridges and would execute them both if the Europeans did not halt their attack. Without pause Montauban pressed the attack. Collineau then reformed his command and rapidly advanced upon the bridge with the French batteries providing cover fire. Most of the Qing artillerymen were killed by European artillery and with them gone the rest of the 8 banner army men were forced to cede ground and the bridge was overwhelmed. The French bayonet charged across the bring as Qing troops leapt into the canal for their lives. Prince Sengbao made good on his threat and had Duluc and Brabazon executed and tossed over into the canal. The bridge was now in the French hands. Grant's column dislodged the Green stand troops from their village while the British and Indian cavalry rolled up the line overwhelming the Qing cavalry trying to hold their ground. Grants line of attack brought him within sight of the bridge that cross the canal 1 mile west of Baliqao. The arrival of the British on Seng's right flank collapsed his forces in the face of their attack and Seng was compelled to pull his army from the field before being trapped on the right side of the canal. The French claimed 3 dead 18 wounded, the British 2 dead and 29 wounded while the Qing had upto a possible 1500 casualties. The shocking triumph prompted Napoleon III to ennoble de Montauban, who would chose his place of victory for his new aristocratic title, Comte de Baliqao, joining the list of name-place conquerors like Scipio Africanus, the Duke of Marlborough or Germanicus. Over on the other Baliqao bridge General Hope was not enjoying the same easy going time the French had. Grant thought a horde of Mongol cavalry in the distance were French and didn't open fire. The mongols mistook this to mean Grants men were cowards and charged upon them. When the British realized it was the enemy they opened fire at close range and blew the Mongolians to pieces with Armstrong guns. Tongzhou surrendered without a fight, but still suffered the same fate as Zhangjiawan. They plundered the town and General Grant had 3 rapists flogged with 100 strokes by a cat o nine tails then hanged one of them, but all 3 of the said rapists happened to be coolies. The British claimed many of the rapes also came at the hands of Sikhs, but again these sources always seem to wash away the British and French from the bad stuff. Oh and the British and French placed blame at one another of course. One French soldier said of the plunder of Beitang “Quant aux anglais, ce sont nos maîtres: on ne trouve pas un clou où ils ont passé.” (“As for the English, they are our superiors [when it comes to looting]. You can't find a nail where they have passed.” Prince Seng panicked after the last two obstacles to Beijing had fallen, Tongzhou and Zhangjiawan. Beijings only remained defense were its thick walls at 40 feet high and 60 feet thick, bristling with towers that housed defenders armed with more antique guns, bows and arrows and spears. Both Elgin and Gros pleaded with the military forces to hurry to Beijing as they feared the hostages might be massacred if they delayed. But General Grant refused to budge until all his heavy siege guns were shipped upriver from Tianjin to support their march on the great city. Elgin and Gros's fears were not unplaced, Emperor Xianfeng had fled Beijing to go to Rehe, leaving his brother Prince Gong behind with orders to dig in and fight. Best Emperor Ever. Gong was 28 years old and a much more capable sibling. The European force made its way to Beijing where Elgin sent word to Gong they refused to negotiate with him until after the hostages were freed. But they also helped him save face by allowing him to blame the hostage taking on his subordinates. Gong was not moved by the gesture and sent word to withdraw from Beijing and then the prisoners would be released. If they began an assault of the city the prisoners would all be beheaded. On October 6th the heavy artillery needed to blast a hole in Beijing's walls arrived. Prince Gong's position was…welll really bad. On top of literally being ditched there by the Emperor, most of the army had left with him as well. On the 5th Parkes and Loch were told their execution would take place the next morning and both prisoners were given paper and pens to write their last will and testaments. But by now the captives were far too important as political pawns than to be wasted away on executions. On the 7th the prisoners all heard the sound of gunfire and presumed the Europeans were bombarding the city meaning they were all going to die soon. They were actually mistaken the British were firing their guns in the air to let the French know their position because they were spreading out. On october the 6th the British and French agreed to march around the grand city from opposite directions and to meet at the Summer Palace just outside the walls. The two armies quickly lost contact with another. The French reached the Summer palace first finding out that its occupant, Emperor Xianfeng had fled with his 13 wives, a fraction of his harem. The French had expected the Emperors personal guard to defend the summer palace to the death, but everyone had fled. The only resistance they faced was 500 unarmed court eunuchs who screamed at them “don't commit sacrilege! Don't come within the sacred precincts!”. The French shot 20 of them on the spot sending the rest fleeing.   The Summer Palace or as the Chinese called it “Yuanming Yuan” (the gardens of perfect brightness”, simply does not embody how grand it truly was. A more accurate term would have been Summer Palaces, since it was a complex of 2 hundred main building sets, in an 80 square mile park dotted with vermillion tents, artificial lakes and exquisite gardens. The interiors were all unique, one for example was Baroque audience chamber designed by Jesuit missionaries in the 17th century, two other baroque palaces with gold roofs were designed by the same Jesuit priests. Emperor Xianfeng had spent countless days on the lakes staging mock naval battles with miniature boats representing the Qing navy and the British. The emperor always won the naval battles. The Summer palace was not just an architectural marvel, it was a national treasure, a storehouse of centuries of tribute the Emperors of China had received from barbarians. De Montauban realized what a historical treasure was now laying in his possession and he tried to preserve the place by telling his senior staff quote “he counted on their honor to respect the palace and see that it was respected by others…until the English arrived”. But the sheer temptation of the priceless artifacts which lay littered across the palace floors proved an impossible temptation for the French. Montauban's orders to not touch the treasures quickly fell apart. The French soldiers could not resist helping themselves to an Ali Baba's worth of loot. Later in 1874 Montauban would find himself before a government committee set up to investigate the looting that took place that day. The General lied to his examiners saying the French soldiers had not participated in the looting.  “I had sentries posted, and directed two officers with two companies of marine infantry to protect the palace from depredation and to allow nothing to be moved until the arrival of the English commanders. Thus there would be no pillage. Nothing had been touched in the Palace when the English arrived.” General Hope contradicted this testimony with eyewitness accounts. “It was pitiful to see the way in which everything was robbed. Only one room in the Palace was untouched. General de Montauban informed me he had reserved any valuables it might contain for equal division between the English and French”. Grant's critique of Montauban not being able to control his troops is a bit hypocritical as he himself could not control his men. Despite apparently similar orders from Grant, the British soldiers found a cornucopia of loot to be had. Jewels lay scattered all over the Palaces. One French officer snatched a pearl necklace whose gems were the size of marbles and sold it in Hong Kong for 3000 pounds. De Montauban realized he was fighting against the impossible and just let his men take home souvenirs, he said, one prize per soldier, sureeeee. It's said when the French left the palace at 10pm, their pockets bulged with stolen treasure. When the British infantry arrived on october 7th, they saw French tents piled high with jewels and other plunder, some French soldiers were casually walking around wearing jewels worth millions of Frances. Both generals simply gave up trying to establish order and by October 8th Grant demanded Montauban split the gold bars found in the palace 50/50 with the British. Grant tried to restore some order by ordering his men to render their plunder up for a public auction, the money did not go to charity. One British major turned in 8000 pounds worth of gold ingots alone. The auction listed countless Chinese art and artifacts, sculptures of gold and silver, thousands of bolts of imperial yellow silk and the list could go on forever. The 3 day auction netted nearly 100,000 pounds, ⅓ of which went to the officers and other ⅔'s to the NCOs. A private received 17 pounds, an officer 50. The French simply let their men keep what they had stolen. It was rumored that Baron Rothschild had an outstanding order with one French officer to buy anything he could at whatever price. De Montauban tried to mollify a conscious stricken general Grant by offering him a pair of gold and jade scepters as a gift for Queen Victoria, the other half was going to Napoleon III. Now the European armies did not show up to Beijing with baggage carts, but they soon managed to commandeer 300 local carriages to whisk off their treasure.  When Elgin arrived to Beijing on October 7th he was mortified by the looting of the summer palace. On October 8th, Heng Chi an imperial commissioner assigned to treat with the invaders, visited Loch and Parkes. He treated them with respect, but also fed them lies like how the Emperor had a secret army of hundreds of thousands of men in Mongolia waiting to rescue the capital. He also tried pressing to them the fact the trade between their nations might fall apart. Then Heng Chi delivered to them a request from Prince Gong that they write a letter to Elgin urging him to end hostilities. Parkes declined to help, even though Heng said he might be executed if the men did not write the letter. Then Parkes stated “Although you would do the Allied forces but little injury by killing the few prisoners…you would by such an act bring down on yourselves a terrible vengeance.” Heng switched back to good cop again and said “You will be in no danger for the next two or three days.”. Back on september 29th, Loch and Parkes had been transferred to the Gaomiao temple in northern Beijing where their treatment took a 180. They were wined and dined at a 48 course meal banquet catered by a restaurant near the temple. The men were too ill to eat, but happily accepted a bath and new clothes. Parkes eventually wrote to Elgin “The Chinese authorities are now treating Loch and myself well. We are told that His Highness [Gong] is a man of decision and great intelligence, and I trust that under these circumstances, hostilities may be temporarily suspended to give opportunity for negotiation.” At the bottom of that said letter, Loch added in Hindustani that he was writing under duress and believed the Qing could not decipher the Hindu language. Elgin was happy to receive the letter but worried the hostages would be executed.  Elgin was in a real pickle. He felt as trapped as the hostages. If he ordered the siege to commence the hostages might be executed. On October 8th orders arrived from Prince Gong to release the prisoners. The reason Gong did this was actually because orders were coming in from Emperor Xianfeng to execute them all in revenge for plundering the summer palace. Loch and Parkes were released first and it seems just their release alleviated Elgin and Gros's stress to such an extent that they did not seem to care about the fate of the other 30-40 hostages still in the Qing hands. Less than 24 hours after Loch and Parkes were released the allies on October 9th positioned 13 field pieces opposite of the An Tung Gate, begun to dig trenches and posted a placard threatening bombardment if the gate did not open. Elgin gave the Qing until noon of October the 24th to open the gates to the city or the shelling would commence. And on october 24th, 5 minutes before noon the gate of An Tung cracked open a bit hesitatingly, then swung wide open. Without firing a single shot Elgen marched at the head of 500 men into Beijing as conquerors.  The return of the remaining prisoners was not done promptly. 3 days after the An Tung Gate opened, a frenchman and 8 Sikhs were freed. Two days after that, 2 more Sikhs were freed both both men were almost dead and one did die the next day. In all 19 prisoners were freed, 10 others had died being forced to kneel in the courtyard of the summer palace for days without food or water, their hand bound by moistened ropes and leather straps that shrank and causing excruciating pain. The British and French found coffins with the bodies of the victims, one including The Times correspondent, Thomas Bowlby. Many of the freed prisoners described their ordeal. They said they had been bound with ropes or chains for days, exposed to the elements. Many got gangrene and their infections took their lives. The Sikh and British victims were interred in the Russian cemetery on october 17th without ceremony. The next day the French held an elaborate funeral and high mass for the deaths. The fate of the prisoners seemed to have pushed Elgin over the edge. He rattled his brain for a response to such a heinous crime. Elgin plotted a bloodless revenge in his mind, something to restore British honor through a symbolic act that would prevent the Qing from ever harming a contingent of European ambassadors in Beijing in the future. Elgin thought of a way to hurt the Chinese but not at the cost of any lives, he sought to burn down the Summer Palace, a place where many of the prisoners were tortured to death. Elgin wrote to his wife his decision was in his mind to hurt the Emperor's home but spare the Chinese people. Jack Beeching had a rather interesting thing to say about Elgins decision, “Elgin's decision to burn the Summer Palace at least meant that flesh-and-blood injuries done to people he knew intimately would for once be revenged, not as in war, upon other people—on helpless Chinese—but on inanimate objects, on redundant and expensive things. He had suffered all his life from his father's costly obsession with works of art; now works of art would bear the brunt of his revenge.” Thus Elgin's father had profited from the plunder of art and now Elgin was going to destroy art. Elgin also had pressing concerns, he faced a deadline imposed by General Grant, who warned him that a treaty must be concluded before Beijing's winter set in so the allies could return safely to their base at Tianjin. If they did not Grant warned Elgin that their supply lines were overextended and they would easily be severed off by the Qing forces. Prince Seng had been defeated, but his cavalry remained a constant threat and they could blockade the city off at any time.  D-day for the burning of the summer palace was set to October 18th. A 27 year old captain in the Royal Engineers said this of the event  We went out, and, after pillaging it, burned the whole place, destroying in a vandal-like manner most valuable property which [could] not be replaced for four millions. We got upward of £48 apiece prize money ... I have done well. The [local] people are very civil, but I think the grandees hate us, as they must after what we did the Palace. You can scarcely imagine the beauty and magnificence of the places we burnt. It made one's heart sore to burn them; in fact, these places were so large, and we were so pressed for time, that we could not plunder them carefully. Quantities of gold ornaments were burnt, considered as brass. It was wretchedly demoralising work for an army The destroyed the 800 acre complex of building and gardens where countless Chinese emperors had spent much of their time. There were so many ornate buildings on the grounds covering more than a square mile that it took 2 full days of burning, breaking and smashing to bring it down. Countless books, artifacts, centuries of history burned to ashes. I don't think its controversial to say it ranks on par with the burning of the library of Alexandria (despite if you believe the library ever burnt down that is, listen to Our Fake History's podcast for that one haha). It was a tragedy and the remains of the summer palace stand today as a monument of what once stood there, China is still trying to have the site placed on the list of UNESCO world heritage sites.  On October 23rd, the Qing imperial treasury paid in full the increased indemnity fee of 500,000 taels to Britain and France. On October 24th Elgin met with Prince Gong at the board of Ceremonies to sign the new treaty of Peking. By this point Elgin had become a student of the Qing court protocols and used his knowledge to further humiliate Prince Gong and the court officials by arrived at the Board in a chair carried by 8 porters. According to tradition, only the Emperor had the right to that many porters. Now Elgin had learnt he was a target for assasination so he showed up with 500 troops and dispatched another 2000 troops to perform a triumph tour of Beijing. Lt Col Wolseley also performed a mine sweep of the meeting room before Elgin went. Elgin also ordered a huge artillery piece to be mounted on the An Tung gate, aimed directly at the city to ensure good behavior from the population. Prince Gong arrived to the board in a sedan chair bourn by 6 porters, something prescribed for his rank and when he saw Elgin's 8 he knew immediately it was a direct insult towards his brother. Elgin also made sure to show up 2 hours late. The signing of the new treaty took on a sort of comedy. Elgin scared the hell out of the court officials when he screamed at them to “keep perfectly still”, because his Italian photographer, Signor Beato was taking a shot of the scene to preserve the Chinese humiliation. Bad lighting, doomed the Italians efforts and no photographic evidence of the signing was made available to the British press. By the way on the note of photography, the 2nd opium war is one of the first instances you have actual photos of some of the events. Over on my personal channel, the Pacific War Channel, I have rather long 45 minute~ episodes, 1 on the first opium war and 1 on the second. My episode on the second utilizes a lot of the photo's taken and they are honestly incredible, especially the shots outside Beijing and the Taku Forts. So stating that it be awesome if you checked my episode out, or give the photos a google! So again the Qing were given a document to sign, not a treaty to negotiate, when Elgin presented the treaty to Prince Gong for his signature. The convention included an apology for the Emperor's aggression, the British ambassador was granted a year round residency and 10 million in reparations were to be paid to Britain. Another port city was added to the list of those to be opened to trade and kowloon was to be handed over to Britain. After signing and being degraded, Prince Gong invited Elgin to a banquet in his honor and Elgin declined citing his fear the Qing would simply poison him, haha! The French version of the same treaty occurred the next day and Baron Gros was much more gracious. After signing the treaty Gross gave Gong a rare collection of French coins and an autographed photo of Napoleon III and the Empress Eugenie. Gross apologized for the burning of the summer palace, but did not mention the looting. Gross then accepted Prince Gong's invitation to dinner and no one was poisoned.  In December Elgen spent his time recuperating in Shanghai reading victorian romance novels and Darwin's recent bestseller “On the Origin of the Species” which Elgin found to be audacious. In January he left China for good as Britain began the process for annexing Kowloon. Elgin returned to Britain a hero and received the new appointment as Viceroyalty of India, a position Lord Canning fought to get him. As the viceroy Elgin enjoyed the lucrative post for 20 months, but then he died of an aneurysm in november of 1864 in Calcutta, the same city Cantons viceroy Ye Mingchen died, perhaps a symbolic symmetry. Emperor Xianfeng died at 30 years old, only a year after the signing of the Convention of Peking which had humiliated him so much he secluded and anesthetized himself with opium, wine and of course his harem at Rehe. Emperor Xianfeng never returned to Beijing and refused to meet foreign ambassadors or even his own courtiers so deep it was said of his shame.  Prince Seng the defacto commander in chief of the Qing military continued to suffer military setbacks and humiliations. At one point he led 23,000 infantry and cavalry to quell a violent tax revolt in Shandong province and was forced to beg European occupiers to return some of his guns he surrendered to them during the 2nd opium war. They ignored his pleas and the Prince ended up failing to suppress the rebellion. Queen Victoria had received one interesting gift from the summer palace, a small Pekinese dog that she named Lootie. The poor thing had been found wandering around the ruins of the Summer Palace, where a captain in the Wiltshire regiment rescued it and gave it to the Queen. The Queen also of course received a jade and gold scepter from General Hope.  Both the first and second Opium war were fought largely because of the opium trade and British manufacturers. The conflict was an incredible pay off for Britain. Four years after the second opium war ended, Britain sold China ⅞'s of all the conquered nations imports, more than 100,000 pounds annually. Opium imports to China increased from 58,000 chests in 1859 to 105,000 chests by 1879. The British textiles which the Chinese rejected for their own silk eventually found a market, quadrupling from 113 million yards in 1856 to 448 million yards 25 years later. The Treaty of Tianjin basically made opium legal in China by setting the amount at which the Qing taxed it. The Qing court tried to fight the importation of opium by raising taxes on it. There were many attempts by officials in Britain to stop the opium trade, but it was far to profitable and those voices were quelled whenever they rose up. Eventually the Qing realized they could not stop the plague that was opium addiction, so they began to cultivate opium in large quantities within China to at least offset the British imports. Opium addiction became more and more rampant in China. In 1906 the Qing government forbade the sale of opium, but users over the age of 60 were exempted for a specific reason, Empress dowager Cixi was an opium addict herself. Opium cultivation and consumption thrived in the 1920's and 1930's under Chiang Kai-shek's government. By the time of the 2nd sino Japanese war in 1937, 4 million Chinese, around 10 percent of the population were opium addicts. Over in British held Hong Kong 30% of the colony's population were dependent on opium. The Japanese occupiers encouraged opium consumption to make the population more docile. Within a year of the communist takeover under Mao Zedong, dealers of opium were to be executed, some lucky ones got to go to Gulags. Users were treated more humanely and detoxed in hospitals. I would like to take this time to remind you all that this podcast is only made possible through the efforts of Kings and Generals over at Youtube. Please go subscribe to Kings and Generals over at Youtube and to continue helping us produce this content please check out www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. If you are still hungry after that, give my personal channel a look over at The Pacific War Channel at Youtube, it would mean a lot to me.  The Chinese struggled for 150 years against opium. More than half a century of legislation by both Britain and China failed, while Mao's totalitarian efficiency succeeded in half a generation. Ironically Mao Zedong enforced a policy and plan that had been first tried by a commissioner named Lin Zexu, go figure.