Capital of the People's Republic of China
Om 45 dagar väljer Taiwan en ny president. Hör om hur hotet från Kina dominerar valrörelsen, vad som står på spel för världen och varför oppositionen kallar valet för ett val mellan krig och fred. Lyssna på alla avsnitt i Sveriges Radio Play. Presidentvalet på Taiwan äger rum den 13 januari och drygt 19 miljoner taiwaneser får då gå och rösta. Tre kandidater gör nu upp om väljarnas förtroende och frågan om vilken väg Taiwan ska gå när det gäller relationen till Kina genomsyrar valrörelsen. Det sittande partiet DPP:s huvudkandidat står för en mer självständighetssträvande och hård hållning gentemot Kina, medan oppositionen utmanar med vad de själva beskriver som en mer balanserad linje. Hör om hur utfallet i presidentvalet kan få en stor påverkan på världspolitiken och världsekonomin och hur Peking kan tänkas reagera beroende på vem som vinner.Jämnt race – trots kollaps för oppositionenKinapodden guidar genom det taiwanesiska politiska landskapet och ringar in de viktigaste namnen att hålla koll på. Den senaste veckan har mycket handlat om oppositionspartiernas misslyckade försök att gå ihop till ett gemensamt alternativ. I direktsänd TV kollapsade samarbetet. Men utmanarna är inte uträknade och det ser i nuläget ut att kunna bli en tuff slutspurt för sittande DPP:s toppnamn Lai Ching-te, idag vicepresident på Taiwan. Dessutom i avsnittet om det mystiska virusutbrott i Kina som gav dramatiska rubriker världen över förra veckan och om varför Kina plötsligt slopar krav på visum för medborgare från flera europeiska länder.Rättelse 29/11: I den ursprungliga versionen av avsnittet sades felaktigt att KMT:s presidentkandidat Hou You-yi tidigare varit medlem i DPP. Den felaktiga uppgiften har tagits bort.Medverkande: Björn Djurberg, Kinakorrespondent. Hanna Sahlberg, Kinakommentator. Programledare: Karin TöttermanProducent: Therese RosenvingeTekniker: Heinz Wennin
Die dubiose Lungenentzündung, die derzeit für überfüllte Krankenhäuser in China sorgt, befällt zunehmend auch Erwachsene. Auch in Südkorea mehren sich Fälle. Chinas Regime bestreitet gegenüber der WHO das Bestehen einer neuartigen Erkrankung. Web: https://www.epochtimes.de Probeabo der Epoch Times Wochenzeitung: https://bit.ly/EpochProbeabo Twitter: https://twitter.com/EpochTimesDE YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC81ACRSbWNgmnVSK6M1p_Ug Telegram: https://t.me/epochtimesde Gettr: https://gettr.com/user/epochtimesde Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/EpochTimesWelt/ Unseren Podcast finden Sie unter anderem auch hier: iTunes: https://podcasts.apple.com/at/podcast/etdpodcast/id1496589910 Spotify: https://open.spotify.com/show/277zmVduHgYooQyFIxPH97 Unterstützen Sie unabhängigen Journalismus: Per Paypal: http://bit.ly/SpendenEpochTimesDeutsch Per Banküberweisung (Epoch Times Europe GmbH, IBAN: DE 2110 0700 2405 2550 5400, BIC/SWIFT: DEUTDEDBBER, Verwendungszweck: Spenden) Vielen Dank! (c) 2023 Epoch Times
Delve into the heart of World War II-era Germany with an intimate portrayal, casting a spotlight on the lives of ordinary individuals residing in the charming Bavarian village of Oberstdorf, all under the shadow of Nazi rule. This compelling narrative comes from a distinguished author, recognized as a past recipient of the Los Angeles Times Book Prize for History.Amidst the serene Bavarian mountains, Oberstdorf has long been a bastion of simplicity and tradition, a world apart from the tumultuous events shaping history elsewhere. However, even in this secluded haven, the relentless grasp of the Nazi regime could not be eluded.Julia Boyd is the author of the Sunday Times bestseller and winner of the Los Angeles Times Book Prize for History, Travelers in the Third Reich. Her previous books include A Dance with the Dragon: The Vanished World of Peking's Foreign Colony, The Excellent Doctor Blackwell: The Life of the First Woman Physician and Hannah Riddell: An Englishwoman in Japan. As the widow of a former diplomat, she lived in Germany from 1977 to 1981. She lives in London.Remember to subscribe, rate, and review Eyewitness History.Follow the Show on Social Media!Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/EyewitnessHistoryTwitter: https://twitter.com/EyewitnessPodThis show is part of the Spreaker Prime Network, if you are interested in advertising on this podcast, contact us at https://www.spreaker.com/show/5351305/advertisement
Auf dem Weg nach Tibet legten wir einen Zwischenstopp in Peking ein, wo wir die verbotene Stadt besuchten. Die Festungsartige Struktur beeindruckte mit 10 Meter hohen Mauern, einem breiten Graben und einer Länge von 960 Metern. Das Gelände umfasste 890 Paläste mit 8.886 Räumen, von denen eine Legende besagte, es seien sogar 9.9991/2 Räume. Die Zahl 9, als Symbol der Vollkommenheit, prägte die Gestaltung der Tore mit 9 Meter Höhe, geschmückt mit 9 Goldkugeln in vertikaler und horizontaler Ausrichtung. Die große Stufe vor den Toren sollte vor bösen Geistern schützen. Der Besuch durch die Paläste bis zum Kaiserthron war beeindruckend, doch die hohen Mauern vermittelten den Eindruck eines Gefängnisses. In Lhasa, der Hauptstadt Tibets auf 3.600 Metern Höhe, stieß ich auf extreme Höhenprobleme. Anders als in Peru, wo Coca-Tee gegen Sauerstoffmangel half, hatte ich nur eine begrenzte Sauerstoffmaske im Hotelzimmer. Die erste Nacht war geprägt von Kopfschmerzen, Übelkeit und anderen Beschwerden, die jedoch am nächsten Morgen verschwanden. Die Stadt selbst präsentierte sich einzigartig, mit Zahnarztpraxen auf Gehwegen und gläubigen Frauen, deren Zöpfe 108 Strähnen zählten, eine heilige Zahl. Der Potala-Palast, mit 999 Räumen auf 13 Stockwerken, war ein weiteres faszinierendes Erlebnis. Besonders beeindruckte mich die Begegnung mit einer Familie im Kloster, die durch das Kriechen unter Schriftrollen Segen erhoffte. Die Fahrt zum Himalaya führte zu einer tibetanischen Mastiff-Zucht, wo Hunde für über eine Million Dollar verkauft wurden. Auf 7.000 Metern Höhe bot der Himalaya eine atemberaubende Landschaft. Das Sangye-Kloster, Tibets ältestes buddhistisches Kloster, zeichnete sich durch seine alte Atmosphäre aus. Während des Besuchs wurde uns bewusst, wie präsent der Glaube in der Region war, besonders als wir eine Familie in einem privaten Haus trafen. Die Rückfahrt vom Sangye-Kloster war spannend, da die Dunkelheit rasch hereinbrach. Die Straßenverhältnisse und die Gefahr von Wölfen machten die Fahrt hektisch. Nach Stunden erreichten wir erleichtert die Straße, und die Erlebnisse dieser Fahrt begleiteten uns durch den Rest unserer Zeit in Tibet.
Op dit feest van de democratie is Nederland natuurlijk het centrum van de wereld. Alleen – de wereld eindigt niet bij Vaals of Nieuwesluis. Het is opmerkelijk hoe weinig aandacht er in de campagnes is besteed aan het buitenland, vooral ook omdat kwesties als de oorlogen tussen Israël en Gaza en tussen Rusland en Oekraïne, het conflict van ASML met China en de gang van zaken in de EU, in de emoties van de kiezer en onder politici juist een grote rol spelen. Buitenland is een electoraal stiefkind. Afhankelijk van welk lijstje je hanteert, komt het erop neer dat de kiezer zich vooral zorgen maakt over de woningmarkt, zorg, armoede, migratie en koopkracht. Dat schijnt logisch, want de kiezer heeft daar direct invloed op, en op oorlogen en internationale conflicten niet. Maar de oorlogen in Gaza en Oekraïne hebben enorme emotie en commotie tot gevolg. De politieke partijen hebben er weldegelijk opvattingen over, en veel burgers zijn terecht bezorgd, en vaak zelfs bang. Het beperkt zich niet tot de schrikbarende golf van antisemitisme en islamofobie, er heerst ook angst voor een Russische inval en een derde wereldoorlog. Waar iedere Nederlander weldegelijk mee te maken heeft is de Europese Unie, en ook die is in de campagnes nauwelijks aan de orde gekomen. Terwijl vragen over een gezamenlijke defensiemacht, uitbreiding van de Unie tot 34 lidstaten, waaronder Oekraïne, de productie van wapens en munitie en de rol van de Europese Commissie dringend en belangrijk zijn. Terwijl al deze kwesties in de politieke en maatschappelijke discussie een grote rol spelen, zijn ze in de campagnes goeddeels genegeerd. De meeste politieke orakels voorspellen een lange en moeizame formatie, wat een beetje een Nederlandse traditie is. Met het oog op de urgentie, ook van de problemen in de grote buitenwereld, moeten we hopen dat ze dit keer in Den Haag een beetje tempo maken. We zijn niet het grootste en machtigste land ter wereld, maar Nederland heeft een uitstekende naam. De stem van de Nederlandse kiezer wordt in Jeruzalem, Gaza, Brussel, Washington en Peking weldegelijk gehoord.See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
Fast 30 Jahre lebt Frank Sieren mit seiner Familie in Peking. In seinen Büchern und Filmen beschreibt er den Aufstieg Chinas zur Wirtschafts- und Politmacht. Sein Fazit: Die neue Stärke des Landes führt zu einem epochalen Wandel der Weltordnung.Katrin Heisewww.deutschlandfunkkultur.de, Im GesprächDirekter Link zur Audiodatei
Flug MH370 der Malaysia Airlines im Jahr 2014 bleibt eines der größten Rätsel der Luftfahrtgeschichte. Das Flugzeug verschwand plötzlich vom Radar, als es auf dem Nachtflug von Kuala Lumpur nach Peking unterwegs war. Nach 1 1/2 Stunden brach der Kontakt zum Flugzeug ab, und obwohl Satelliten noch einige Stunden lang Ping-Signale empfingen, blieb die Suche nach dem Flugzeug zwei Jahre lang erfolglos. Trümmerteile wurden schließlich an den Küsten des Indischen Ozeans gefunden, aber der Flugschreiber und die Insassen blieben verschwunden. Verschiedene Theorien über das Verschwinden von MH370 kursieren, darunter technische Fehler, Entführung, Suizid des Piloten und sogar außerirdische Entführung. Ein Professor der Universität Südflorida, Spezialist für Naturschutzbiologie, deutet an, dass Seepocken, die auf Wrackteilen gefunden wurden, möglicherweise Hinweise auf den Unglücksort liefern könnten. Im Internet kursieren verschiedene Theorien, darunter geplante Terrorakte, eine Landung an einem geheimen Ort, Selbstmord des Piloten oder Kopiloten, ein Raubüberfall und sogar eine große Vertuschung seitens der beteiligten Länder. Eine Netflix-Dokumentation stellt auch die Theorie auf, dass russische Agenten das Flugzeug entführt und nach Kasachstan gesteuert haben könnten, oder dass die USA es absichtlich abgeschossen haben, um Kriegstechnologie nach China zu verhindern. Die offizielle Version besagt, dass jemand das Kommunikationssystem ausschaltete, das Flugzeug in entgegengesetzter Richtung flog, der Treibstoff ausging und es abstürzte. Die Doku wirft jedoch auch die Frage auf, ob Informationen von der malaysischen Regierung zurückgehalten werden. Insgesamt bleibt das Schicksal von Flug MH370 ein großes Mysterium, und es gibt viele Spekulationen, aber wenige verlässliche Erkenntnisse.
Lass Dich mitnehmen nach China. In den Straßen und Parks Pekings erlebst Du einen beeindruckenden Kontrast zwischen Tradition und Moderne. Nicht weniger beeindruckend ist die chinesische Mauer: 21.000 Kilometer zieht sich dieses fantastische Bauwerk durch den Norden Chinas, umgeben von wunderschöner grüner Natur.Gelesen von Björn LandbergText: Katharina LinkeRegie: Silvan OschmannProduktion: Tonstudio Sprachraum Entdecke jetzt die Winter-Bettdecken von allnaturaSpare 20€ mit dem Code STRAND20
Vztahy Spojených států a Číny charakterizuje vzájemné soupeření i provázanost, proto schůzku jejich prezidentů v San Francisku předcházelo očekávání, zda Washington a Peking dokážou přejít od měsíců napjatých vztahů k dialogu.Všechny díly podcastu Názory a argumenty můžete pohodlně poslouchat v mobilní aplikaci mujRozhlas pro Android a iOS nebo na webu mujRozhlas.cz.
Vztahy Spojených států a Číny charakterizuje vzájemné soupeření i provázanost, proto schůzku jejich prezidentů v San Francisku předcházelo očekávání, zda Washington a Peking dokážou přejít od měsíců napjatých vztahů k dialogu.
Ein Jahr lang herrschte ziemliche Funkstille zwischen Washington und Peking, nun aber haben sich die Präsidenten Joe Biden und Xi Jinping wieder getroffen. Ob dabei eine Annäherung stattgefunden hat, darüber spricht Sabine Straßer mit Washington-Korrespondentin Julia Kastein und China-Korrespondentin Eva Lamby-Schmitt. Moderation: Stephanie Mannhardt
Das Verhältnis zwischen Washington und Peking ist seit langem sehr angespannt. Jetzt gibt es ein erstes Treffen und einen persönlichen Austausch. Web: https://www.epochtimes.de Probeabo der Epoch Times Wochenzeitung: https://bit.ly/EpochProbeabo Twitter: https://twitter.com/EpochTimesDE YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC81ACRSbWNgmnVSK6M1p_Ug Telegram: https://t.me/epochtimesde Gettr: https://gettr.com/user/epochtimesde Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/EpochTimesWelt/ Unseren Podcast finden Sie unter anderem auch hier: iTunes: https://podcasts.apple.com/at/podcast/etdpodcast/id1496589910 Spotify: https://open.spotify.com/show/277zmVduHgYooQyFIxPH97 Unterstützen Sie unabhängigen Journalismus: Per Paypal: http://bit.ly/SpendenEpochTimesDeutsch Per Banküberweisung (Epoch Times Europe GmbH, IBAN: DE 2110 0700 2405 2550 5400, BIC/SWIFT: DEUTDEDBBER, Verwendungszweck: Spenden) Vielen Dank! (c) 2023 Epoch Times
Kínai közvetítéssel tavasszal normalizálta kapcsolatait a Közel-Kelet két, egymással rivalizáló, egymásétól eltérő régiós jövőképpel bíró középhatalma, Irán és Szaúd-Arábia. Peking ezzel biztosította kőolaj-utánpótlását, de egyúttal bejelentkezett második biztonsági garantőrnek az eddig hegemón Egyesült Államok mellé. Az izraeli háború idején Kína azt a „neutrális” diplomáciai megközelítést alkalmazza, amit az ukrajnai konfliktusnál is tett, a játszma pedig többdimenziós: üzen a kínai közönségnek, hogy a pekingi vezetés világhatalmi tényező lett, és üzen a „globális Dél” államainak, hogy az alakuló többpólusú világrendben a nyugati erők mellett ott van a keleti pólus, és van már vezető ereje is. Milyen politikai ambíciói vannak Kínának a Közel-Keleten? Megerősödhet-e Peking tekintélye az izraeli háború okozta válságban? Miként működik össze Amerika ellenében Kína, Oroszország és Irán? A Mandiner Világrend vendége: Salát Gergely Kína-szakértő, a Magyar Külügyi Intézet vezető kutatója, a Pázmány Péter Katolikus Egyetem munkatársa. Műsorvezető: Maráczi Tamás, a Mandiner főmunkatársa #mandiner #SalátGergely #MandinerVilágrend #Közel-Kelet #izraeli-palesztinkonfliktus #izraeliháború #Hamász #Izrael #geopolitika #Gázaiövezet #Oroszország #Kína #Irán #újvilágrend
Kurz vor dem Treffen von US-Präsident Biden und Chinas Staatpräsident Xi hat Peking seine Pandas, Symbole der Freundschaft, aus den USA ausgeflogen. Natürlich kommt Fritz Eckenga im Schrägstrich dazu der ein oder andere satirische Gedanke. Von Fritz Eckenga.
Last time we spoke about the Red Bearded Honghuzi Bandits. Yes Manchuria and many parts of China proper have had a bandit problem going back to ancient times. The borderlands between the Russian Empire and Qing Dynasty proved to be the perfect grounds for bandits to evolve. The Honghuzi were getting larger, more organized and certain leaders amongst them would have long lasting impacts on the history of China. Such names that come to mind are Zhang Zuolin and the Dogmeat General Zhang Zongchang. Such forces were incorporated officially into the Qing military to thwart other bandit groups and eventually to harass the Russians or Japanese in conflict looming on the horizon. Everything seems to be hot in Manchuria, Russian has full on invaded her and is reluctant to drag her troops out. There are those unhappy with this circumstance and they will soon make themselves heard loud and clear. #73 The Yellow Peril and a War in the East Welcome to the Fall and Rise of China Podcast, I am your dutiful host Craig Watson. But, before we start I want to also remind you this podcast is only made possible through the efforts of Kings and Generals over at Youtube. Perhaps you want to learn more about the history of Asia? Kings and Generals have an assortment of episodes on history of asia and much more so go give them a look over on Youtube. So please subscribe to Kings and Generals over at Youtube and to continue helping us produce this content please check out www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. If you are still hungry for some more history related content, over on my channel, the Pacific War Channel where I cover the history of China and Japan from the 19th century until the end of the Pacific War. The Boxer Rebellion is over. The Russo-Chinese War in Manchuria is over. Order had been restored to Beijing and in Manchuria things were significantly quieted down. Now the other nations of the 8 nation alliance had their hands full dealing with the expedition against Beijing and they sort of turned a blind eye to what was a side conflict in Manchuria. But when things were settling down and 177,000 Russian forces had more or less invaded and were occupying Manchuria, well a lot of eyeballs bulged. Britain and Japan sought common cause, both had significant investments in the Asia-Pacific. For example Britain had Weihaiwei and was literally staring down at the Russians over in Port Arthur and Dalien. Japan had been slighted by the triple intervention by Russia, Germany and France, losing her acquisitions of Port Arthur and Dalien to the Russians. Manchuria was always seen as a buffer zone to the Japanese, she now hand a toehold in Korea and such large Russian activity in Manchuria was very threatening. Let us not forget the entire war between the Qing dynasty and Japan over Korea, to a lesser extent also had Russian as a 4th party. Russia did meddle in Korea and continuously antagonized Japan. Thus with common cause Japan and Britain formed an alliance on January 30th of 1902. In response Russia and France formed their own on March 16th of 1902. The alliances basically worked to thwart any other great powers from getting involved in a potential war between Japan and Russia. Now Russia also agreed to the rest of the great powers that she would gradually withdraw her forces from Manchuria. It was to be rolled out in 3 periods of 6 months. The first phase saw southwest Manchuria evacuated and returned to China, but when it came to the second phase, suddenly Russia was making demands for concessions to the Qing dynasty. Britain, Japan and the US protested the demands and this bolstered China to reject them. Now turned back the clock a bit there was another sticky situation. When chaos was erupting in Korea, King Gojong ran to the Russians for protection for over two years. This turned the nations favor towards the Russians over the Chinese and Japanese. Russia seized this opportunity to strengthen her forces in defense of her legation in Korea, and this action was met with actions taken up by Japan. Japanese and Russian officials met and this was the result verbatim: A further agreement between Russia and Japan had been signed in Tokyo on 25 April 1898. The agreement contained three understandings: The independence of Korea was assured; neither country would interfere in Korea's domestic affairs. There would be no appointment of military or civil advisers without discussion with the interested parties. Russia agreed not to hinder Japan's development of trade with Korea. Aside from this the Russians of course wanted to seize as much as they could. A Russian-Korean bank was formed in 1897, and a timber cutting contract was given to Russian industrialists in the Yalu river area. In 1901, Tsar Nicholas II told Prince Henry of Prussia, "I do not want to seize Korea but under no circumstances can I allow Japan to become firmly established there. That will be a “casus belli." The contract only came into effect when the Manchurian railway projects were kicking off and when able bodies were around, which came about during the occupation of Manchuria. In april of 1903 Russians acquired some land and established a fort at Yongampo near the mouth of the Yalu river. America and Japan received similar concessions in the region. The Japanese began receiving reports, indicating Port Arthur was being heavily stocked with supplies and a large body of Russian troops were advancing across the Liaodong Peninsula towards Korea. Thus from the Japanese point of view it looked clear Russia was not honoring her agreements. On July 28th of 1903, the Japanese ambassador at St Petersburg was instructed to make it known to the Russians, the 7 demands they made to China was not seen as a “relaxation of her hold on Manchuria but rather a consolidation” Two days later, Russian Admiral Alexeiev was appointed Viceroy of the Far East. Alexeiev would hold supreme power to exercises diplomacy between Russian East Asia and her neighbors as well as command the Russian military and naval forces in the east. From the Japanese point of view, a permanent Russian occupation of Manchuria would be prejudicial over her own security and interests. It would also threaten Korea, which was her sphere of interest, one she was not looking to share. Russia agreed to consider drawing up a new treaty. On August 12th of 1903 a draft was presented at St Petersburg, but in the meantime Russia was strengthening her position in the far east. This tense situation kept going, until January 13th of 1904 when Japan offered to recognize Manchuria as being outside her sphere of interest, if Russia would agree Korea was Japan's sphere of interest. It was to be blunt a very fair deal. Japan requested an early reply to the proposal, but by February 4th of 1904 no reply was forthcoming. Two days later the Japanese ambassador, Mr. Kurino called upon the Russian foreign minister, Count Lamsdorf to take his leave. Kurino explained to Lamsdorf that the Japanese government had decided to adopt some “independent action” deeming it necessary to defend its established rights and legitimate interests. Basically Japan's patience had come to an end. The Russian ambassador to Tokyo, Baron Rosen, had continuously sent warnings to his superiors in St Petersburg that if they continued to corner Japan, she would most certainly fight them. Such sentiment was shared by War Minister General Kuroptkin who resigned in a state of exasperation some months earlier. Tsar Nicholas II did not want a war, but he was continuously assured by his advisers, Japan was not strong enough to fight them. When Mr. Kurino took his leave, the immediate signal was made to Admiral Alexeiev, who was in Tokyo at the time. The new viceroy saw with his own eyes evidence of Japanese mobilization and he advised St Petersburg accordingly. The Japanese foreign ministry confirmed their government had run out of patience. However all of this was taken to be a bluff. It has been theorized Alexeiev was simply not averse to a war with a country he certainly deemed inferior to his own. It is also theorized Tsar Nicholas II probably believed if a war would to break out it would be a short and victorious one, and perhaps such an event could distract the tide of revolution hitting his nation, the people of Russia were not happy anymore about the Romanov rule. Funny enough, all of these talks, deceptions and plans were to take shape in China. The Chinese were literally never even thought of or spoken to, and soon a war would literally occur within their borders against their will. How did this all come about? It might sound a bit funny, but a large reason the Russo-Japanese War would occur would simply be a result of, pardon my french, shit talking by one Kaiser Wilhelm II. When Kaiser Wilhelm I died on March 9th of 1888, Germany fell to Frederick III who died of throat cancer only 99 days after taking the reins. On June 15th, a 29 year old Kaiser Wilhelm II took the throne. Now for those of you who don't know, Otto von Bismarck, the man who unified Germany was during the late 19th century one of the greatest political players in the world. Bismarck had an incredible understanding of the balance of power theory and studied all the most powerful nations national interests. He brokered international deals using his knowledge to increase Germany's standing in global politics and he also in many ways designed a system of international alliances to thwart a global war….which ironically would in many ways cause ww1. If you want to know more specifically about this by the way, check out Kings and Generals alliances that caused WW1, I wrote that script and its a fascinating story. Dan Carlin famously referred to Bismarcks work as creating a giant hand grenade, that if the pin got pulled out, only Bismarck understood how to put it back in. While Bismarck was in power things were pretty good, but he was such a colossal figure, that when the young Kaiser came into power, many of his advisers suggested he was being overshadowed by Bismarck. Kaiser Wilhelm II listening to his advisers, sought to stop Bismarck from taking the quote en quote “day to day” administration. Conflicts began to arise between the two men. Wilhelm did not understand the complexities of Bismarcks international relations and saw him as far too peaceful. Wilhelm gradually fell under the influence of his military leaders to the dismay of Bismarck who thought the Kaiser would lead them swiftly into a war with a nation like Russia. In 1890 Bismarck resigned under pressure from Wilhelm II and other German leaders, and as Dan Carlin would say, now the grenade he created was set to go off. Now when the new Kaiser venturing into international relations, he was deeply influenced by a ideological concept that he would use as a tool to coerce international players to act out. The concept is known as the “yellow peril” “le Peril Jaune” as coined by Russian sociologist Jacques Novikow in the late 19th century. In essence the yellow peril was a racist ideology that held asians to be subhuman, like apes and monkeys, but also that as a racial group should they unite, they would threaten what was thought to be the superior race of the day, whites. Basically the idea was that if all the nations of asia were to unite, they could retaliate against the White nations who were at the time colonizing or forcing unequal treaties upon them. There was also a religious element to it, that Christianity was under threat from the hoards of the east. Now back to Wilhelm II, one of his advisers was the diplomat Max von Brandt who advised him that Imperial Germany had major colonial interests in China. The Triple Intervention that Germany endorsed was justified by the Kaiser under the guise it was to thwart what he began calling “die Gelbe Gefahr / the yellow peril”. The Kaiser began a propaganda campaign using the famous allegorical lithograph “Peoples of Europe, Guard your Most Sacred Possessions” created in 1895 by Hermann Knackfuss. You can google the image. The lithograph portrays the European monarchs with Germany as the leader of Europe personified by a “prehistoric warrior-goddesses being led by the Archangel Michael against the yellow peril from the east. The east is seen as a dark cloud of smoke which rests eerily upon a calm Buddha, wreathed in flame”. The imagery is very apparent, white and christianity is under threat from asian and their eastern religions. This type of ideology goes all the way back to Ancient Greece and Persia, its the age old west vs east stuff. Today you would call this sort of talk, a race war. Now you are probably asking, ok this leader of Germany is just a racist dude, how does this cause a war between Russia and Japan? This story is rather hilarious and hard to believe, but in summary, the Kaiser used the ideology to trick his cousin into war. For those unaware, Kaiser Wilhelm II was first cousins with King Geoerge V of Britain, to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, to Queens Marie of Romania, Maud of Norway, Victoria Eugene of Spain, and even the woman he would eventually marry, the Empress of Russia. Now the Germany presented to Wilhelm was involved in some alliances. I mentioned Britain and Japan had an alliance and France and Russian had an alliance. Wilhelm and his advisers sought to increase Germany's stature. Wilhelm believed that if Russia went to war with Japan, it would break up the Franco-Russian alliance and with no one else to turn to, Russia would seek an alliance with Germany. Wilhelms reasoning was that France was not supporting of Russians expansion into asia and such aggressive actions like going to war with Japan would be highly disapproved by France. The French Premier Maurice Rouvier publicly declared that the Franco-Russian alliance applied only in Europe and not Asia and that if Japan and Russia went to war, France would remain neutral. Such rhetoric seemed to prove Wilhelms beliefs. Germany meanwhile felt threatened by Britain and had embarked on what was known as the Tirpitz Plan in the late 1890s. The Tirpitz plan was Germany's plan to achieve world power status through naval power, but the world's greatest navy of course was Britain at the time. What essentially happened was Germany challenging Britain to an arms race in the form of naval warship building programs. Everything the Kaiser pursued during the late 19th century was what was called “Weltpolitik / world politics” which essentially was just Germany's imperialistic foreign policy to become a global power. Wilhelm and his advisers were playing world politics to weaken rivals and strengthen Germany plain and simple. So Wilhelm believes he can break the French-Russian alliance and squeeze himself in Frances place if he can get the Russians to go to war with Japan who just happened to be allied to Germany's main rival, Britain. Some real game of thrones stuff here. Wilhelm also believed if Germany could pull this off, France would be compelled to join them, forming a triple alliance against Britain and Japan so they could all pursue their expansionist policies in places like Asia. There was also the belief pulling this off would pull Russia away from the Balkans which was a huge source of tension with Germany's main ally Austro-Hungary. Thats all fine and dandy, but how does Wilhelm get his cousin Tsar Nicholas to go to war with the Japanese, here comes the yellow peril. Starting in 1895, Kaiser Wilhelm began using the Yellow Peril ideology to portray Germany as the great defender of the west against the barbarism of the east. But then all of a sudden Wilhelm began sending personal letters to his cousin Nicholas praising him as the quote “savior of the white races” and began urging him to take a more hardened approach to Asia. The letters between the two have been referred to as the “willy-nicky” letters, consisting of 75 messages sent back and forth between 1895-1914. I wont list them all of course but lets take a peak at how Wilhelm wrote to his cousin. In 1895 Wilhelm wrote this from Kaltenbronn Schwarzwald. I will paraphrase of course there's a ton of fluff. Dearest Nicky, I thank you sincerely for the excellent way in which you initiated the combined action of Europe for the sake of its interests against Japan. It was high time that energetic steps were taken, and will make an excellent impression in Japan as elsewhere. It shows to evidence how necessary it is that we should hold together, and also that there is existent a base of common interests upon which all European nations may work in joint action for the welfare of all as is shown by the adherence of France to us two. May the conviction that this can be done without touching a nations honour, take root more and more firmly, then no doubt the fear of war in Europe will dissipate more and more. The kind and most valuable messages which you sent me through Osten Sacken by Count Eulenburgs transmission in Vienna have given me a signal proof of your loyalty and openness towards me. I shall certainly do all in my power to keep Europe quiet and also guard the rear or Russia so that nobody shall hamper your action towards the Far East! For that is clearly the great task of the future for Russia to cultivate the Asian Continent and to defend Europe from the inroads of the Great Yellow race. In this you will always find me on your side ready to help you as best I can. You have well understood that call of Providence and have quickly grasped the moment; it is of immense political and historical value and much good will come of it. I shall with interest await the further development of our action and hope that, just as I will gladly help you to settle the question of eventual annexations of portions of territory for Russia, you will kindly see that Germany may also be able to acquire a Port somewhere were it does not "gêne" you. You can see how Wilhelm is egging on his cousin about how Germany will have his back if he were to be bolder in Asia. Also the cute end bit about Germany acquiring some ports. In 1898 for a New Years letter Wilhelm sent this Dearest Niky May this New Year be a happy one for you dear Allx and the whole of your house and country. May the plans, which you mature be fullfilled for the wellfare of your people. Henry's mission^ is one of the steps I have taken for the help and countenance of your lofty Ideals—without which no sovereign can exist—in promoting civilisation I. e. Christianity in  the Far East! Will you kindly accept a drawing I have sketched for you, showing the Symbolising figures of Russia and Germany as sentinels at the Yellow Sea for the proclaiming of the Gospel of Truth and Light in the East. I drew the sketch in the Xmas week under the blaze of the lights of theXmas trees! Here Wilhelm is pressing upon the religious aspect and is basically flattering Nicholas. Again in 1898 Wilhelm wrote Dearest Nicky I must congratulate you most heartily at the successful issue of your action at Port Arthur ; we two will make a good pair of sentinels at the entrance of the gulf of Petchili, who will be duly respected especially by the Yellow Ones ! I think the way you managed to soothe the feelings of the "fretful Japs"by the masterly arrangement at Korea a remarkably fine piece of diplomacy and a great show of foresight; which Is apt to show what a boon it was that by your great journey,^ you were able to study the Question of the Far East locally and are now morally speaking the Master of Peking! Fretful Japs indeed In 1902 we get probably the most important letter involving the yellow peril Dear Nicky This is the more necessary as/certain symptoms in the East seems to show that Japan is becoming a rather restless customer and that the situation necessitates all coolness and decision of the Peace Powers. The news of the attachment of the Japanese General Yamai^—former leader of the Jap. troops in China—to the Legation at Peking in order to take in hand the reorganisation of the Chinese Army—i.e. for the unavowed object of driving every other foreigner out of China—is very serious. 20 to 30 Million of trained Chinese helped by half a dozen Jap. Divisions and led by fine, undaunted Christian hating Jap. Officers, is a future to be con- templated not without anxiety; and not impossible. In fact it is the coming into reality of the *'Yellow Peril" which I depicted some years ago, and for which engraving I was laughed at by the greater mass of the People for my graphic depiction of it ... Your devoted friend and cousin, Willy, Admiral of the Atlantic". And there it is, an army of millions of Chinese led by Japanese officers, the yellow peril. So for years Wilhelm egged on his cousin, making him believe he was this savior of the white race, holding the yellow hoard back from sweeping over Europe. Wilhelm also made sure to leave ambiguous ideas that Germany had Russians back, that if war came and let's say a nation like Britain jumped into the mix, Germany would jump in too. Arguable if there was any reality behind these claims. Now back to the situation in the far east, King Gojong found his nation stuck between two tigers again, this time it was Japan and Russia. He believed the key to the issue was Manchuria and sought for Korea to remain as neutral as possible so she could hope to preserve her independence, I would saw independence with finger quotes. Meanwhile the Chinese ambassador to St Petersburg, Hu Weide was receiving reports from Beijing on whether Russia or Japan were likely to win such a war and how it would favor China. It was argued it was in China's interest for Japan to win, because a Japanese victory would likely breakdown Russians stronghold on Manchuria and perhaps China could wrestle it all back in. China decided in December of 1903 to remain neutral if war came, because while she knew Japan was the only one in the far east capable of pushing Russia out, she also did not know what Japan's ambitions might be in Manchuria. In early 1904 negotiations continued between Russia and Japan, but like I mentioned earlier Japan gradually figured out Russia was not being serious. This was more than likely due to an infamous message sent by Wilhelm to Nicholas in December of 1903. Since 97—Kiaochow—we have never left Russia in any doubt that we would cover her back in Europe, in case she decided to pursue a bigger policy in the Far East that might lead to military complications (with the aim of relieving our eastern border from the fearful pressure and threat of the massive Russian army!). Whereupon, Russia took Port Arthur and trusting us, took her fleet out of the Baltic, thereby making herself vulnerable to us by sea. In Danzig 01 and Reval 02, the same assurance was given again, with result that entire Russian divisions from Poland and European Russia were and are being sent to the Far East. This would not had happened if our governments had not been in agreement! Nicholas for his part was prepared to compromise with Japan, but the incessant letters from Wilhelm egging him on as a coward for thinking about compromising gradually broke the Tsar. The Kaiser wrote this: undertaking the protection and defence of the White Race, and with it, Christian civilization, against the Yellow Race. And whatever the Japs are determined to ensure the domination of the Yellow Race in East Asia, to put themselves at its head and organise and lead it into battle against the White Race. That is the kernel of the situation, and therefore there can be very little doubt about where the sympathies of all half-way intelligent Europeans should lie. England betrayed Europe's interests to America in a cowardly and shameful way over the Panama Canal question, so as to be left in 'peace' by the Yankees. Will the 'Tsar' likewise betray the interests of the White Race to the Yellow as to be 'left in peace' and not embarrass the Hague tribunal too much?. Nicholas replied he still sought peace, and Wilhelm replied in telegram “oh you innocent angel, this is the language of an innocent angel. But not that of a White Tsar!” Regardless of the Tsar's feelings, Japan was firmly under the belief Russia was not serious about seeking a peaceful solution to their dispute over Manchuria and Korea. When Japan proposed recognizing Manchuria was Russia's sphere of influence if Russia would respect their sphere of influence over Korea, the Russia counter proposal was basically, no, Russia would retain Manchuria and Korea would be open game. Potential diplomatic resolutions between the two nations had thus failed. Historians generally argue it was the fault of Nicholas II who pushed his administration to give no ground. Why he acted this way though has two major arguments, one I have highlighted, the egging on by the Kaiser, but there was another element at play. The Russian people were frankly fed up with the royal family, the people were looking for change. To start a war and rile up patriotism could have been an attempt to quell the Russian people from revolutionary actions and in retrospect it certainly seems the case. The Tsar's advisers despite being hawkish did not seek a war with Japan, they simply wanted to bully what they thought was a weaker nation into submission. Because the reality was, Manchuria was far, the trans siberian railway was not complete, moving troops and provisions such a distance was a colossal task. Japan performed a large scale study of the Russian power in Manchuria. The Japanese had been secretly surveying and mapping as far as east of Lake Baikal. In 1904 the Japanese had 380,000 active and reserve army forces, 200,000 in the 2nd reserve, another 50,000 in conscription reserve and 220,000 trained men of the national army, thus they could in theory toss 850,000 men into a conflict and by conscripting perhaps 4,250,000 who would all have to be trained taking time and money. Japan's effective strength was 257,000 infantry, 11,000 cavalry and 894 artillery pieces. They held 12 infantry divisions each containing 11,400 infantry, 430 cavalry and 36 guns a piece. Their troops received 12 months training, once the war started this would be cut to 6 months. Their artillery battalions held 3 batteries with both field and mountain guns ranging in caliber of 2.95 inches to 4.72 inches. Their infantry were equipped with a modern 1900 .256 inch magazine rifle that could fire 2000 yards but was effective at 300. Each soldier carried a knapsack, greatcoat and shelter tent. In their sacks were two days rations and entrenching tools. For machine guns they would receive Hotchkiss guns. The logistical system for the Japanese would be much better than the Russians. They had a series of lines of support. The soldiers carried two days rations, with echelons of transports that carried provisions behind them. Each division had its own transport battalion, including an ambulance train to deal with casualties. Chinese carts, Chinese and Korean coolies would all be paid premium prices for logistical aid. The Japanese would buy local foodstuff from the Koreans and Chinese at premium prices to earn the local populaces support over the Russians. For the Russians their army stood roughly at 4.5 million, but only 6 of the 25 European army corps would play an active role in the far east. By February of 1904 the Russians had roughly 60,000 troops, 3000 cavalry and 164 guns posted at Vladivostok, Harbin and Port Arthur. By Mid february this would be increased to 95,000; with 45,000 at Vladivostok, 8000 at Harbin, 9000 in Haicheng; 11,000 near the Yalu and 22,000 around Port Arthur. The Russian had the European 1st, 4th, 8th, 10th, 16th and 17th army corps each numbering 28,000 rifles and 112 guns. Alongside these were 7 Siberian corps. While the Russians held the advantage in numbers, the trans siberian was not complete and the route going around Lake Baikal formed a massive delay. Lake Baikal is basically the size of Switzerland, around 386 miles long. Thus the forces in Manchuria would be at the mercy of local foodstuffs for provisions, which meant they were competing with the Japanese to purchase them, while the Japanese had their own nations foodstuffs coming via sea transport, from Korea and of course within China. The Russian troops were armed with a .299 caliber rifles, but their training was lackluster and required all men to fire at short range on orders from superior officers. The upcoming war would catch the Russian gunners in the midst of a re-equipment programme. A third of their guns were a new 3 inch quick firing gun with a range of 6000 yards, capable of battering the Japanese artillery. However the gunners training period was quite literally on the job. Thus many of the gunners were coming into the conflict with a new technology they had not even fired yet. Japan's population was then 46.5 million, Russia's 130 million. The Russian military opinion saw the Japanese “as little people who lived in paper houses…and wasted hours on flower arrangement and tea ceremonies”. However, Minister of War Kuropatkin visited Japan in 1903 and was impressed by their infantry and artillery, stating that they were equal to any European army, and advocated avoiding war with them. Russia's navy was much larger, but divided between the Baltic Sea, the Black Sea and the Pacific, whereas Japan's was concentrated in her home waters. By 1902, Russia began strengthening her Pacific squadron and, by the end of 1903, had 7 battleships, 7 cruisers, 25 destroyers and 27 smaller ships. The IJN (the Japanese Navy) consisted of 6 battleships, 10 cruisers, 40 destroyers and 40 smaller vessels. The Russian ships were a hotchpotch of differing types, armaments and speeds, with a varied amount of armor protection. The Japanese ships were nearly all British built, uniform and faster. Alcohol excess amongst Russian crews was a serious problem. Baltic crews spent the 6 months of winter ashore because the gulf of Finland froze and because of bureaucratic demand for uniformity. So did the crews of the Black Sea fleet. Thus, Russian sailors spent less time at sea and less time training. The Japanese navy under British instruction spent more time at sea, and trained intensively. Japanese sailors were literate, while most Russian sailors were not. These variables would come out to play when dealing with steam-driven warships, the most technologically advanced weapons of the day. At the outbreak of the conflict the Russian Far East fleet would have 7 battleships, 6 cruisers and 13 destroyers at Port Arthur. At Vladivostok were 4 first class cruisers, with a number of torpedo boats. At Chemulpo in Korea were the protected cruisers Varya and gunboat Koreyetz. A crucial component of the conflict would be commanding the sea ways. Both nations recognized this fact all too well. The Russian far east fleet was constrained from year the round training by being icebound in Vladivostok for 3 months of the year. Her fleet was also a ragtag bunch with different armaments, speed, armor and flexibility. Russia was dependent on foreign built ships, though she was fully capable of building her own. Russia had ships built from Britain, Germany, France and the US. The Russian navy was based on conscription at 7 years with 3 years of reserve. The IJN combined fleet was led by Vice-Admiral Heihachiro Togo. The two divided squadrons of the Russian Pacific Fleet were commanded overall by Admiral Oskar Ludvig Stark. The Main Russian squadron was in Port Arthur and the other cruiser squadron was at Vladivostok under the command of Admiral Nikolai Skrydlov. Port Arthur offered some shore artillery battery defense, though it was underfunded due to divestments for the development of Dalny, and its dry dock capabilities were quite limited compared to that of Sasebo. The Russians were bluffing the Japanese while continuing the strengthen their position in the far east. But the Japanese would not wait for them to do so. I would like to take this time to remind you all that this podcast is only made possible through the efforts of Kings and Generals over at Youtube. Please go subscribe to Kings and Generals over at Youtube and to continue helping us produce this content please check out www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. If you are still hungry after that, give my personal channel a look over at The Pacific War Channel at Youtube, it would mean a lot to me. Kaiser Wilhelm II had egged his cousin Tsar Nicholas II into facing against the Empire of Japan. Little did the Russian Tsar know, but he was about to send his nation to their doom, for the Japanese had done their homework and were determined to rid Manchuria of the Russian menace
In this episode of Student Affairs Voices From the Field, Dr. Jill Creighton hosts Dr. Yisu Zhou, an accomplished university professor from the University of Macau. Dr. Zhou shares his unique journey from being an international student to becoming a professor and provides insights into the transitions in higher education, particularly in China and Asia. The episode begins by introducing Dr. Yisu Zhou's background and educational journey. He highlights his early experiences as an English teacher in rural China, which sparked his interest in education. He pursued his PhD in the United States, which ultimately led him to his current role as a professor at the University of Macau. Dr. Zhou emphasizes the impact of internationalization in higher education, discussing how the economic growth in China over the past two decades has created a demand for high-quality education. This demand has led to an increase in Chinese students pursuing undergraduate and graduate degrees abroad, especially in the United States. He also touches on the various stages of this trend, starting with Chinese students seeking doctoral programs overseas and later expanding to undergraduate programs. The podcast delves into the differences between teaching styles in the West and East, highlighting the smaller class sizes and active communication in Western universities compared to the more lecture-focused approach in many Eastern institutions. Dr. Zhou suggests that educators and student affairs professionals should understand these cultural differences and proactively support international students in adapting to the new learning environment. Dr. Zhou encourages student affairs professionals to be patient and understanding when working with students from different cultural backgrounds. He explains that while students from Asia may initially appear passive, they are actively processing information and sometimes take longer to initiate help-seeking behavior due to cultural differences. The podcast concludes with Dr. Zhou emphasizing that international students can be valuable assets to higher education programs, as they bring strong work ethics and a commitment to academic excellence. He also highlights the need for international students to develop skills for navigating diverse and complex educational systems, which can differ significantly from their home countries. This episode offers valuable insights for student affairs professionals and educators, providing a better understanding of the challenges and opportunities that come with the internationalization of higher education and the diverse cultural backgrounds of students. TRANSCRIPT Dr. Jill Creighton [00:00:02]: Welcome to Student Affairs Voices From the Field, the podcast where we share your student affairs stories from fresh perspectives to seasoned experts. This is season 9 on transitions in student affairs. This podcast is brought to you by NASPA, And I'm doctor Jill Creighton, she, her, hers, your essay voices from the field host. Welcome back to another episode of SA Voices from the Field, where today I'm delighted to bring you a conversation with an accomplished university professor from the University of Macau. Isoo Cho is an associate professor at the faculty of education and by courtesy, the department of sociology at the University of Macau. He earned his PhD team from Michigan State University's College of Education. Joe's doctoral dissertation focused on the teaching profession, specifically out of field teachers and utilize a large scale survey from OECD. Before attending MSU, Joe received his bachelor's degree in statistics from East China Normal University and worked as an English teacher in rural Shanxi province from 2005 to 2006, where his passion for understanding the educational process bloomed. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:01:06]: Joel employs a sociological perspective when examining various policy issues, including school finance, teacher professionalization, and higher education cation reform. His work has been published in Discourse, Sociological Methods and Research, Chinese Sociological Review, international journal of educational development, and other notable journals. Zhou has also been feasted on various Chinese media outlets, such as the paper Peng Pai Xing Wen, Beijing News, Xing Jing Bao, and China Newsweek, Zhongguo Xing Wen, Zhoukan. In the University of Macau community. Joe is deeply committed to teaching and service. He created the 1st generation course aimed at raising global awareness for undergraduate students across all majors and departments. And with an innovative approach to nurturing students from diverse backgrounds, this course is widely accepted by those students and running at full capacity every year. Professionally, he's actively engaged across the university and scholarly community, and he received the outstanding reviewer award from occasional researcher in 2015. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:02:04]: Joel's service work reflected his thinking of higher education as an ecology of knowledge experts. He's penned a 5 year strategic plan, advise on a library strategic plan, and architected a doctoral of education program. He is the recent recipient of the faculty service award for 2017, 18, and also so 21/22. Isu, we're so glad to have you on the show today. Yisu Zhou [00:02:25]: Thank you very much for having me, Jill. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:02:27]: And even better for me that we're in the same time zone, that as a gift I don't get on the show a lot. Yes. Yes. You had lots of international people appearing on our show. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:02:35]: And you're at the University of Macau, how so folks know listeners who are not familiar with the geography of China. Macau is in the southern part of China. It's a beautifully warm place. It's also famous for casinos, amongst other things. Yisu Zhou [00:02:48]: Like Orento, Las Vegas, if you want a short metaphor. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:02:52]: You can even go to, like, the MGM in The Venetian in Macau. Yisu Zhou [00:02:55]: It's actually the same. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:02:56]: But that is not the reason you're in Macau. No. So So we're glad to talk to you today about your experiences as a professor of higher education studies. And normally, I think our listeners are exposed to professors of higher ed who are pretty western centric. So this is a great opportunity to learn more about higher education and the study of higher cation in Asia. But before we talk about your expertise in the transformations and transitions of higher ed in China, I'd love to talk to you first about how you became a professor. Yisu Zhou [00:03:25]: Oh, yeah. No problem. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:03:27]: So what's the story? Yisu Zhou [00:03:29]: I think you can say part of that is is running through the family. So both my Parents are academe, working in the, academia, which give me some exposure to how institutions work in the Chinese setting when I was little. But I I didn't actually made up my mind before well, I think well into my PhD program. When I grow up, I wanna be a scientist. So I think in college, I study, statistics. So, kind of the applied field of, mathematics in a sense that I wanna things, and, I wanna run data. I'm really interested in data as a kid, when I grow up. But, after college, I also wanna get some exposure about Interacting with people. Yisu Zhou [00:04:07]: I'm kind of, you know, in that, gap sort of a mentality, that I'm interesting a lot of things, but I really I had a mid in my mind about what I'm going to commit my life to doing. So I spent a year actually teaching in a rural village in the Western China, which kind of a place they have a poverty line, which give me a lot of experience working with, rural children, rural parents. And I taught English at 6th grade, in that particular school, for the year. So I really start to think about how I can observe social life, Particularly school life. That is, I I think the main motivation and the main sort of event that, direct me toward a study of education. So after that year, I went to the United States. I, went to Michigan State to do my PhD degree. I first Enrolled in, psychometric program because of my statistics background, and people really want me to contribute to that. Yisu Zhou [00:05:03]: And after 2 years, I found that my passion and my interest has, sort of shifted toward international and competitive education. So I'm trained as an international comparative, educator in my PhD program. And, well, Macau sort of come as a supply because I am the part of the, post, What we call, 2008 survivors of the, economic meltdown so that many, US universities, freeze hiring during the time. It's been actually, they fed. It's quite, last quite, for some time. So when I was in the job market in 2011, The the domestic job market is basically so competitive that there are only very handful places openings in that particular year. So when I was searching the catalog job postings on Chronicle, this place called University Macau sort of, appeared in my search. I actually have never heard of this university before, And this is really a new experience. Yisu Zhou [00:05:59]: I know places in Hong Kong because they are more established. They have university of Hong Kong and Chinese university of Hong Kong are the 2 sort of the star universities in a region, and people already know that. But never heard of University of Macau. So I did a little bit of research. I think, well, maybe I should try that mostly because it's close to home And it's an international environment which allows me to conduct international research and to teach in English and, had the opportunity to with a lot of, international colleagues. And, well, when I I didn't expect a lot, you know, when I submit my application, but think, like, 2, 3 weeks later, I got a call from my former dean, and he says, he just moved from, University of Virginia, actually, to Macau. And he's really looking for people who have received a very rigorous American style academic training to work with him. So, you know, we had a nice conversation. Yisu Zhou [00:06:48]: And he invited me over for a job talk. And, well, the rest is history. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:06:53]: And you have since become quite an accomplished publisher share amongst many other things. I would encourage all of you to go look up Zhou Isu on, Google Scholar. You can see he's just got quite picture related to education in the Chinese region. But thinking about what you're studying now, what's your focus now in your work? Yisu Zhou [00:07:12]: So because I'm getting older and my also my role with inside institutions sort of transitioned toward more of the administrative side, I've been involving a lot of, program administration, my faculty administration, and, of course, some university side of business, which I think it give me a kinda unique Sort of an insider perspective in terms to understand how institution work. So my interest gradually shifts toward this institutional perspective about university, I think higher, education because my current working situation and the network I've been building because of my professional lives. So I think recent years, my interest gradually shift toward, understanding, higher education development in China, in Particular internationalization of higher education in China. I think that's one thing currently I'm doing some research at the moment. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:08:00]: The institution I'm working for currently is a great example of internationalization. Yisu Zhou [00:08:05]: Exactly. I really had a privilege and opportunity to visit DKU during the summer. And it's really impressed me and opened my mind. We have so much to learn from you guys, a top elite private institution and working in China And catering to a lot of Chinese student demand and, to really establish yourself as an em embracer of this movement of, internationalization of higher ed in China. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:08:29]: And the joint venture universities in China are varieties of years old. We have a neighbor, Shaqingqiao, Liverpool, which is much to older than us, but our closest most similar university, NYU Shanghai, is the same age as us, and that's a decade. So it's to a wide variety. There's also the University of Nottingham Ningbo down the road, which, again, also much older than us, Wenjoking, and then some that are younger than us like Tianjin Juilliard. So it's all over the map. Yisu Zhou [00:08:54]: Yeah. It is. It's it's all over the map. And I think from a policy perspective, China really sort of embraced In, multifaceted, you can say, strategies in terms of working with international partners. We have American University, European University, Right. Coming to China, setting up joint ventures. There are also several, Hong Kong institutions. They have different levels of cooperation in China. Yisu Zhou [00:09:16]: Right. They have joint ventures. They have sites like campus. But most of them actually have a research institution set up in China. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:09:22]: So let's go back and think about the transition of the movement to begin opening doors for internationalization of education in this part of the world. What can you tell us about that history? Yisu Zhou [00:09:34]: I think from our perspective, there is a demand and the, sort of, the need for a high Quality, higher education really came, dates back to early 2000 when, economically, China took off, Which cultivated a very strong local base of parents who have done business with, western, partners, Or they have traveled the world. They have seen places elsewhere, and because of free flow of information allows them to understand and to see how Western education sort of, opens up a different kind of possibility for their child. So I think this is so, you know, if if if you count that, it's been about 20 years up to this point. And I think we can divide it into, like, several stages because at first, it's most about sending your kids overseas. And that trend first started with the PhD programs because most parents just cannot afford, Right. A 4 year, college life for their kids in the United States. And the PhD and some master program, they do offer very generous, scholarships For those academically talented Chinese students, so you know? But the the numbers are usually not very large, right, because their Resources is all are always limited. And then starting, I think, a decade into the 1st decade of 21st century, really sees that Chinese parents, they, they become richer, and the opportunities really open up. Yisu Zhou [00:11:05]: Because if we count the kind of international program that is available to Chinese student, Australia and the UK are the 1st large market that sort of opens fully embrace, you know, to the, Chinese student, and they embrace them very Politically in the US because the selectivity and different tiers and such large and diverse system also is very attractive gradually to Chinese student. And because I I think one big attraction about the US higher education is this economy. It's so robust and it's so diverse, which means the student can always think about, right, what I can do after graduation. That, you know, if you go to some smaller places, 2, 3 years later, you need to find a job. Right? And that might not be enough those kind of high quality jobs around. So I think the the 2010 really sees kind of a a higher peak for Chinese student, undergraduate student going overseas. And, of course, this trend also spill over to other segments. So we also, you know, if you read the news, there are Private high schools, in US or even public schools, they cater to international student. Yisu Zhou [00:12:13]: Chinese student, of course, because of the large number, A Korean student, a Japanese student, a student from Middle East, you know, these places where they see a large economic booms and a student wants to have an different opportunities. So I think that sort of these trends sort of coalesced together, making the 2nd decade of 21st century really, really is about international students going into US and going into other western market sort of in large numbers. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:12:40]: So with that transition of of this trend of students going abroad, when they come back with those skills, How has that impacted always of life, always of being with that education and skill set coming back? Yisu Zhou [00:12:54]: I think from my own traction with students and my observations with private business owners or, just talking to graduates coming, you know, Having obtained a western education degree, I think this is really a process of different cultures kind of, mingling together And creating a kind of a hybrid person that they many Chinese students still have a very strong Chinese identity, you know, growing up And coming back to home, but their years, in America, in Australia, or in other places sort of open up their horizon in a sense that they understand, Things such as diversity, things such as, critical thinking. These things are not did not play such an important role in a domestic higher education. So, You know, when we compare them and with their friends who didn't choose to go to abroad. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:13:45]: And we have some incredible universities around this region as well places like Tsinghua, Peking, Pudong, etcetera. What do you see as the biggest difference between the different styles of teaching in the undergraduate frame. Yisu Zhou [00:13:58]: 1st, I I think the institutional setting is really different. Right? So the one thing with DKU and, and, for instance, NYU really struck me is the how small the class size are. The class size are really small, which means individual instructor can give a sort of a tailored Or individualized time to a student to catering to a wide range of needs. Right? Questions you can ask a question immediately. All Almost always. Right? And you can get instant feedback on these kind of things. But I think in China, kind of a broader if you wanna situate this question in border eastern Asian context, A kind of lecture style larger classroom is the standard format of teaching and learning. And in that kind of format, Students' own diligence and their own hardworking is kind of required by default. Yisu Zhou [00:14:46]: So no matter what kind of questions you Have you need to think about the solution your by yourself first. This is the, like, your first option. And then if you can solve it, maybe you can try to look for help from the instructor. Right. So the teacher's role really different because of such large classrooms and because I think mainly towards in century old kind of educational philosophy about how people should learn. But I think the, institutions such as DKU and, like I said, NYU, they offer us a different kind of possibility of how teachers can interact with student and how teacher a student can learn. And based on my Oh, understanding. Student really love that. Yisu Zhou [00:15:23]: And, that sort of enriched their experience and helped them to overcome a lot of, difficulties, I didn't go study. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:15:30]: You've also been an international student yourself, and I'm wondering if you have any advice for our student affairs professionals who are listening on how best to support tuning into US education or US study or even just living in a new country. Yisu Zhou [00:15:44]: I think study abroad is really a very important lesson of my life. I have a lot of struggles, but I think overall, it is a very positive experience. I think for, student affairs, colleagues working in the US, you need to understand that student from the east and China and other parts of the, Asia, they're coming from quite different cultural background, Which means the student are accustomed to the kind of expectations in their home country or home culture. Most of these places sort of a Student are expected to follow an authority to not to sort of challenge the authority and not to break or to question the the rules the rules of the classroom, the rules of the institution, or even interhuman kind of, rules. So they might seem like these student are a little bit passive. I think the student, taking myself as an animal, we're always actively thinking about the situation, trying to decode a situation. It's just that our experience situate us through a certain kind of conditions that we Convinced essentially our mind convinced us, oh, you shouldn't ask this question at this particular time. You should find another, point. Yisu Zhou [00:16:52]: But I think in the US, it's always the communication part is always real time. Right? You can always throw a question. You can always seek any clarification. You can always seek help. This is not something embarrassing. This is actually supported. And, many institutions actually have developed and have very capable professionals to try to help student to do that. But I think the first step is I mean, the the expectation is the student need to make the first move. Yisu Zhou [00:17:19]: Right. They need to go out to reach out to seek clarifications, but that first move sometimes can happen quite late. Not the first day of the orientation may be not even the 1st day of the class. Might you know, it happened 2 or 3 weeks after class sort of started After some, after the student is confident enough that they convince themselves they have interpreted the situation correctly, and then they they trying to go out to say, Hey. I can't I don't really understand this. Can you really help me? So I think a lot of hand holding and to opening up yourself to the international student is really something very important. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:17:53]: I really appreciate that advice because the perspective taking of what I might expect from an authority figure in my home country is truly very different in the US compared to a lot of cultures in this part of the world, which means that help seeking behavior here that we're always trying to draw out of our students. We might need to go an extra step or 3 in order to explain why that's appropriate and why that is culturally spected. Yisu Zhou [00:18:17]: My own experience tells me that in many cases, in the question and answer sessions, in orientation, in a big event When we sort of prepare a lot of materials, we tell the students, sometimes we don't receive sort of a warm kind of a response It which might happen actually in the US context. Right? The US student are most time, they are very active, and they won't hesitate to throw questions at you. But in this Part of the world, sometimes the student a little wants to sit back and they want to deliver their questions in different channels. So that's something I think for any student affairs officers or people who travel, to this part of the world to teach and to engage with student, I think they should realize That's kind of the cultural difference. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:19:00]: Are there any other thoughts you'd like to share on the transitions of higher education that you study in in China, in East Asia, or just any thoughts for our mostly western audience. Yisu Zhou [00:19:09]: I think the Chinese student and many, Asian student, they will be a big asset to the program. These are hard workers, and they sort of really cherish the kind of, academic excellence because they have been expected to perform at relatively high level since they're a kid. The kind of things I think they will learn, and definitely, I think that's that's something they should learn, is the communication skills, the kind of skills how to navigate themselves in a very complex system from the studies of a competitive education. This is one takeaway message that US education system is so different. A comprehensive high school system actually gave the student quite early on experience. I mean, It's not all positive, but it gives most student experience to navigate through a bunch of peers, which are heterogeneous. Right? And they have very diverse interest, And they formed little clicks, and then you need to find your best friend and find the resources and to find the teachers that you can work with. And most Asian students, they don't actually learn that until the university level because they have been segmented in a sort of uniformly set up format throughout a lower secondary an upper secondary school. Yisu Zhou [00:20:19]: So this is really a challenge for them. That is for them to develop the kind of skills to work in a diverse environment. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:20:27]: And that's not to say 1 is better or worse than the other, just the systems are entirely unique and different. Yisu Zhou [00:20:33]: Exactly. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:20:34]: And that means the students are coming with different skill sets. So you might have, you know, 1 student who's better at help seeking behavior, but the other who is just quite a lot better at absorbing information. And it just depends on the strength that we need in the moment. Yisu Zhou Definitely. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:20:46]: It's time to take a quick break and toss it over to producer Chris to learn what's going on in the NASPA world. Christopher Lewis [00:20:52]: Thanks, Jill. So excited to be back in the NASPA world. And as always, there's a ton of things happening in NASPA, and I always love being able to share with you Some of the great things that are happening. The 2024 Dungey Leadership Institute DOI faculty application is currently live. The Dungey Leadership Institute is a signature initiative of the NASPA undergraduate fellows program with the following learning outcomes for fellows gaining Foundational knowledge of the history and functions of student affairs in higher education, gain knowledge of contemporary issues in higher education, Participate in intergroup dialogue around issues of equity and social justice, collaborate with peers to research and present ethical resolutions to current administrative and leadership issues in student affairs. Reflect on and articulate the influence of personal identities and histories on effective student affairs leadership and engage in professional networking with student affairs faculty and administrators. DLI directors, selected faculty members, and NASPA staff plan this 6 day leadership institute to develop leadership skills, enhance cultural competency, and prepare fellows for a career in student affairs. Specifically, faculty will colead a cluster of 8 to 10 students through the DLI experience And provide support to all students attending the institute. Christopher Lewis [00:22:16]: Travel, meals, and housing are provided by NASPA and our host institutions. Faculty within this program are all current NASPA members. Applicants need to have at least 5 full time years of professional experience post your masters at the time of application. NEUF alumni are also eligible to apply with at least 2 years of professional experience post masters. If you apply for this, you must be available June 20th through 26, 2024 for the actual institute. You can apply through Friday, November 13th, and go to the NASPA website to be able to submit your demographic information, your resume or CV application questions and reference information for consideration. NASBA is currently looking for committee members For the mid level administrators steering committee. In 2022, NASPA established the mid level administrators A steering committee to partner with NASPA staff to shape the ongoing development of NASPA's mid level initiatives. Christopher Lewis [00:23:17]: The steering committee works To ensure that mid level relevant programs are offered during regional and national events, NASPA's mid level administrator steering committee Strives to encourage excellence in the mid level positions through professional development, knowledge creation and sharing, networking opportunities, and recognition aimed at the roles of mid level administrators. The steering committee is comprised of 24 mid level administrators who serve at A wide variety of institutional types throughout NASPA's 7 regions. Steering committee members will serve staggered to your terms. If this sounds like something that you're interested in, I highly encourage you to go to the NASPA website to learn more about this. Typically, the time commitment is about 2 to 3 hours per month. I highly encourage you to consider this. Think about it as an opportunity to be able to give back to the association And help to steer NASPA toward providing quality professional development opportunities for mid level professionals. Every week, we're going to be sharing some amazing things that are happening within the association. Christopher Lewis [00:24:23]: So we are going to be able to try and keep you up to date on everything that's happening and allow for you to be able to get involved in different ways because the association is as strong as its members. And for all of us, we have to find our place within the association, whether it be getting involved with the knowledge community, giving back within One of the the centers or the divisions of the association. And as you're doing that, it's important to be able to identify for yourself Where do you fit? Where do you wanna give back? Each week, we're hoping that we will share some things that might encourage you, might allow for you to be able to get some ideas that will provide you with an opportunity to be able to say, hey. I see myself In that knowledge community, I see myself doing something like that or encourage you in other ways that allow for you to be able to Think beyond what's available right now to offer other things to the association, to bring your gifts, your talents to the association and to all of the members within the association. Because through doing that, All of us are stronger, and the association is better. Tune in again next week as we find out more about what is happening in NASPA. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:25:44]: Another wonderful NASPA world segment from you, producer Chris. Thank you again and again for giving us the updates on what's going on in and around NASPA. Alright. Isu, we have come to our lightning round. I have 7 questions for you to answer in about 90 seconds. You ready? Yisu Zhou [00:26:01]: Wow. I'm ready. Yes. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:26:03]: Alright. Question number 1. If you were a conference keynote speaker, what would your entrance music be? Yisu Zhou [00:26:09]: It's gotta be Oasis. I've been a fan since 1994. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:26:13]: Number 2. When you were 5 years old, what did you want to be when you grew up? Yisu Zhou [00:26:17]: A scientist. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:26:18]: Number 3, who's your most influential professional mentor? Yisu Zhou [00:26:21]: I gotta be my PhD supervisor, Amita Sugar. Professor Sugar, if you're listening, you really made my world. You've taught me about professionalism with and care to the student, a true role model. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:26:33]: Number 4, your essential student affairs read. Yisu Zhou [00:26:36]: I think any educator will benefit and read from John Dewey. I've been rereading Dewey a lot for our research project. And for nonfiction, actually, this summer, I've been reading a lot of La La Gwynne. She's my favorite American author, and her fantasy series, Earthsea, really gives this kind of a feminist kind of a perspective about how to approach different people. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:26:55]: Number 5, the best TV show you binged during the pandemic. Yisu Zhou [00:26:59]: The slow horses on Apple TV starring Gary Old man. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:27:03]: Number 6, the podcast you've spent the most hours listening to in the last year. Yisu Zhou [00:27:07]: Okay. There are 2. So there is a Chinese podcast. It's called left You're right. It's a very good conversational kind of intellectual podcast. The English podcast I spend most of time I think it's from NPR. I'm a big fan of their all sounds considerate Podcast. I've been I've been following them for over a decade. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:27:23]: And finally, number 7, any shout outs you'd like to give personal or professional? Yisu Zhou [00:27:27]: I wanna give a shout out to my student, my master and PhD student. No matter if if you are crunching numbers in your little cube or doing field interviews or working on Guys, I hope really hope that you've been enjoying the studies in these universities or anywhere in the world. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:27:43]: It's been a wonderful and donating conversation today. I know I learned a lot from you. I'm sure that others have as well. If anyone would like to contact you after the show, how can they find you? Yisu Zhou [00:27:52]: I think the easiest way is to To search my name, Yisu Zhou on Twitter. I have a Twitter handle. You can also send me an email by, email@example.com. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:28:00]: Thank you so much, Isoo, for sharing your voice with us today. Yisu Zhou [00:28:03]: Really happy to be here. Thank you for hosting me. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:28:07]: This has been an episode of SA voices from the field brought to you by NASPA. This show is always made possible because of you, our listeners. We are so grateful that you continue to listen to us season after season. If you'd Like to reach the show, you can always email us at essay voices at NASPA.org or find me on LinkedIn by searching for doctor Jill L. Creighton. We welcome your feedback and topic and especially your guest suggestions. We'd love it if you take a moment to tell a colleague about the show, and please like, rate, and review us on Apple podcast, Spotify, or wherever you're listening now. It really does help other student affairs professionals find the show and helps us become more visible in the larger podcasting community. Dr. Jill Creighton [00:28:47]: This episode was produced and hosted by doctor Jill L. Creighton. That's me. Produced and audio engineered by doctor Chris Lewis. Assistance by Lu Yongru. Special thanks to the University of Michigan Flint for your support as we create this project. Catch you next time.
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Last time we spoke about the conquest of southern Manchuria. The Russians had consolidated their hold over northern Manchuria and now had the necessary amount of forces to quell the chaos in the south. The two last major strongholds held by the Qing and their Boxer allies were Liaoyang and Mukden. The Russians consolidated their forces while the Qing spread themselves out far too thinly. Each engagement saw Russian victories, despite the fact the Qing had the necessary numbers and weaponry necessary to serve decisive defeats to the Russians, if only they consolidated and coordinated properly their forces. Liaoyang fell easily, and with its fall the Qing commanders began to loot and abandon their infantry. Leaderless the infantry gradually scattered into the countryside leaving Mukden pretty much open for the taking. Manchuria was in chaos, and within that chaos the same type of people always emerged to take advantage, bandits. But who were these people really? #72 The Red Bearded Honghuzi Welcome to the Fall and Rise of China Podcast, I am your dutiful host Craig Watson. But, before we start I want to also remind you this podcast is only made possible through the efforts of Kings and Generals over at Youtube. Perhaps you want to learn more about the history of Asia? Kings and Generals have an assortment of episodes on history of asia and much more so go give them a look over on Youtube. So please subscribe to Kings and Generals over at Youtube and to continue helping us produce this content please check out www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. If you are still hungry for some more history related content, over on my channel, the Pacific War Channel where I cover the history of China and Japan from the 19th century until the end of the Pacific War. Manchuria has been called by many names. An English study in 1932 by Hubert Hessell Tiltman referred to Manchuria as “the cockpit of Asia, where drama never dies”. It has also been called by Yu Juemin in 1929 “the balkans in east asia”, which I think fits it nicely. So you heard me in length talk about Shandong and Manchuria. You heard my entire series on the Boxer Rebellion. Often you hear me refer to the “bandits”, in Shandong we saw the precursors to the Boxers rise up primarily to combat bandits. China proper and Manchuria had bandits since ancient times. But who exactly were the bandits? I would like to take us back to Manchuria to talk about a specific group or phenomenon of banditry. The major reason I am taking the time to do an episode on this, because to be honest we are about to jump into the Russo-Japanese War, is because the banditry problem and specific bandits will have an incredible amount of influence on China, Russia and Japan for the first half of the 20th century. For those of you who have not seen my personal channel, the pacific war channel you might already know where this is going. I created an extremely long series and reformed it into a single documentary on China's warlord era. Its a fascinating part of the history of modern China and one I will tackle in this podcast series, god knows how long it will be. Some of the warlords started out as bandits, two in particular were extremely influential, I am of course talking about Zhang Zuolin and the Dogmeat General Zhang Zongchang. By the way if you want to hear more about the king of memes, Zhang Zongchang, check out my episode on him on my youtube channel, its a must see I guarantee it, funny as hell and…well pretty dark too. The word Honghuzi translates as “red bearded”. They were armed Chinese bandits who operated in northeast China, particular in the areas of the eastern Russia-China borderlands during the second half of the 19th century and first half of the 20th. The term Honghuzi is believed to originate back in the 1600s referring to Russians by Chinese who had red beards. These would be the indigenous peoples around the Amur region. Chinese bandits later would use fake red beards as a disguise. Honghuzi gangs grabbed new members from those seeking easy money. It could be peasants, those down on their luck, Qing army deserters, recent immigrants. Just about anyone who preferred robbing over working lumber mills or in mines as you can imagine. A Vladivostok newspaper wrote an article in 1896 referring to the phenomenon “Here he is, dirty, in rags, half-starved, laboring every day, in the rain, in clay sticky soil ... what joys in life does he have? ... No wonder he prefers joining the Honghuzi and a life full of adventures.” A honghuzi gang could be just two guys, or it could be several hundred strong. You can imagine large groups in the hundreds could perform large scale operations, bigger the gang, bigger the payoff. When Honghuzi groups came together to perform large scale operations it could threaten entire cities. Now I bet most of you have an image in your mind, a skinny, unwashed hooligan, probably wearing worn down rags, and obviously this could fit the description of many Honghuzi, but on average not really. Many of them were well dressed and extremely well armed. They typically performed crimes in spring and summer when it was easier to hide in the forest filled countryside or in the mountains. When I was speaking about Shandong I often mentioned these type of criminal seasons, highway robbery literally was seasonal work. In the autumn and winter times the Honghuzi typically hit the major cities and spent their booty on the usual stuff, alcohol, women and drugs, in this case opium. Many also held employment, like I said it was seasonal work, most were farmers. Manchuria was ideal for this type of criminal activity. The Qing government based in Beijing had little control over their sparsely populated homeland and the local officials in Manchuria did not have sufficient resources to quell the Honghuzi. The Honghuzi also did not stop at local activity, they often crossed over to plunder Russian territory, such as the Ussuri Krai. The Honghuzi had quite an easy time hitting the borderlands as the Russians and Qin could not focus much resources to protect them. As you can imagine such border issues resulted in larger scale conflicts. When Honghuzi raided Russian territory they often stole anything you can imagine like cattle, were smuggling opium and even illegally performed gold mining. Illegal gold mining led to a clash between the Hongzhui and Russian forces. In 1867 when gold was discovered on the small island of Askold, some 50 kms away from Vladivostok, Manchurian began to come over to try their luck at gold mining, as did the Honghuzi. A Russian schooner, the Aleut on several occasion scattered illegal gold miners, but they just kept returning. 3 Russian sailors were killed in an armed clash and the Honghuzi's chopped up their bodies in full view of the remaining Russian crew who fled in horror. The Russian government attempted to thwart the illegal gold mining and this led to what was called the Manzi War, Manzi is another name for Manchu. In 1868 Manchu and Honghuzi coordinated attacks upon Russian military posts and plundered and burned several towns, massacring settlers. In retaliation, Russian troops burnt down Manchu settlement known to shelter Honghuzi. By mid July the Honghuzi were gradually tossed back across the border into Manchuria. The Russians were not done, their forces pursued the Honghuzi as they fled back to Manchuria. Reportedly a Cossack sotnia penetrated Manchuria some several hundreds km's pursuing Honghuzi. In 1879 Russian forces crossed the border and burned down a well known fortified Honghuzi fortress near Lake Khanka. Major Nozhin leading a detachment during this time ran into Qing troops and a small battle occurred. It was an embarrassing episode for the Russians who apologized for the incident. The Qing court was not pleased with the border crossings, but knew the nature of the Honghuzi menace and actually asked the Russians to continue pursuing the Honghuzi within their borders. Now I would like to talk about the stories of some famous Honghuzi. In 1875, Zhang Zuolin was born the third son of an impoverished family in Haicheng of Fengtian, modern day Liaoning province. His family had been rooted in Manchuria for a long time, but his father was unable to sustain the family after dividing the estate with Zhang's uncle. Zhang only received two years of traditional education before leaving school following his fathers death. Nicknamed the “pimple”, Zhang was a thin and short boy. Zhang spent his early youth, fishing, gambling and brawling. When he first tried to make some money he worked as a waiter at an Inn where he came across tales of the Honghuzi. The only useful education he ever received was a bit of veterinary science, he underwent a brief period of veterinarian training, but ultimately he abandoned the career to pursue something else. When the First Sino-Japanese War broke out, Zhang joined the Yi Army commanded by General Song Qing in 1894 to fight against the invading Japanese in Manchuria. However when the war ended and the Yi Army re-deployed, Zhang at the age of 21 departed them to take a job under his father in law to protect his village as the head of an armed band. There is a legend, most likely perpetuated by Zhang himself, that during a hunting trip he spotted a wounded Honghuzi on horseback and killed the man before stealing his horse to become a Honghuzi himself. Zhang led the group of bandits and earned this sort of Robinhood like mythos. Because he was illiterate he often referred to his experience as a bandit leader as “experience of the Green Forest” something his contemporary Zhang Zongchang would enthusiastically also state. During the anarchic period between the first sino-japanese war and Russo-Japanese war, Honghuzi were both bandits plundering but also militiamen protecting towns. It was a complex situation and one that Zhang would become an expert in. Soon after Zhang had established his bandit group, it was dispersed by a larger group sponsored by the Russians. Zhang and the survivors joined another honghuzi group, run by Zhang Jinghui. Zhang would gradually become its leader, and Zhang Jinghui would later become a Lt under Zhang during the warlord era. When the Boxer rebellion broke out, Zhang's gang joined the Qing army in their doomed resistance against the foreigners. Unlike the Boxers who ceased fighting when the war was over, the bandits kept on banditing. As Zhang's bandit group grew in size, he sought amnesty from the Qing government and became a militia commander in 1902. This would prove to be the first of a series of choices he made that would propel him to nearly become the leader of China. He was soon joined by Tang Yulin and Zhang Zuoxiang who would in their own right become Fengtian leaders. It seems Zhang's willingness to form alliances was the key to his success. Now I don't want to go too deep into it, but Zhang's militia was ordered by the Qing government to fight against Russian sponsored Honghuzi during the Russo-Japanese war. His bandit force worked to escort traveling merchants within Manchuria during the war. Fighting as mercenaries, Zhangs group become recognized as a regular regiment within the Qing military and they began patrolling the borderlands of Manchuria, suppressing other bandit groups. An American Major - surgeon named Louis Livingston Seaman was working or the 1st regiment US volunteer engineers during the russo japanese war. His regiment was working with the 2nd IJA army in Manchuria and he personally met Zhang Zuolin who he described in some length to the Nation magazine. "He had some amusing and exciting experiences with the Hung-hutzes (Chun-chuzes), ex-bandits, now nominally Chinese soldiery, many of whom were operating as guerrillas on the Russian flank and communications under Japanese officers, as is charged. The Japanese had in their employ Zhang Zuolin a famous Honghuzi leader who led his men against the Russians”. Dr Seaman wrote a lengthy report of his story with the Honghuzi and Zhang Zuolin and I think it gives some flavor and a feeling of what the banditry types were like at their highest point. Dr. Seaman stated a Russian position had been swarmed by over 500 Honghuzi, the Russians took over 20 casualties before the Honghuzi hoard were finally driven off. The Qing troops seemed to let the Honghuzi roam around freely, most likely because "They can not be caught, the plain truth being that the best of fellowship exists between them and the imperial troops, their old comrades of yore." Seaman noticed the Honghuzi had a special hatred reserved for the Russians. There was much talk of past grievances, particularly that of the Blagovestchensk massacre when it was said 8000 unarmed men, women and children were driven at the point of a bayonet into the raging Amur river. Seaman met one Chin-wang-Tao who said a Russian officers who participated in the brutal massacre told him in 1900 ‘'the execution of my orders made me almost sick, for it seemed as though I could have walked across the river on the bodies of the floating dead.” Only 40 or so Chinese escaped the horror, many of them were employed by a leading foreign merchant who ransomed their lives at a thousand rubles a piece. Such atrocities were well remembered by the local Chinese who sought revenge. When Japan began to look for those sympathetic to their cause, willing to pay for it none the less, it was not hard to find enthusiastic Chinese. It was believed 10,000 or more Honghuzi divided into companies of around 200-300 each led by Japanese officers no less were in force during the conflict. Zhang Zuolin commanded a large army of Honghuzi allied to the Japanese and Dr. Seaman met him and his army while venturing near Newchwang. There had been reports of raids by Honghuzi, also called the “red beards” though none of them had red beards, nor any kind of beard. Dr. Seaman's companion, Captain Boyd became determined to meet them. The two men hoped to see for themselves the characteristics of these so called 10,000 strong guerrilla fighters that fight on the western border area of Manchuria. They were said to be hitting the rear and right flank of the Russian army, compelling it to quadruple its Cossack guards in the region to protect supply trains and refugees trying to flee from Port Arthur to Mukden. Both men had Chinese passports and received official credentials from Minister Conger to meet with General Ma who had assembled his forces on the borderland. General Ma was the commander in chief of the Qing forces in the region and also the de facto commander of 10,000 Honghuzi now wearing Qing uniforms. Many of the Honghuzi were great horsemen, having Manchu backgrounds they lived a mounted life and for centuries had defied the Qing authorities, roaming at will, levying tribute and performing numerous crimes. The leader of these marauders was Zhang Zuolin, who now held the rank of Colonel in the Qing army. Within two years Zhangs band had obtained mastery over the entire border region of Manchuria going some hundred miles. The Qing government ceased opposing them and simply made terms to adopt them into the army. Now they stood as troops in good standing, with highway robbery semi officially recognized as one of their perquisites. The adoption of Honghuzi into the army had not changed their habits of murder and robbing. When they were not plundering Russian refugees en route to Siberia or Russian supply trains they often took their plundering gaze on Chinese towns. Practically every peasant in the region at some time became a Honghuzi. It seemed to be at the time the crops were nearly full grown, when the broom corn was 12 to 15 feet high when peasants were most likely to turn to the life of outlaw. The staple crop of kaoliang affords the perfect cover for troops or honghuzi. The 8 nation alliance troops realized this the hard way when they marched from Taku to Beijing. With the tall kaoliang to hide their movements the peasants abandoned their legitimate work and took up weapons either alone or in groups to plunder the highways or rob smaller villages near where they lived. Sometimes people banded together to fight off the honghuzi. The Americans said it was a very similar situation in the philippines during their little war. The filipinos would call them amigos, then don on the clothes of the banditry class and try to rob them. Newchwang was visited by large organized robbers, many from Kaopangtzi. Dr.Seaman had the chance to take a photograph of Li Hongzhang and himself taken in the palace of the old Viceroy in Beijing, shortly before his death, it was the last picture of the old statesman, whom he knew very well by that point, he had made several visits to him in Beijing. Dr. Seaman stopped at Chinese Inn, and came across a merchant from Hsinmintung who was suffering from an affliction which he was able to relieve in some measure. The merchant heard we were traveling north and sought to meet the Honghuzi, he advised us to go at once to Hsinmingtung, where Zhang Zuolin was commanding forces. He even gave them a letter of introduction, the man turned out to be one of Zhang's merchants. The letter proved very useful as when they traveled further, people in towns gave them better accommodations, they were greeted like friends. Hsinmingtung was the terminus of the railroad that connected Kaopangtzi with the main line from Tientsin. They were in the process of building the main line further to junction at Mukden. They arrived to Hsinmingtung and received special rooms from the merchants friends. There were Cossacks patrol north and east and Japanese southeast. Qing soldiers under General Ma were patrolling west and northwest and the Honghuzi were all around. The two men bought fireworks and had a small party with the locals establishing a standing within their community. The men then called upon the Chi Fu, prefect of the place whose name was Tsung Zao Ku and he received them cordially. Then they were finally presented to the great ex-bandit of all Manchuria, the leader of the Honghuzi, Zhang Zuolin who at that point was a colonel in the Qing army. Zhang Zuolin was a handsome fellow, graceful and mild mannered. He made them feel at home in his luxurious yamen, and brewed them excellent tea in fine porcelain cups. Then he offered them a good bottle of wine, an old Madeira. The men took photos of Zhang Zuolin and his forces. Zhang told them they were now his guests and he had to attend to matters, they were at liberty to travel through the country at will, but to make sure they never traveled unattended or unarmed. In the meantime the men spoke with a guest of the Chi Fu named Chang Lin Lung from Mukden. He spoke about Zhang, saying years ago he ruled all the territory around with an iron fist, as a bandit, doing as he pleased west of the Liao river. When China absorbed him and his men into its army, he obtained an allowance to pay his men well, the government supplied them also. The two men learned what they had suspected, these honghuzi were now really officered by the Japanese. There were around 300 with Zhang Zuolin as his personal guard. There were 8 Japanese officers directing the operations of another band the two men visited. It was said Zhang paid handsomely for all of this. Some of the Japanese officers were disguised as Chinese and doing covert work. Their guerilla operations were embarrassing Kuropatkin's army, robbing their supply trains forcing the Russians to double guards on lines of communication and adding more units to the right flank and rear. Two days before the two men arrived, a party of Russians were attacked by 200 Honghuzi, 7 miles from Hsinmintung. 5 were killed, 4 decapitated, their heads placed on pike poles. The same group of bandits whipped out a Cossack escort that was moving 1000 cattle and ponies to the Russian troops, the entire herd was stolen. Over 1000 Cossacks began revenge raids in the region in retaliation. At the offset of meeting Zhang, he showed an unusual amount of attention. Trumpets summoned his entire guards of 300 men, there was a great commotion and soon the whole outfit of his forces began lining up for inspection and kodak designs. Zhang gave 20 special guards for the two mens disposal and the next morning they went on an expedition of sightseeing. The plan was to visit neighboring bands, but when they reached 5 miles northeast, several Cossack scouts forced them away. They spent the night in Kowpangtze with 5 Japanese officers supported by a large number of Honghuzi. They took a railway train in the end to part ways. This was a glimpse at the future warlord of Manchuria as he ascended being a small-time bandit, to being the leader of the strongest bandit group in Manchuria and eventually found himself a role in the Qing military. Another infamous warlord who started out as a Bandit was Zhang Zongchang. Certainly the most notorious of China's warlord, Zhang Zongchang was in all essence a monster. Google or Youtube search his name and you will see meme videos everywhere, though might I add, I made a video talking about the funny parts of his life, but also the cold hard horror show that it also was, check out Zhang Zongchang the monster behind the meme. Zhang Zongchang was born in 1881 in Yi county, present day Laizhou in Shandong. He grew up in an impoverished village. His father worked as a head shaver and trumpeter, a rampant alcoholic. His mother was basically what you would call a practicing witch, she performed exorcisms. The family moved to Manchuria when Zhang was in his teens and the parents separated. Zhang stayed with his mother who took on a new lover. Zhang quickly took to a life of crime in and around Harbin. He took up work as a pickpocket, a prospector, worked as a bouncer and found himself working as a laborer in Siberia. He picked up a lot of Russian, which would pay off big time down the road. He described himself as a graduate of “the school of forestry”. He became a hell of a big guy at 6 foot 6 and would be the tallest of the warlords, that was not all that was tall, if you know the meme you know the meme. When the Russo-Japanese war broke out, while Zhang Zuolin helped the Japanese, Zhang Zongchang helped the Russians. He served as a auxiliary for the Imperial Russian Army, it was basically the same situation of Zuolin, he was a honghuzi gang leader. However his real fame came after the war. During the war he showed himself a very capable warrior and leader. He was known for “splitting melons” ie: bashing the skulls of his enemies with rifle butts. Zhang made a ton of friends amongst the Russian military, he got along very well with them. He acquired an enormous taste for fine things, particularly cigars, champagne and whiskey. Google him and you will probably see a cigar in his mouth. Now unlike Zuolin, Zongchang really only starts to do famous deeds after the Russo-Japanese War, I don't want to go to far into the future, but I will give you a taste. For one thing why was he notoriously known as the “dogmeat general” you might ask? The nickname “Dogmeat General”, was said to be based on his fascination with the domino game Pai Jiu. Others say his favorite brand of tonic was known as dogmeat. And of course there was the rumor he ate a meal of black chow chow dog every day, as it was popularly believed at the time that this boosted a man's vitality. Nicknames like “the lanky general or general with three long legs” were certainly something he publicized heavily. There was indeed the rumor old 86 referred to the length of his penis being 86 mexican silver dollars, there was also a nickname “72-cannon Zhang” referring to that length. I mean the man was 6 foot 6, people described him quote “with the physique of an elephant, the brain of a pig and the temperament of a tiger”. Alongside his penis propaganda, he was a legendary womanizer. Take his other nickname for example “the general of three don't-knows”: he did not know how many women, how many troops, or how much money he had. I think that nickname fits him better than the nickname he gave himself “the Great General of Justice and Might”. He had a ton of concubines. The exact number of concubines he had has variously been reported between 30-50, but historians have a hard time trying to fix the numbers as Zhang himself allegedly did not know. Allegedly his concubines were from 26 different nationalities, each with her own washbowl marked with the flag of her nation. He was also said to give his concubines numbers since he could not remember their names nor speak their various languages. Many of these women he married, he was a polygamist after all. There was known to be Chinese, Japanese, Russian, Korean, Mongolians and at least one American amongst Zhang's women. Zhang was semi-literate, whenever people asked where he was educated he would say “the college of the green forest” a euphemism for banditry. Despite being semi-literate Zhang Zongchang is famously known for his poetry, most notably his Poem on Bastards: You tell me to do this, He tells me to do that. You're all bastards, Go fuck your mother. It should be noted a lot of the poetry attributed to Zhang Zongchang may have been fabricated by a political opponent named Han Fuju who took over Shandong Province after him. Now that's enough about the two Zhang's, trust me we are going to dig much deeper into these guys later on in the series, because I love the warlord era, its absolute insanity and very unknown to the west. So the Honghuzi who are often called just bandits, had a lot of influence in Manchuria, they are just another piece of the larger puzzle as they say. Now the enormous amount of bandits in Manchuria alongside the Boxer movement is what drove Russia to invade Manchuria. The Russians sent over 177,000 troops in Manchuria, under the guise it was merely to protect their railway construction efforts. This raised a lot of eyebrows as they say. By 1902 order had been restored in Beijing, the armed forces were thinning out. Britain and Japan were wary of Russia's increasing influence in the far east. Britain and Japan entered into an alliance on January 30th of 1902. The terms dictated if either nation was to go to war to protect its regional interests against a third power, the unaffected party would not only remain neutral but would try to prevent the conflict from widening. If an additional power, like France or Germany joined the war, either Japan or Britain would help the other. The alliance worked to Japan's favor allowing her to consolidate her recent acquisition of Korea and bolster her interest in Manchuria. Russia countered this by declaring a similar alliance on March 16th of 1902 with France. Now everyone expected Russia to withdraw her enormous troops from Manchuria, and on April 8th of 1902, during the Manchurian Convention, Russia confirmed her ultimate aim to evacuate Manchuria on the condition the railway and Russian citizens were protected by the Chinese. It was agreed the Russian withdrawal would be done in three phases. Over three periods, each 6 months. After the first 6 months, the first assigned territory, southwest of Mukden was evacuated and returned to China. The anticipated second phase of the withdrawal from the remainder of the province of Mukden and Kirin did not occur however. When the Qing ambassador in St Petersburg enquired what the delay was, he was waved off. Then 20 days after the withdrawal had begun, Beijing was presented with demands for concessions in Manchuria. None of the returned territory was in any way to be given to another power. Mongolia's system of government was not to be altered. No new ports or towns were to be developed or opened in Manchuria without informing Russia. Foreigners serving in the Chinese government were not to exercise authority in northern Manchuria. The telegraph line connecting the Liaotung Peninsula with Peking was to be assured. On Newchwang being returned to China, the Customs' dues were to continue to be paid into the Russo-Chinese Bank. The rights acquired by Russian interests or Russian people were to be continue On April 29th encouraged by the protests and support of Britain, the US and Japan, China rejected the 7 demands. Japan was greatly threatened by all of this and little by little, the same situation we saw unfold prior to the first sino-japanese war, was occurring all over again in Manchuria. I would like to take this time to remind you all that this podcast is only made possible through the efforts of Kings and Generals over at Youtube. Please go subscribe to Kings and Generals over at Youtube and to continue helping us produce this content please check out www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. If you are still hungry after that, give my personal channel a look over at The Pacific War Channel at Youtube, it would mean a lot to me. The Honghuzi were a unique type of banditry that had an enormous role in the history of Manchuria. Those like Zhang Zuolin and Zhang Zongchang would join their ranks and earn great fame. With so many bandits in Manchuria however, conflict would soon arise.
Anthony Albanese is on his first official visit to Beijing. The Prime Minister has spoken with China's Premier Xi Jinping about human rights, the escalation of threats against Taiwan and trade bans on Australian exports. Xi praised the Prime Minister for his efforts to stabilise and improve relations with China. Albanese described the meeting as cordial and very successful. Has a new era dawned in Australian-Chinese relations? - Anthony Albanese ist zum ersten Mal zu einem offiziellen Besuch in Peking. Der Premierminister hat mit Chinas Premier Xi Jinping über Menschenrechte, die Eskalation der Drohungen gegen Taiwan und Handelsverbote für australische Exporte gesprochen. Xi lobte den Premierminister für seine Bemühungen um eine Stabilisierung und Verbesserung der Beziehungen zu China. Albanese bezeichnete das Treffen als herzlich und sehr erfolgreich. Ist eine neue Ära in den australisch-chinesischen Beziehungen angebrochen?
Bei einem Treffen mit der Nummer zwei der iranischen Regierung in der vergangenen Woche bekräftigte Chinas Premierminister die Unterstützung Pekings für das Land im Nahen Osten. Was für eine geopolitische Bedeutung hat dieses Gespräch? Epoch Times spricht mit Experten. Web: https://www.epochtimes.de Probeabo der Epoch Times Wochenzeitung: https://bit.ly/EpochProbeabo Twitter: https://twitter.com/EpochTimesDE YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC81ACRSbWNgmnVSK6M1p_Ug Telegram: https://t.me/epochtimesde Gettr: https://gettr.com/user/epochtimesde Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/EpochTimesWelt/ Unseren Podcast finden Sie unter anderem auch hier: iTunes: https://podcasts.apple.com/at/podcast/etdpodcast/id1496589910 Spotify: https://open.spotify.com/show/277zmVduHgYooQyFIxPH97 Unterstützen Sie unabhängigen Journalismus: Per Paypal: http://bit.ly/SpendenEpochTimesDeutsch Per Banküberweisung (Epoch Times Europe GmbH, IBAN: DE 2110 0700 2405 2550 5400, BIC/SWIFT: DEUTDEDBBER, Verwendungszweck: Spenden) Vielen Dank! (c) 2023 Epoch Times
Das Reich der Mitte ist Deutschland in Sachen Elektromobilität weit voraus, bei der Digitalisierung der Verwaltung sowieso. Gleichzeitig dreht Peking politisch die Freiheitsrechte immer weiter zurück und das Land droht daher in die Falle der Middle-Income Trap zu tappen. Die beiden Wirtschaftsjournalisten Dietmar Deffner und Holger Zschäpitz debattieren darüber, ob der Westen von China lernen kann oder aber die einzige Lehre darin besteht, sich stärker vom Rivalen zu entkoppeln. Weitere Themen: - Roter Oktober – Fällt nach dem dritten Minus-Monat in Folge die Jahresendrallye an den Börsen aus? - MSCI Welt, MSCI ACWI oder Gerd Kommer Welt ETF? – Warum das richtige Basisinvestment vor allem vom Blick auf die Wall Street abhängt - Sonnige Zahlen bei Jinko – Ist der Boden bei den Solar-Aktien erreicht? - Mangelnde Digitalisierung der Verwaltung – Woran es an der Migrationspolitik vor allem mangelt - Horrende Verluste mit Staatsanleihen – Welches Rettungsprogramm die Fed den Privatbanken liefert Impressum: https://www.welt.de/services/article7893735/Impressum.html Datenschutzerklärung: https://www.welt.de/services/article157550705/Datenschutzerklaerung-WELT-DIGITAL.html
As a collector of mokuhanga, I am constantly exploring the reasons behind my love of collecting mokuhanga and why I make it and educate myself about it; it seems to be layered, even for my modest collection. So it is always fascinating to speak to someone who has been collecting for many years, with a deep understanding of why they collect and how they do. I speak with mokuhanga collector Darrel C. Karl about his collection of prints, paintings and scrolls. It's one to admire. Collecting for years now, Darrel was kind enough to speak to me about his collection, how he began it, his love of preparatory drawings, collecting ukiyo-e, shin hanga, and we discussed in length his blogs, Eastern Impressions and Modern Japanese Theatre Art Prints. Please follow The Unfinished Print and my own mokuhanga work on Instagram @andrezadoroznyprints or email me at firstname.lastname@example.org Notes: may contain a hyperlink. Simply click on the highlighted word or phrase. Artists works follow after the note. Pieces are mokuhanga unless otherwise noted. Dimensions are given if known. Darrel C. Karl - Eastern Impressions & Modern Japanese Theatre Art Prints. Hashiguchi Goyō (1880-1921) - a woodblock print designer who also worked, albeit shortly, with Watanabe Shōzaburō. In his short life Goyō designed some of the most iconic woodblock prints ever made. “Kamisuki” 1920, and “Woman Applying Powder” 1918. Woman Applying Make-up (Hand Mirror) 1970's/80's reprint Ishikawa Toraji (1875-1964) -trained initially as a painter, having travelled to Europe and The States early in his professional life. Painted primarily landscapes while exhibiting at the fine art exhibitions in Japan Bunten and Teiten. Famous for designing Ten Types of Female Nudes from 1934-35. He finished his career as a painter and educator. Morning from Ten Types of Female Nudes (1934) Charles W. Bartlett (1860-1940) - was a British painter, watercolorist and printmaker. Travelling the world in 1913, Bartlett ended up in Japan two years later. Having entered Japan, Bartlett already had a reputation as an artist. Bartlett's wife, Kate, had struck up a friendship with printmaker and watercolorist Elizabeth Keith. Watanabe Shōzaburō was acutely aware of foreign artists coming to Japan, having worked with Fritz Capelari and Helen Hyde. Watanabe published 38 designs with Charles Bartlett. Bartlett's themes were predominantly of his travels. Udaipur (1916) 8" x 11" Paul Binnie - is a Scottish painter and mokuhanga printmaker based in San Diego, USA. Having lived and worked in Japan in the 1990s, studying with printmaker Seki Kenji whilst there, Paul has successfully continued to make mokuhanga and his paintings to this day. You can find Paul's work at Scholten Gallery in Manhattan, and Saru Gallery in The Netherlands. Butterly Bow (2005) 15" x 11" Yamakawa Shuhō (1898-1944) - was a Nihon-ga painter and printmaker. His prints were published by Watanabe Shōzaburō and he created the Blue Collar Society in 1939 with Itō Shinsui. Made famous for his bijin-ga prints. Dusk (1928) 14.3" x 9.5" Red Collar (1928) Otojirō Kawakami (1864-1911) - was a Japanese actor and comedian. His wife was geisha, and actress Sadayako (Sada Yakko). Impressions - is a biannual magazine published by The Japanese Art Society of America. Andon - is a biannual magazine published by The Society of Japanese Art. Gallaudet University - is a private federally charted university located in Washington D.C., USA for the deaf and hard of hearing. More info can be found here. National Museum of Asian Art - is a museum within the Smithsonian group museums and was the first fine art museum by The Smithsonian in 1923. More info can be found, here. Vincent Hack (1913-2001) - was an American printmaker and Colonel in the United States Army. He produced mokuhanga from ca. 1950-1960. He studied in the Yoshida atelier while living in Tokyo. More information about VIncent Hack can be found in Eastern Impressions, here. Chinese beauty and Dragon (not dated) Elizabeth Keith (1887-1956) - was a Scottish born printmaker, watercolorist, and painter. She travelled extensively before living in Japan from 1915-1924. In 1917 she was introduced to print published Watanabe Shōzaburō and by 1919 after some work with Watanabe's skilled artisans Keith started to see some of her designs printed. Over 100 prints were published of Keith's designs. More information can be found, here. Little Pavillion, Coal Oil, Peking (1935) Lillian May Miller (1895-1943) - was a Japan born American printmaker. Studying under painter Kanō Tomonobu (1853-1912). Miller began carving and printing her own prints by 1925 having studied under Nishimura Kumakichi. Rain Blossoms (1928) 10" x 15" Nöel Nouët (1885-1969) - was a French painter, illustrator and designer who designed prints for Doi Hangaten between 1935 and 1938 when Nouët was teaching in Shizuoka City, Shizuoka, Japan. Haruna Lake (1938) Helen Hyde (1868-1919) - was an American etcher, and printmaker who studied in Japan with artists such as Emil Orlik (1870-1932). Hyde was influenced by French Japonisme and lived in Japan from 1903-1913. A Japanese Madonna (1900) 14.5" x 3" Kataoka Gadō V (1910-1993) - was a Kabuki actor who specialized in female roles or onnagata in Japanese. He became Kitaoka Nizaemon XIV posthumously. Natori Shunsen (1886-1960) - was a Nihon-ga painter and woodblock print designer who worked with Watanabe Shōzaburō. Shunsen's prints focused on kabuki actors, mainly ōkubi-e , large head prints. Ichikawa Ennosuke as Kakudayu (1928) 15" x 10" Kabuki-za - is the main theatre in Tōkyō which shows kabuki performances. It was opened in 1889 and has been rebuilt several times in its history. Kabuki Costume - is a book written by Ruth M. Shaver with illustrations by Sōma Akira and Ōta Gakkō (1892-1975). It is an in-depth book about the costuming in kabuki theatre. It was published by Charles E. Tuttle in 1966. Ōta Gakkō - was an artist and designer who also designed woodblock prints in the 1950's. Ichikawa Jukai III (1886-1971) as Shirai Gonpachi from Figures of the Modern Stage: no. 3 (1954) Tsuruya Kōkei - is a mokuhanga artist who lives and works in Tokyo, Japan. His prints have focused on kabuki actors; in the 1980s, he was commissioned to produce kabuki portraits by the Kabuki-za theatre in Tokyo. Recently, he has focused on cats and the masters of mokuhanga such as Hokusai (1760-1849). He printed on very thin gampi paper. Five Styles of Banzai-Ukiyoe / Katsushika Hokusai (2017) Yamamura Toyonari (1885-1942) - also known as Kōka, is a painter, and print designer known for his theatrical prints, actor prints, landscapes and beautiful women. He studied under printmaker Ogata Gekkō (1859-1920). Toyonari worked with carvers and printers to create his prints such as those at Watanabe's studio and also printed and carved his own prints. February/Winter Sky (1924) 16.35" x 10.5" Sekino Jun'ichirō (1914-1988) - was a mokuhanga printmaker who helped establish the sōsaku hanga, creative print movement in Japan. His themes were of landscapes, animals and the abstract. Sekino exhibited and became a member with Nihon Hanga Kyōkai and studied with Ōnchi Kōshirō (1891-1955) and Maekawa Senpan (1888-1960). Woman In A Snowy Village (1946) 13" x 10" Bertha Lum (1869-1954) - was born in Iowa. Having begun travelling to Japan in 1903, Bertha Lum noticed the decline of the Japanese woodblock print in Japan in the early 20th Century, deciding to take up the medium. Lum began making woodblock prints after learning in Japan from an unknown teacher during her first trip to Japan. Japan, Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904), and China influenced Bertha Lum's prints. Lum's work focused on these themes through an American lens. Winter (1909) 8" x 14" Waseda University - is a private research university located in Tōkyō, Japan. It was established in 1882. Waseda has one of the largest woodblock print databases in the world, and are free to use. More information can be found, here. Scholten Japanese Art - is a mokuhanga-focused art gallery in midtown Manhattan. René Scholten, an avid collector of the Japanese print, founded it. You can find more info here. Katherine Martin is the managing director of Scholten Japanese Art. Katherine has written extensively for the gallery and conducted lectures about Japanese prints. Her interview with The Unfinished Print can be found, here. Utagawa Kunisada III (1848–1920) - was a ukiyo-e print designer from the Utagawa school of mokuhanga. Kunisada III's print designs were designed during the transformation of the Edo Period (1603-1868) into the Meiji Period (1868-1912) of Japanese history, where his prints showed the technological, architectural and historical changes in Japan's history. Kataoka Jūzō I as Hanako from the play Yakko Dōjōji at the Kabuki-za (1906). chūban - 10.4” x 7.5” senjafuda - are the votive slips Claire brings up in her interview. These were hand printed slips pasted by the worshipper onto the Buddhist temple of their choosing. These slips had many different subjects such as ghosts, Buddhist deities, and written characters. Japan Experience has bit of history of senjafuda, here. Shintomi-za -built in 1660 and also known as the Morita-za was a kabuki theatre located in the Kobiki-chō area of Tokyo, today the Ginza District. It was famous for taking risks with its productions. Meiji-za - was a kabuki-specific theatre built in 1873 and underwent several name changes until finally being named the Meiji-za in 1893. The theatre continues to this day. Imperial Theatre - is the first Western theatre to be built in Japan in 1911 and is located in Marunouchi, Chiyoda, Tokyo. It continues to show Western operas and plays. The John F. Kennedy Center For The Performing Arts - was built in 1971, and named after the 35th President of the United States, John F. Kennedy. The theatre is located in Washington D.C. and hosts many different types of theatre, dance, orchestras and music. More information can be found, here. The Subscription List - also known as Kanjichō in Japanese, is a kabuki play derived from the noh play Ataka. The modern version of this play was first staged in 1840. It is performed as the 18 Famous Plays as performed by the Danjurō family of actors. The Subscription List designed by Toyohara Kunichika (1835-1900) Utagawa Kuniyoshi (1798-1861) - is considered one of the last “masters” of the ukiyo-e genre of Japanese woodblock printmaking. His designs range from landscapes, samurai and Chinese military heroes, as well as using various formats for his designs such as diptychs and triptychs. Waseda University - is a private research university located in Tōkyō, Japan. It was established in 1882. Waseda has one of the largest woodblock print databases in the world, and are free to use. More information can be found, here. Yoshida Hiroshi (1876-1950) - a watercolorist, oil painter, and woodblock printmaker. Is associated with the resurgence of the woodblock print in Japan, and in the West. It was his early relationship with Watanabe Shōzaburō, having his first seven prints printed by the Shōzaburō atelier. This experience made Hiroshi believe that he could hire his own carvers and printers and produce woodblock prints, which he did in 1925. Kiso River (1927) Toyohara Chikanobu (1838-1912) - was a painter and designer of mokuhanga. He was a samurai during the final years of the Tokugawa shogunate rule in Japan. As Chikanobu began to look more to art as a living, he studied under Utagawa Kuniyoshi where he learned Western painting and drawing techniques. He also studied under Utagawa Kunisada and Toyohara Kunichika. His print designs were of many different types of themes but Chikanobu is well known for his war prints (sensō-e), kabuki theatre prints, current events and beautiful women. Enpo- Jidai Kagami (1897) 32 Aspects of Women - is a series of prints designed by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1839-1892). It was his first series of bijin-ga designs. shin hanga - is a style of Japanese woodblock printmaking which began during the end of the ukiyo-e period of Japanese printmaking, in the early 20th Century. Focusing on the foreign demand for “traditional” Japanese imagery and motifs such as castles, bridges, famous landscapes, bamboo forests, to name just a few. Shin hanga was born in 1915 by Watanabe Shōzaburō (1885-1962) when he found Austrian artist Frtiz Capelari (1884-1950) and commissioned Capelari to design some prints for Watanabe's feldgling printing house . From there shin-hanga evolved into its own distinct “new” style of Japanese woodblock printing. It lasted as this distinct style until its innevitable decline after the Second World War (1939-1945). Onchi Kōshirō (1891-1955) - originally designing poetry and books Onchi became on of the most I important sōsaku hanga artists and promotor of the medium. His works are saught after today. More info, here. Composition in Red and Brown (1950) 19" x 15" Saru Gallery - is a mokuhanga gallery, from ukiyo-e to modern prints, and is located in Uden, The Netherlands. Their website can be found, here. ukiyo-e - is a multi colour woodblock print generally associated with the Edo Period (1603-1867) of Japan. What began in the 17th Century as prints of only a few colours, evolved into an elaborate system of production and technique into the Meiji Period (1868-1912). With the advent of photography and other forms of printmaking, ukiyo-e as we know it today, ceased production by the late 19th Century. surimono (摺物)- are privately commissioned woodblock prints, usually containing specialty techniques such as mica, and blind embossing. Below is Heron and Iris, (ca. 1770's) by Andō Hiroshige (1797-1858). This print is from David Bull's reproduction of that work. You can find more info about that project, here. Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849) - is one of the most famous Japanese artists to have ever lived. Hokusai was an illustrator, painter and woodblock print designer. His work can be found on paper, wood, silk, and screen. His woodblock print design for Under The Wave off Kanagawa (ca. 1830-32) is beyond famous. His work, his manga, his woodblocks, his paintings, influence artists from all over the world. Poem by Sōsei Hōshi, from the series One Hundred Poems Explained by the Nurse. Taishō period (1912–26)s reproduction. Kitagawa Utamaro (1753-1806) - was a painter and ukiyo-e designer during the Edo Period of Japan. His portraits of women are his most famous designs. After getting into trouble with the shogunate during the early 19th Century with some offensive images of deceased shogun Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536/37-1598), Utamaro was jailed and passed away shortly after that. The Courtesan Umegawa and Chubei of the Courier Firm Tokyo University of the Arts (Geidai) - founded during the merger of the Tokyo Fine Arts School and the Tokyo Music School in 1949, TUA offers Masters's and Doctorate degrees in various subjects such as sculpture, craft and design as well as music and film. It has multiple campuses throughout the Kantō region of Japan. More information regarding the school and its programs can be found here. Honolulu Museum of Art - dedicated to art and education focusing on arts from around the world and Hawaiian culture itself. More info, here. Taishō Period (1912-1926) - a short lived period of Japanese modern history but an important one in world history. This is where the militarism of fascist Japan began to take seed, leading to The Pacific War (1931-1945). More info can be found, here. Enami Shirō (1901-2000) - was a printmaker who is associated with ephemeral prints such as greeting cards. Also created his own larger format prints during the burgeoning sōsaku hanga movement of the early to mid Twentieth Century. The Benkei Moat (1931) 12.5" x 9" Kitano Tsunetomi (1880-1947) - was an illustrator, Nihon-ga painter, carver and print designer. Lived and worked in Osaka where he apprenticed carving with Nishida Suketaro. Founded the Taishō Art Society and the Osaka Art Society. Painted and created prints of beautiful women as well as mokuhanga for magazines such as Dai Osaka. The most famous of his prints and paintings is Sagimusume, The Heron Maiden. Umekawa - Complete Works of Chikamatsu (1923) Hamada Josen (1875 - ?) - was a painter and mokuhanga designer and studied with Tomioka Eisen (1864-1905). Designed bijin, shunga, and landscapes after the Great Kantō Earthquake of 1923. Designed prints for Collection of New Ukiyo-e Style Beauties (1924). December - Clear Weather After Snow from the series New Ukiyo-e Beauties (1924) 17.50" x 11.12" Ikeda Shoen (1886-1917) - was a Nihon-ga painter who's paintings also became mokuhanga prints. Her paintings are quite rare because of her early death. School Girls Going Home (1900) 13" x 9" Igawa Sengai (1876-1961) - was a painter, illustrator and print designer. After serving in the Russo-Japanese war (1904-1905), he joined the Miyako Shinbun in Nagoya City. Designing prints in the 1926 he designed prints for Collected Prints of the Taishō Earthquake and in the 1930's he designed propaganda prints for the Japanese war effort. His contribution to the 1924 Collection of New Ukiyo-e Style Beauties (1924). April - Rain of Blossoms (1924) from New Ukiyo-e Beauties. Asian Art Museum San Fransisco - with over 18,000 pieces of art the Asian Art Museum of San Fransisco has one of the largest collections of Asian art in the United States. More information can be found, here. Freer Gallery of Art - is a museum within the Smithsonian group of museums in Washington D.C, with a collection of Chinese paintings, Indian sculpture; Islamic painting and metalware; Japanese lacquer; Korean ceramics. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery - is a museum within the Smithsonian group of museums in Washington D.C. It's collection contains some important Chinese jades and bronzes. Yoshida Hiroshi: The Outskirts of Agra Number 3 from the series India and Southeast Asia (1932) Yoshida Hiroshi: Cave of Komagatake from the series Southern Japan Alps (1928) © Popular Wheat Productions opening and closing musical credit - The Crystal Ship by The Doors from their self-titled album The Doors (1967). Release by Elektra Records. logo designed and produced by Douglas Batchelor and André Zadorozny Disclaimer: Please do not reproduce or use anything from this podcast without shooting me an email and getting my express written or verbal consent. I'm friendly :) Слава Українi If you find any issue with something in the show notes please let me know. ***The opinions expressed by guests in The Unfinished Print podcast are not necessarily those of André Zadorozny and of Popular Wheat Productions.***
In unserer heutigen Folge geht es um die Megatrends neue Arbeitswelten, Nachhaltigkeit, künstliche Intelligenz und was sie für die Architektur und die Zukunft des Bauens bedeuten. Wir besprechen, was die größten Veränderungen im Design von Büros in den letzten Jahren waren und ob Architektur Veränderungen der Arbeitswelt reflektiert oder auch selbst antreiben kann. Außerdem geht es darum, in welchen Dimensionen die Nachhaltigkeit die Architektur prägen und wie künstliche Intelligenz die Branche umwälzen und die Arbeit von Architekten verändern wird. Interviewgast ist Martin Henn. Er ist seit 2017 Geschäftsführer des Architekturbüros HENN Architecture und leitet als Head of Design die Designstudios in Berlin, München, Peking und Shanghai. Neben Apple Podcast kannst du unseren Podcast auch bei Spotify, Soundcloud, Google und anderen Podcast Apps hören. Über Dein Feedback und Deine Anregungen zu dieser Episode freuen wir uns sehr. Besuche uns auf unseren Websites und Oder schreibe uns auf LinkedIn: