Body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism
Check out our sponsors: BLUblox: Go to blublox.com/impacttheory for 15% off your order or use discount code ImpactTheory at checkout.Athletic Greens: Go to athleticgreens.com/impact and receive a FREE 1 year supply of Vitamin D AND 5 free travel packs with your first purchase! TextExpander: Go to textexpander.com/podcast and get 20% off your first yearWhat does living a longer, healthier, and more fulfilling life mean to you? How can you achieve that goal and does achieving that goal start the same for everyone? Per usual there is an abundance of information out that can be highly contradictory to each other and there is also a lot of narrative and research even showing results that are based on ulterior motives. Is it better to follow the research that says go vegetarian because animal proteins are not good for humans? Could it be better to stick with data that supports high quality proteins from an animal based diet? Dr. Gabrielle Lyon is joining Tom for another informative conversation about how transparent conversations, research and data need to be shared to better inform people about the best ways to protect muscle and thus achieve longer, healthier, more fulfilling high-quality lives. Being focused on strength and the functionality of muscles and what is required to maintain and build healthy muscle is a must for anyone thinking about longevity. SHOW NOTES: 0:00 | Introduction to Gabrielle Union2:44 | Burning Muscle for Fuel9:58 | Essential Amino Acids11:55 | Why It's Hard To Build Muscle14:21 | Nurturing Efficient Muscle Growth19:05 | Debunking Longevity & Low Protein23:58 | Skeletal Muscle Principles 10129:24 | Harmful Anti-Animal Dogma32:58 | The Metabolic Disease Connection34:19 | Define Longevity & Quality of Life38:07 | Start Training to Stress the Body QUOTES: “You're existing in this incredibly delicate balance between what you eat, your insulin response to what you eat, and the muscle that you carry, and how much you use it.” Tom Bilyeu [2:44] “The body thrives under activity, and whether you take a human, whether you take an animal, if you essentially domesticate them, and they are not training, they will lose muscle.” [6:50] “You have to be very careful about how you want to age and this concept of longevity.” [23:16] “Muscle is necessary, but not sufficient. You have to both have muscle and a diet that isn't overwhelming your system.” Tom Bilyeu [27:29] “Our expectation is now to lower the quality of evidence to be able to say, well, no plant and animal protein are the same. No, they're not!” [31:01] “Skeletal muscle is an organ system, just like the thyroid. It should be tested and treated as such.” [40:50] Follow Gabrielle Lyon:Website: https://drgabriellelyon.com/YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCWPQJeWz4pvccA3lIoZ7j1QInstagram: https://www.instagram.com/drgabriellelyon/Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/doctorgabriellelyon/
This episode my guest is Dr. Jack Feldman, Distinguished Professor of Neurobiology at University of California, Los Angeles and a pioneering world expert in the science of respiration (breathing). We discuss how and why humans breathe the way we do, the function of the diaphragm and how it serves to increase oxygenation of the brain and body. We discuss how breathing influences mental state, fear, memory, reaction time, and more. And we discuss specific breathing protocols such as box-breathing, cyclic hyperventilation (similar to Wim Hof breathing), nasal versus mouth breathing, unilateral breathing, and how these each effect the brain and body. We discuss physiological sighs, peptides expressed by specific neurons controlling breathing, and magnesium compounds that can improve cognitive ability and how they work. This conversation serves as a sort of "Master Class" on the science of breathing and breathing related tools for health and performance. Thank you to our sponsors: Thesis - https://takethesis.com/huberman Athletic Greens - https://www.athleticgreens.com/huberman Headspace - https://www.headspace.com/specialoffer Our Breath Collective: http://www.ourbreathcollective.com/huberman Dr. Jack Feldman Links: UCLA website - https://bioscience.ucla.edu/people/jack-feldman Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_L._Feldman Twitter - https://twitter.com/prebotzinger Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/jacklfeldman Our Patreon page: https://www.patreon.com/andrewhuberman Supplements from Thorne: http://www.thorne.com/u/huberman Social: Instagram - https://www.instagram.com/hubermanlab Twitter - https://twitter.com/hubermanlab Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/hubermanlab Website - https://hubermanlab.com Newsletter - https://hubermanlab.com/neural-network Timestamps: 00:00:00 Introducing Dr. Jack Feldman 00:03:05 Sponsors: Thesis, Athletic Greens, Headspace, Our Breath Collective 00:10:35 Why We Breathe 00:14:35 Neural Control of Breathing: “Pre-Botzinger Complex” 00:16:20 Nose vs Mouth Breathing 00:18:18 Skeletal vs. Smooth Muscles: Diaphragm, Intracostals & Airway Muscles 00:20:11 Two Breathing Oscillators: Pre-Botzinger Complex & Parafacial Nucleus 00:26:20 How We Breathe Is Special (Compared to Non-Mammals) 00:33:40 Stomach & Chest Movements During Breathing 00:36:23 Physiological Sighs, Alveoli Re-Filling, Bombesin 00:49:39 If We Don't Sigh, Our Lung (& General) Health Suffers 01:00:42 Breathing, Brain States & Emotions 01:05:34 Meditating Mice, Eliminating Fear 01:11:00 Brain States, Amygdala, Locked-In Syndrome, Laughing 01:16:25 Facial Expressions 01:19:00 Locus Coeruleus & Alertness 01:29:40 Breath Holds, Apnea, Episodic Hypoxia, Hypercapnia 01:35:22 Stroke, Muscle Strength, TBI 01:38:08 Cyclic Hyperventilation 01:39:50 Hyperbaric Chambers 01:40:41 Nasal Breathing, Memory, Right vs. Left Nostril 01:44:50 Breathing Coordinates Everything: Reaction Time, Fear, etc. 01:57:13 Dr. Feldman's Breathwork Protocols, Post-Lunch 02:02:05 Deliberately Variable Breathwork: The Feldman Protocol 02:06:29 Magnesium Threonate & Cognition & Memory 02:18:27 Gratitude for Dr. Feldman's Highly Impactful Work 02:20:53 Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Patreon, Instagram, Twitter, Thorne Please note that The Huberman Lab Podcast is distinct from Dr. Huberman's teaching and research roles at Stanford University School of Medicine. The information provided in this show is not medical advice, nor should it be taken or applied as a replacement for medical advice. The Huberman Lab Podcast, its employees, guests and affiliates assume no liability for the application of the information discussed. Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac - https://www.blabacphoto.com
MIT Engineers Test An Idea For A New Hovering Rover | Brighter Side News (01:28) Due to the lack of atmosphere, the moon and other airless bodies such as asteroids can build up an electric field.Because of direct exposure to the sun and surrounding plasma. Moon's electric charge is strong enough to levitate dust more than 1 meter above the ground. Engineers at NASA and elsewhere have recently proposed harnessing this natural surface charge to levitate a gliderMylar wings, which is a material that holds the same charge as surfaces on airless bodies. Thinking of magnets, the same charged sides would repel causing a levitation effect A design would likely be limited to small asteroids, as larger planetary bodies would have a stronger, counteracting gravitational pull. Or would it?MIT's rover could get around this The concept resembles a retro-style, disc-shaped flying saucer, and uses tiny ion beams to both charge up the vehicle and boost the surface's natural charge.Generates a relatively large repulsive force between the vehicle and the ground with a small amount of power In an initial feasibility study, the researchers show that such an ion boost should be strong enough to levitate a small, 2-pound vehicle on the moon and large asteroids. Large asteroid using a 10-kilovolt ion source The Moon the same rover would need a 50-kilovolt source Design relies on the use of miniature ion thrusters, called ionic-liquid ion sources Using a basic disc model with ion thrusters Could achieve levitation of about one centimeter off the ground Co-author Paulo Lozano explains why levitation on a rover would be good:“With a levitating rover, you don't have to worry about wheels or moving parts … An asteroid's terrain could be totally uneven, and as long as you had a controlled mechanism to keep your rover floating, then you could go over very rough, unexplored terrain, without having to dodge the asteroid physically.” MIT unveils the world's longest flexible fiber battery. You can weave and wash it in fabrics | ZME Science (08:01) Engineers at MIT have created a rechargeable lithium-ion battery in the form of very long fiber.Could be used to 3D print batteries in any shape. The proof of concept is 140 meters long, making it the longest flexible fiber battery thus far.Length is arbitrary according to the engineers since they could do much longer lengths. Fiber batteries are not new, however previously they have all the lithium and other key materials outside the fiber, which would leave them unprotected.This Fiber is the opposite with the new system embedding the battery inside the fiber This provides a protective outside coating, which gives the fiber both stability and waterproofing. The thickness of the fiber device is only a few hundred microns, much thinner than any previous attempts at a fiber battery. To demonstrate the functionality of this proof of concept, the researchers used the fiber battery to power a “Li-Fi” communications system, the kind that uses pulses of light to transmit data rather than radio waves. Includes a microphone, pre-amp, transistor, and diodes The 140-meter-long battery fiber has a rated energy storage capacity of 123 milliamp-hours Enough to power a smartwatch or phone. Battery fibers could be woven to produce two-dimensional fabrics like those used for clothing, but could also be used in 3-D printing to create solid objects, such as casings.Because the system creates it all without having to add anything else it would be one-step printing. Scientists Can Now Print Metal Objects That Are Only 25 Nanometers Long | Interesting Engineering (13:08) A group of scientists has set a new benchmark in 3D printing by succeeding in fabricating ultrasmall metal objects using a new technique. According to the team, their system can be used to make objects out of copper just 25 billionths of a meter in diameter (equivalent to 25 nanometres).Equivalent to 195 copper atoms in a row. Their electrochemical 3D printing technique fabricates complex conductive structures with nanometer resolution, and it could have potential applications in battery technology, microelectronics, and sensor technology. The new electrochemical technique could be used to print far smaller metal objects that have never been printed before. Dr. Dmitry Momotenko of a chemist at the University of Oldenburg talked on the printing method with Phys.org:“The technology we are working on combines both worlds — metal printing and nanoscale precision … 3D-printed catalysts with high surface area and special geometry to allow particular reactivity could be prepared for the production of complex chemicals.” Momotenko and his team are currently working towards improving the efficiency of electrical energy storage through three-dimensional electrodes. Smart sutures to monitor deep surgical wounds | MedicalXPress (17:24) Monitoring surgical wounds after an operation is an important step to prevent infection, wound separation and other complications. However, when the surgical site is deep in the body, monitoring is normally limited to clinical observations or costly radiological investigations that often fail to detect complications before they become life-threatening. To detect wound complications as soon as they happen, a team of researchers from National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a smart suture that is battery-free and can wirelessly sense and transmit information from deep surgical sites. The NUS team's invention has three key components: a medical-grade silk suture that is coated with a conductive polymer to allow it to respond to wireless signals; a battery-free electronic sensor; and a wireless reader used to operate the suture from outside the body. These smart small sensors can monitor multiple problems (i.e. Wound integrity, gastric leakage and tissue micromotions), while also providing healing outcomes which are equivalent to medical-grade sutures.For example, if the suture is broken, an external reader picks up a reduced signal due to a reduction in the length of the smart suture's antenna, alerting the attending doctor to take action. One advantage of these smart sutures is that their use involves minimal modification of the standard surgical procedure. Similar to existing sutures, clips and staples, the smart sutures may be post-operatively removed by a minimally invasive surgical or endoscopic procedure when the risk of complications has passed. Assistant Professor John Ho, who lead the team, commented on the smart sutures capability & the effect it would have: "Currently, post-operative complications are often not detected until the patient experiences systemic symptoms like pain, fever, or a high heart rate. These smart sutures can be used as an early alert tool to enable doctors to intervene before the complication becomes life-threatening, which can lead to lower rates of re-operation, faster recovery, and improved patient outcomes." In future, the team is looking to develop a portable wireless reader to replace the setup currently used, enabling surveillance of complications even outside of clinical settings. Additionally they want to increase the detection capabilities for detecting wound bleeding and leakage after gastrointestinal surgery. Researchers uncover protein that reverses muscle aging | Brighter Side News (23:13) A University at Buffalo-led research team has shown that a protein, NANOG, is effective at reversing aging in skeletal muscle cells. Skeletal muscles are organs of the vertebrate muscular system that are mostly attached by tendons to bones of the skeleton.Longer than in the other types of muscle tissue, and are often known as muscle fibers. In a series of experiments with mice, researchers overexpressed NANOG in myoblasts, which are the embryonic precursors to muscle tissue. The myoblasts were senescent, meaning they were no longer able to divide and grow. The overexpression improved some of the primary characteristics associated with age-related deterioration of cells, including autophagy, energy homeostasis, genomic stability, nuclear integrity and mitochondrial function.Autophagy - Bodies' way of clearing out damaged cells Additionally there was an increase in the number of muscle stem cells in the muscle of prematurely aging mice.Demonstrating the feasibility of reversing cellular aging in the body The study's corresponding author Stelios T. Andreadis, PhD stated:“Our work focuses on understanding the mechanisms of NANOG's actions in hopes of discovering druggable targets in signaling or metabolic networks that mimic the anti-aging effects of NANOG. Ultimately, the work could help lead to new treatments or therapies that help reverse cellular senescence, and aid the many people suffering from age-related disorders.” ----more---- Podcast Links: Website: https://thatscoolnews.com/ Review The Podcast: https://thatscoolnews.com/review Email List: https://thatscoolnews.com/email Follow On Social Media: Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thatscoolnews/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/Thats_Cool_News Join the Community: Discord: https://thatscoolnews.com/discord Facebook Group: https://thatscoolnews.com/group
#Adrian #magnesiumBenefitsForWomen #MagnesiumChlorideMagnesium benefits for women and men. This is my story of what happened to me using magnesium oil everyday for 3+ years, and why I decided I had to do that. Nearly all of us are short on magnesium. Magnesium is critical and offers major wide ranging benefits for men and women. I still apply magnesium chloride oil everyday - it has helped alleviate many problems for me and I feel so much better for it. In this video I explain why I do it and how it has changed my health for the better. Including no more headaches or migraines, now I know I know how to stop cramps. It is also good for pain relief.My book:I have written a book on health and well-being. Nothing mainstream in here, just things I've observed and worked out that have helped me and others who have used the ideas.You can read more about it here:http://alternativeprinciplesforhealth.info/--DMSO:https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLHfgyyQrAM7h38eBvAQbZTy38dN_zdGfMMagnesium and Magnesium Chloride Oil:https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLHfgyyQrAM7j_ZVsJZVitbt_rfyH_OjkaExcerpt From my book:Magnesium- a key to unlock many locksMagnesium is VITAL for cellular health. It is worth reading up on this amazing mineral and then making sure you have enough available to you. I have read that to 1300 enzyme reactions rely on it, and I have read that is 325 reactions. Whatever the number this one mineral is absolutely critical to life and yet it is largely ignored by the allopathic medical profession. Well, they would, it is cheap, easily available and cannot be patented. Research indicates that up to 80% of people are magnesium deficient.Start immediately with magnesium oil (magnesium chloride and water 50/50) applied to your skin. You don't have to buy it ready mixed, buy a big bag on eBay and dilute it with filtered water and save yourself a fortune. Soak yourself in it every day. This is the fastest way to replenish your magnesium levels. Even with this, it could take 3-4 months or longer to get levels back up to normal levels. (If you have problems with kidney function take some medical advice from someone who really understands magnesium properly.) You should pay attention to getting plenty of vitamins B6 and D.I have read in many places it can help in cases like ADHD and autismHere is a list of some of the common symptoms that are results of low magnesium levels. It is not a complete list. I have marked a ** next to each that I had that has now gone away)• Muscle cramps or twitches **• Insomnia• Irritability• Sensitivity to loud noises **• Anxiety **• Autism• ADD• Palpitations **• Angina• Constipation• Anal spasms **• Headaches **• Migraines **• Fibromyalgia• Chronic fatigue• Asthma• Kidney stones• Diabetes• Obesity• Osteoporosis• High blood pressure• PMS• Menstrual cramps• Irritable bladder• Irritable bowel syndrome• Reflux **• Trouble swallowing **Magnesium deficiency has even has been linked to inflammation in the body and higher CRP levels.Some start points for you with magnesium chloride:http://www.westonaprice.org/health-topics/abcs-of-nutrition/magnificent-magnesium/ http://www.health-science-spirit.com/magnesiumchloride.htmlhttp://drsircus.com/medicine/magnesium/inflammation-and-systemic-stressMAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF DISEASEEarly Roots of Cardiovascular, Skeletal and Renal Abnormalitieshttp://www.mgwater.com/Seelig/Magnesium-Deficiency-in-the-Pathogenesis-of-Disease/chapter1.shtmlSupport the show (https://www.patreon.com/adrianr)
Looking for the best chronic pain treatment in Thousand Oaks, CA? Call Pre-Post, LLC today (805-479-6800) for the effective posture correcting therapy you deserve! Learn more at https://www.prepostwellness.com/posture-therapy (https://www.prepostwellness.com/posture-therapy)
In this episode, I share the first segment of the new course I am working on for the "Anatomy of Yoga" workshop series on Udemy. In part 3 I move beyond teaching the information and into the APPLICATION. How does understanding anatomy actually apply to what you do on the mat as a yoga teacher? How does thinking about the skeletal system and the joints help you to create more effective well rounded yoga sequences? Here we will look at some of the Key Components to incorporate into your lesson planning. @LauraGyoga www.LauraGyoga.com YouTUbe: Laura Goellner: The Yoga Focus Method --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/yogafocus/support
La ciencia ha demostrado que algunos grupos de personas están más predispuestos que otros, a rendir en carrera debido a su ascendencia evolutiva. En este episodio hablaremos de ello y desvelaremos una de las teorías más controvertidas sobre “los portentos africanos” en pruebas de velocidad. ¿Es posible que la malaria tuviera algo que ver? Fibras musculares más rápidas que las de los blancos, como respuesta a una patología desarrollada por el virus de la malaria. Para crear este episodio me he basado en: - Epstein, D. (2013) The sports gene. Inside the science of extraordinary athletics performance. - Morrison, E; Cooper P, “Some biomedical mechanisms in athletic prowess”, West Indian Medical Journal.2006. - Mast, E. et cols. “Demographic correlates of low hemoglobin deferral among prospective whole blood donors”, Transfusion. 2010. - Alma, P. et cols. “Skeletal muscle characteristics in sedentary black and Caucasian males”, Journal of Applied Physiology, 1986. - Pierce, E; “How sickle cell trait protects against malaria”, Medical Journal of Therapeutics Africa. - Esteva, S. et cols, “Morphofunctional responses to anaemia in rat skeletal muscle”, Journal of Nutrition. 1983 ------------------------------------------------------------ 😃 Visita nuestra nueva web: www.hijosdelaresistencia.com ¿Quieres que te ayudemos a conseguir tu objetivo deportivo? 👉🏽 https://form.jotform.com/212836943109358 Suma tu grano de arena contra el cáncer infantil 👶🏽 https://bit.ly/3snsNRb Apoya el proyecto a través de mi reto «Ironman Lanzarote» 😃 https://www.ihelp.org.es/es/challenge/ironman-lanzarote-cancer-infantil Escucha el episodio del sueño de Vikcy aquí: 👉🏽 https://rubenespinosa.com/el-sueno-de-vicky/ ¿Quieres suscribirte a nuestra newsletter? 👉🏽 https://rubenespinosa.com/landing-newsletter-la-huella/ Únete a nuestro grupo de Telegram y mantente al día de todo: 👉🏽 https://t.me/HijosdelaResistencia ¿Quieres profundizar más? Puedes hacerlo en nuestros cursos: 👉🏽https://rubenespinosa.com/tienda/ Puedes seguirnos en: – Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCAvGpXI6rSQar-TLSxYGlcQ – Instagram del programa: https://www.instagram.com/hijosdelaresistencia_oficial/ – Instagram personal: https://www.instagram.com/rubenespinosapt/ – Instagram de Infantes: https://www.instagram.com/psicoinforma_/ Puedes suscribirte al podcast en: – Apple Podcast: https://podcasts.apple.com/es/podcast/hijos-de-la-resistencia/id1486172817 – Ivoox: https://www.ivoox.com/s_p2_795124_1.html – Spotify: https://open.spotify.com/show/1HKsbrIb06U3RaGIH5xwJT?si=NnpMMe1pQbuTl8hojYjYdw – Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCAvGpXI6rSQar-TLSxYGlcQ
Is it possible to time your strength training in such a way that it doesn't affect your cycling training? Coach Chad dives deep into interference-effect and if it is worthy of concern, as well as a guide to training plans for KOMs of different durations, how training fatigue and freshness can mask adaptations and much more in Episode 341 of the Ask a Cycling Coach Podcast! -------------------------------------------- TOPICS COVERED IN THIS EPISODE 0:00 Intro 2:56 How to stop failing workouts 10:07 XTERRA World Championships 15:50 Deep dive on timing strength training and cycling 56:54 Rapid Fire questions 1:13:55 TrainerRoad's Polarized Training Plans 1:18:03 Guide to KOMs of different durations 1:25:25 Can you treat knee injuries while training? 1:36:42 How fatigue and freshness can mask adaptations -------------------------------------------- RESOURCES MENTIONED IN THIS EPISODE - Evaluation of performance improvements following either resistance training or sprint interval based concurrent training - Development of Maximal Dynamic Strength During Concurrent Resistance and Endurance Training in Untrained, Moderately Trained, and Trained Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis - Effects of high-intensity interval cycling performed after resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy - Concurrent Training with Different Aerobic Exercises - Interference between Concurrent Resistance and Endurance Exercise: Molecular Bases and the Role of Individual Training Variables - Impact of low-volume concurrent strength training distribution on muscular adaptation - Using Molecular Biology to Maximize Concurrent Training - Decrease in Akt/PKB signalling in human skeletal muscle by resistance exercise - Skeletal muscle amino acid transporter expression is increased in young and older adults following resistance exercise - Resistance exercise enhances the molecular signaling of mitochondrial biogenesis induced by endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle - Concurrent Training for Sports Performance: The Two Sides of the Medal - The physiological effects of concurrent strength and endurance training sequence: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Concurrent exercise training: Do opposites distract? - Concurrent exercise and muscle protein synthesis: Implications for exercise countermeasures in space - Caloric restriction induces anabolic resistance to resistance exercise - Low muscle glycogen concentration does not suppress the anabolic response to resistance exercise - Resistance exercise enhances the molecular signaling of mitochondrial biogenesis induced by endurance exercise in human skeletal muscle - Interference of strength development by simultaneously training for strength and endurance -------------------------------------------- TRY TRAINERROAD RISK FREE FOR 30 DAYS! TrainerRoad makes cyclists faster. Athletes get structured indoor workouts, science-backed training plans, and easy-to-use performance analysis tools to reach their goals. Get Started: https://bit.ly/3unoSnx Adaptive Training: What it is, how to use it: https://bit.ly/3dIRClW Build Your Custom Plan: https://bit.ly/3oR8sme Train Together with Group Workouts: https://bit.ly/3fkaYyd -------------------------------------------- LEARN MORE ABOUT ADAPTIVE TRAINING Adaptive Training Video: https://youtu.be/c15eVK29bj0 Adaptive Training: What it is, how to use it: https://bit.ly/3dIRClW How Adaptive Training Makes You Faster: https://bit.ly/2ZNfWLq -------------------------------------------- SUCCESSFUL ATHLETES PODCAST Listen to the Successful Athletes Podcast now!: https://www.TrainerRoad.com/SAP -------------------------------------------- SCIENCE OF GETTING FASTER PODCAST Listen to the Science of Getting Faster Podcast now!: https://www.TrainerRoad.com/SOGF -------------------------------------------- STAY IN TOUCH Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TrainerRd Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/trainerroad/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/TrainerRoad Strava Club: https://www.strava.com/clubs/trainerroad
Episode 76: Eating Disorders. The malaria vaccine is announced by Dr Parker, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia are briefly discussed by Sophia, Jeffrey and Dr Arreaza. Introduction: Introducing the malaria vaccine (RTS,S)Written by Hector Arreaza, MD; read by Tana Parker, MD. Today is November 26, 2021.Malaria is a devastating disease that continues to kill thousands of people every year around the world. Since the year 2000, there have been 1.5 billion cases of malaria and 7.6 million deaths. In 2019, there were 229 million new cases, and 409,000 deaths, mostly children under 5 years of age.Effective vaccines for many protozoal diseases are available for animals (for example, the vaccine against toxoplasmosis in sheep, babesiosis in cows, and more.) However, vaccines for protozoal disease in humans had not been widely available … until now. The RTS,S is a vaccine against malaria approved by the European Medicines Agency in July 2015 for babies at risk, and it was rolled out in pilot projects in Malawi, Ghana and Kenya in 2019. In October 2021, the World Health Organization announced the recommendation of this anti-malaria vaccine. The trade name of this vaccine is Mosquirix®. The vaccination is recommended for children in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions with moderate to high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, which is considered the deadliest parasite in humans. The approved vaccine has shown low to moderate efficacy, preventing about 30% of severe malaria after 4 doses in children younger than five years old. Implementation of vaccination is not free from challenges, and it should be executed not as the solution for the disease, but as part of the solution, along with other efforts such as mosquito control, effective health care, and more.RTS,S is an add-on to continue the fight against malaria worldwide. Hopefully we can lighten the heavy burden of malaria for more than 87 countries that suffer the severe consequences of poor control of this devastating disease. This is Rio Bravo qWeek, your weekly dose of knowledge brought to you by the Rio Bravo Family Medicine Residency Program from Bakersfield, California. Our program is affiliated with UCLA, and it's sponsored by Clinica Sierra Vista, Let Us Be Your Healthcare Home. ___________________________Eating Disorders. Written by Sophia Dhillon, MS3, Jeffrey Nguyen, MS3. Discussion with Hector Arreaza, MD. This is not intended to be a comprehensive lecture on eating disorders. This episode is intended to give you basic information, hoping to motivate you keep learning about it. Let's start talking about eating disorders today, specifically anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. What is an eating disorder? An eating disorder is a disturbance of eating that interferes with health. As a reminder, health is “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.” So, an eating disorder, in a wide context, is any eating pattern that is out of what is considered “normal”, and that variation in feeding causes health problems. But in general, when we talk about eating disorders in medicine, we refer to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, but it includes also avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, binge eating disorder, night eating disorder, pica, and rumination disorder. ANOREXIAIn general, anorexia is characterized by immoderate food restriction, inappropriate eating habits or rituals, obsession with having a thin figure or an irrational fear of weight gain as well as distorted body self-perception. There are 2 main subtypes of anorexia: restricting type vs binge-eating/purging type. Tell us the difference between anorexia restrictive type and binge eating-purging type.Anorexia, restrictive type is when weight loss is achieved by diet, fasting and/or excessive exercise, meanwhile the binge-eating/purging type entails eating binges followed by self-induced vomiting and/or using laxatives, enemas or diuretics. These patients will have intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat. They will have a distorted perception of body weight and shape or denial of the medical seriousness of one's low body weight.Anorexia nervosa is different than avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder. In anorexia, you have an altered perception of your body (“I'm fat”), but in avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, your perception of your body weight and shape is not abnormal. “I'm skinny, and I'm OK with that.” This is new information for me. I thought anorexia was present always when a patient refused to eat, whether you liked your body or not.Why do people develop eating disorders? There are so many reasons why people develop eating disorders. First, it can be psychological due to low self-esteem, feelings of inadequacy or failure, feeling of being out of control, response to change (i. e. puberty) or response to stress. Second, it can be due to interpersonal issues like having trouble with family and personal relationships, difficult expressing emotions or feelings, or even history of being teased based on size or weight. Lastly, it is the social and cultural norms that we grow up in. There are cultural pressures that glorify thinness and place value on obtaining the perfect body, narrow definitions of beauty that include women and men of specific body weights and shapes. Sometimes there is no reason. Some people just get obsessed with their weight and perceive themselves as “fat”. Effect of anorexia on different parts of the bodySince these patients are scared of gaining weight, how does it affect the entire body?Anorexia can affect multiple systems in our body. Just to name a few symptoms that it can manifest as: amenorrhea, infertility, constipation, dizziness, hypothermia, bradycardia, hypotension, dry skin and even hair loss. Starvation induces protein and fat catabolism that leads to loss of cellular volume and atrophy of the heart, brain, liver, intestines, kidneys, and muscles. Cardiac: It can decrease cardiac mass, decrease cardiac chamber volumes, cause myocardial fibrosis and pericardial effusion. These manifestations are reversible if the patient gains weight. Functionally, it can cause bradycardia due to increased parasympathetic activity, hypotension, decreased heart rate variability and QT prolongation on ECG. Lungs: shortness of breath due to weakened and wasting of the respiratory muscles, pneumothorax and aspiration pneumonia. GI system: it leads to gastroparesis with bloating, constipation, severe pancreatitis and mild transaminitis. Hematologic: anemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Skin manifestations include dry/scaly skin, hair loss, acne, hyperpigmentation and acrocyanosis. You can also find lanugo, which is a very thin, light colored hair on the face and body. It is thought that the lanugo is an adaptation from the body to keep it warm. Lanugo is common in patients with anorexia nervosa or other causes of malnourishment. That's why wearing coats in warm weather can be a silent sign of anorexia. Other subtle signs include social withdrawal, fidgeting (to burn calories), and always “eating” in private. It is important to remember that all these manifestation that Jeffrey mentioned are not present with intermittent fasting because intermittent fasting is an intermittent restriction of food, the nutritional needs are met during the “feasting” periods after “fasting”. Some may argue that intermittent fasting may promote eating disorders, but I believe intermittent fasting is just an effective treatment for obesity.Treatment plan for anorexiaThere are several treatment options for these patients. We can refer them to nutritional rehabilitation where they can supervise meals. We can refer them to psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy or motivational interviewing. There is also a drug called Olanzapine for this condition. Sometimes, patients may need admission to the hospital. I learned recently that UCLA has an Eating Disorder Program which includes inpatient services. Some centers are very specialized and include family therapy and group therapy. Listeners, you can continue to research about anorexia, it's is fascinating. The prevalence of anorexia in the US is estimated to be 0.6%. BULIMIABy definition, bulimia nervosa is when a person binge eats and then uses certain behaviors to prevent weight gain. These behaviors may include self-induced vomiting, using laxatives or diuretics, exercising excessively, or fasting and having a restrictive diet. Signs and symptoms to look forA physical examination is key. On physical presentation, these people usually can have overweight or obesity. That's the main difference with anorexia. Anorexia: skinny people, bulimia: normal weight, overweight or obesity. Regardless of their weight, these patients are malnourished. They may lack some essential nutrients causing serious health consequences. That's why nutrition cannot be assessed by BMI only. Common signs they will present with will include tachycardia, hypotension (systolic blood pressure below 90), dry skin, and hair loss. If the person uses self-induced vomiting to prevent weight gain, they may have erosion of the dental enamel from all the acid that comes up when they vomit. There may also be scarring or calluses on the dorsum side of the hand from all the acid too. Their parotid glands, that are located on the side of the jaws will also be swollen, causing a sign known as chipmunk face of bulimia.From talking to this person and getting a detailed history, we will learn of the symptoms bulimia nervosa can cause. This will include lethargy and fatigue, irregular menstrual periods in a female, abdominal pain and bloating, and constipationThis disorder really does take a toll on the body. There's plenty of complications that come with it as well. Let's try to break it down by system. GI system has the most complications: esophageal tears from the vomiting called Mallory-Weiss syndrome, which will present with bloody vomits, a loss of gag reflex, esophageal dysmotility, abdominal pain and bloating, GERD, diarrhea and malabsorption of nutrients, fatty stools known as steatorrhea, colonic dysmotility leading to constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, rectal prolapse, and pancreatitis. Cardiac: serious complication is ipeac-induced myopathy, let's spend a little time on this. Ipecac is a syrup that someone with bulimia nervosa may use to make themselves vomit. If a person uses this syrup frequently or for a long amount of time, there is a component called emetine will accumulate in muscle, including cardiac muscle. If a person uses ipecac chronically, it can be detected in the urine for up to 60 days. This will damage the heart muscles or myocardium and lead to cardiomyopathy. It will present with symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, hypotension, tachycardia or bradycardia, T wave abnormalities on ECG, conduction delays, arrythmias, pericardial effusions, and even congestive heart failure. Cardiomyopathy may be irreversible. Renal system: dehydration, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyponatremia, and metabolic alkalosis. This could happen in patient who use diuretics as a purging mechanism. Endocrine system: Electrolytes and hormones imbalance. The endocrine system primarily impacts the reproductive and skeletal systems. Among 82 women treated for bulimia nervosa, menstrual irregularities were present in 45 percent at pretreatment and in 31 percent at 12-month follow-up. These irregularities may look like spotty or very light menstrual cycles. Cycles may be very erratic or completely absent. Skeletal system: osteopenia and osteoporosis are common with bulimia nervosa. Osteopenia means weaker and more brittle bones. Osteoporosis is more serious than osteopenia and can more easily result in fractures.The diagnosis of bulimia nervosa can usually be made clinically. And after the diagnosis with bulimia nervosa, the first step in helping them is always getting a full lab work up to see what systems to the body have been impacted. Treatment options include nutritional counseling, behavioral therapy, and even medications. If a person needs help connecting with someone that can help with this disorder, there are organizations that they can contact which will connect them with proper resources in their area. Organizations include the Academy for Eating Disorders and the National Eating Disorders Association. Bulimia nervosa is more prevalent in females than males in all age groups. In the US, adult prevalence is 1.0% and adolescent prevalence is 0.9%, with the median age of onset of 18 years. After comparing different age groups, we have seen the prevalence of bulimia nervosa has increased over time. Conclusion: Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are eating disorders that can have consequences on the health of our patients. We should know the difference between these two diseases and know the resources available in our community to assist these patients. The diagnosis may be done clinically, but you will need to order labs or imaging for a full assessment. Eating disorders are an example of the direct effect a mental illness can have in the body. In the specific case, anorexia and bulimia cause malnutrition. The treatment of these diseases requires a multidisciplinary team to treat the patient and the family as well.____________________________Conclusion: Now we conclude our episode number 76 “Eating Disorders.” We started this episode with exciting news about the new malaria vaccine, a step forward on our fight against malaria. Sophia, Jeffrey, and Dr Arreaza presented an interesting overview about anorexia and bulimia. They taught us that if a patient perceives him or herself as “fat”, but they are actually underweight, they may have anorexia. Patients with bulimia tend to have normal or above normal BMI but have periods of binging and purging. Be aware of these conditions while assessing your patients' nutritional status and treat appropriately or refer as needed. Even without trying, every night you go to bed being a little wiser.Thanks for listening to Rio Bravo qWeek. If you have any feedback about this podcast, contact us by email RBresidency@clinicasierravista.org, or visit our website riobravofmrp.org/qweek. This podcast was created with educational purposes only. Visit your primary care physician for additional medical advice. This week we thank Hector Arreaza, Tana Parker, Sophia Dhillon, and Jeffrey Nguyen. Audio edition: Suraj Amrutia. See you next week! _____________________References: Malaria's Impact Worldwide, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/malaria_worldwide/impact.html, accessed on November 15, 2021. Constitution of the World Health Organization, Basic Documents, Forty-fifth edition, Supplement, October 2006, accessed on Aug 26, 2021. Accessed on November 15, 2021. https://www.who.int/governance/eb/who_constitution_en.pdf. 12 Secret Signs of Anorexia, CBS News, August 12, 2010, https://www.cbsnews.com/pictures/12-secret-signs-of-anorexia/3/. Hudson JI, Hiripi E, Pope HG Jr, Kessler RC. The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Feb 1;61(3):348-58. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.03.040. Epub 2006 Jul 3. Erratum in: Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Jul 15;72(2):164. PMID: 16815322; PMCID: PMC1892232. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16815322/. Mitchell, James E, MD; and Christie Zunker, PhD, CPH, CHES, Bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder in adults: Medical complications and their management, UpToDate, October 2021. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/bulimia-nervosa-and-binge-eating-disorder-in-adults-medical-complications-and-their-management?search=Bulimia%20nervosa%20and%20binge%20eating%20disorder%20in%20adults:%20Medical%20complications%20and%20their%20management&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1 Yager, Joel, MD, Eating disorders: Overview of epidemiology, clinical features, and diagnosis, UpToDate, October 2021. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/eating-disorders-overview-of-epidemiology-clinical-features-and-diagnosis?search=Eating%20disorders:%20Overview%20of%20epidemiology,%20clinical%20features,%20and%20diagnosis&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1 Yager, Joel, MD, Eating disorders: Overview of prevention and treatment, UpToDate, October 2021. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/eating-disorders-overview-of-prevention-and-treatment?search=Eating%20disorders:%20Overview%20of%20prevention%20and%20treatment&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1
Stephan van der Zwaard, PhD, is an assistant professor at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam as well as a data scientist at Leiden University. With his background in both sports science and exercise physiology as well as data science, Stephan is able to work at the intersection of these fields to provide unique perspectives both in academia and applied sports such as cycling and speed skating. Today we discuss one of Stephan's most recent papers, titled "Under the hood: Skeletal muscle determinants of endurance performance". IN THIS EPISODE YOU'LL LEARN ABOUT: -A summary of VO2max, lactate threshold, and exercise economy (whole body-determinants of endurance performance) -A deep dive into skeletal muscle determinants of endurance performance (including muscle fiber type, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, capillarisation, myoglobin and others) -Different training types and training intensities (e.g. low intensity, moderate intensity, high intensity, sprint interval training etc), and how they might impact the skeletal determinants of endurance performance -Why the polarised training model tends to work so well for endurance athletes SHOWNOTES: https://scientifictriathlon.com/tts313/ SCIENTIFIC TRIATHLON AND THAT TRIATHLON SHOW WEBPAGE: www.scientifictriathlon.com/podcast/ SPONSORS: ROKA - Exceptional quality triathlon wetsuits, trisuits, swimskins, goggles, performance sunglasses as well as prescription eyeglasses and sunglasses. Online vision test for prescription updates and home try-on options available for eyeglasses. Ships from the US, UK and EU. Trusted by world-leading athletes such as Lucy Charles-Barclay, Javier Gómez Noya, Flora Duffy, Morgan Pearson, Summer Rappaport and others in triathlon, cycling, speed skating, and many more. Visit roka.com/tts for 20% off your order. ZEN8 - The ZEN8 Indoor Swim Trainer is a tool for time-crunched triathletes looking to improve swim specific strength and technique. The swim trainer is a perfect complement to your training in the pool. On days when you don't have time to go to the pool, you can now do a short but effective home-based workout on the trainer. It is inflatable, so doesn't take up much space, and best of all, it is very affordable. Get 20% off your order at zen8swimtrainer.com/tts. LINKS AND RESOURCES: Stephan's Twitter, Research Gate and website Under the Hood: Skeletal Muscle Determinants of Endurance Performance - van der Zwaard et al. 2021 All "Science and Physiology" episodes on That Triathlon Show RATE AND REVIEW: If you enjoy the show, please help me out by subscribing, rating and reviewing: www.scientifictriathlon.com/rate/ CONTACT: Want to send feedback, questions or just chat? Email me at firstname.lastname@example.org or connect on Instagram, Facebook, or Twitter.
Aulas online, prescrição de treinos, livros, artigos científicos, cursos e muito mais em www.PauloGentil.com Treinos online, Nerdflix, Franquia Person@ll, livros, artigos científicos, grupo do Telegram, cursos e muito mais em: https://www.paulogentil.com/bio/ Instagram – https://www.instagram.com/drpaulogentil/ (@drpaulogentil) Facebook – https://www.fb.com/drpaulogentil Referência: Stephens FB, Wall BT, Marimuthu K, Shannon CE, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Macdonald IA, Greenhaff PL. Skeletal muscle … Suplementos de carboidrato Leia mais »
Japan Nick's Quarantine Podcast 68 Skeletal Remains Chris Monroy Interview Japan Nick had another interview with Skeletal Remains frontman Chris to discuss his band's tour with Crowbar and Municipal Waste. We talked about things he had to do to get ready for the tour and how things have changed in the past few years.
Join our expert panel in this live virtual symposium on the management and treatment of skeletal dysplasias. Credit available for this activity expires: 10/29/2022 Earn Credit / Learning Objectives & Disclosures: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/961766?src=mkm_podcast_addon_961766
Welcome to the table and we hope you enjoy the show as Anthony brings some friends together for a campaign of Dungeons & Dragons. The Faybala Five back from Jorrel's trap head after the big top tent for the final encounter. Follow us on all platforms at https://linktr.ee/podcastersttg Make sure to FOLLOW our sponsor for the stream, DCT Industries at: https://www.facebook.com/DctIndustries.tabletopgaming Dungeon Master Anthony. Players Danny as Howard Phillips Twitter: @PodcasterH Instagram: @ratphincarts Ricky as Remus Twitter: PodcastersRemus Everywhere else: @rickcoates Mark as Maximus Twitter: @PodcasterMadMax Instagram: @the.mark.716 Tony as Finks Twitter: @PodcastersFinks Instagram: @phoenixforged Jeff as Morgor Instagram: @dct_industries
The FBI's Denver office said Thursday that remains found a day earlier in a Florida nature reserve are those of Brian Laundrie, who disappeared last month just days after his fiancée Gabby Petito was reported missing.The FBI said dental records confirmed the identification.Two local detectives visited the North Port, Florida, home of Laundrie's parents shortly before the FBI made its announcement."Chris and Roberta Laundrie have been informed that the remains found yesterday in the reserve are indeed Brian's," family attorney Steven Bertolino said. "We have no further comment at this time and we ask that you respect the Laundrie's privacy at this time."An attorney for the Petito family, Richard Stafford, said they are not doing interviews."They are grieving the loss of their beautiful daughter," Stafford said. "Gabby's family will make a statement at the appropriate time and when they are emotionally ready."Skeletal remains and clothing foundThe identification came hours after police in North Port said the remains that were found were skeletal and belonged to a human."They are human remains, no doubt there. I would say that the remains were consistent with one individual, you know skeletal remains," police spokesperson Josh Taylor told CNN.Investigators also found clothing believed to be consistent with what Laundrie was wearing when he took off September 13, according to Taylor.Less than a week after Laundrie went missing last month, authorities in Wyoming found Petito's remains in a national forest. Her death was ruled a homicide by manual strangulation.On Wednesday, investigators also found a backpack and a notebook belonging to Laundrie, 23, near the remains while they were searching the Carlton Reserve in North Port, according to FBI Special Agent in Charge Michael McPherson."The notebook to my understanding has not been opened. You know, that will need to be processed," Taylor said.A source with knowledge of the investigation told CNN the notebook is "possibly salvageable." The source said the notebook was "outside of the dry bag.""It had been clearly wet and they are going to use any potential means to dry that out before opening it," according to the source, who added: "They'll be very careful with it."The source said it is unclear how the notebook ended up outside the bag.When Taylor was asked about whether a weapon was found, he said he could not comment.When asked if there is an ongoing search for the murderer of Gabby Petito, he responded, "That is certainly not in the North Port Police Department's purview."During a search with police, Chris Laundrie was the first to spot an item belonging to his son, according to Taylor.Search conditions had been very difficultLee County Sheriff Carmine Marceno said Thursday law enforcement had been searching in treacherous conditions, including nearly chest-high water full of snakes and alligators."These are very, very difficult conditions. You're searching in areas that you just can't walk up and look. It's not like you're searching a house or a car," he said. "These areas are huge and they're covered by water."The exhaustive search for Laundrie stretched over a month as authorities tried to piece together what happened to him and Petito during their road trip through the Western US this summer.Petito, 22, disappeared on the trip amid tensions in their relationship, and her remains were later found near where the couple had last been seen together.Laundrie, who had returned by himself to his parents' home in Florida, refused to talk with investigators and didn't return after telling his parents he was going to the nature reserve to hike.He was not charged in Petito's death, although he was indicted for allegedly using two financial accounts that did not belong to him in the days following her killing.Authorities, including several K-9 units and off-road vehicles, returned to the reserve on Thursday morning to further search the area.Brian Laun...
BREAKING NEWS: Human remains discovered yesterday have been confirmed to be that of Brian Luandrie. We have the latest on this breaking situation. #BrianLaundrie #Found #HumanRemains Get JumpStart Coffee Here: https://bit.ly/JumpStartAoA15 Donate to Star Legacy in J-Sabs Daughter Diana Hope's name: https://bit.ly/StarDianaHope Subscribe to our Podcast clips channel! - http://bit.ly/AoAClips Support the podcast https://anchor.fm/anthonyonair/support Get Merch here - https://bit.ly/AnthonyMerch Subscribe to the Anthony On Air Podcast here: Facebook - https://bit.ly/AntOnAirFB YouTube - https://bit.ly/AntOnAirYT Apple Podcast - https://bit.ly/AntOnAirApple Google Podcast - https://bit.ly/AntOnAirGoo Spotify - https://bit.ly/AntOnAirSpot Stitcher - https://bit.ly/AntOnAirSti Overcast - https://bit.ly/AntOnAirOv Twitter - https://bit.ly/AntOnAirTwitter Instagram - https://bit.ly/AntOnAirInsta Get more at https://www.AnthonyOnAir.com --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/anthonyonair/message Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/anthonyonair/support
In this episode of Rockbottum Radio, RW finally reveals all of his Skeletal Golf secrets for great greens (Bent or UD) along with the backstory explaining why they were kept secret. The Mad Golf Prophet offers up his Last Prediction ever and confesses how he knew this supply line dislocation was coming. Finally, a Halloween tale for Storytime that is too spooky, even for Rockbottum.
Another week and another jam-packed episode full of many different games, from twin-stick shooters, to virtual reality survival games, and even a simulator all about fixing rovers. There are good games, okay games, and bad games, but which is which will only be learned by listening to the podcast, so grab them earbuds, turn on the hot tub, and enjoy yourself some good ol' fashioned podcasting. Games Discussed: Skeletal Avenger, Synth Riders, Song in the Smoke, Godstrike, Centipede: Recharged, Greylancer, Rover Mechanic Simulator, Underland, The Lightbringer
How's your love life? Dead? Well you're not alone! The internet is filled with very real, very sexy tales of ghosts, ghouls, skeletons, and demons that pull their blankets or make them look at porn. If that sounds hot to you, well you're a fool because ghosts are cold. Join us on an adventure across […]
The Atlanta spa shooter has pleaded not guilty in Fulton County court; Skeletal remains were found out in rural Paulding County; And Georgia's burn ban will be lifted in October. #CobbCounty #Georgia #LocalNews - - - - - The Marietta Daily Journal Podcast is local news for Marietta, Kennesaw, Smyrna, and all of Cobb County. Subscribe today, so you don't miss an episode! MDJOnline Register Here for your essential digital news. Find additional episodes of the MDJ Podcast here. This Podcast was produced and published for the Marietta Daily Journal and MDJ Online by BG Ad Group on 9-29-2021. For advertising inquiries, please email email@example.com See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
This podcast will provide information about the diagnosis and management of child abuse, with a focus on the skeletal and cutaneous manifestations of physical abuse. Initial Publication Date: September 29, 2021 Please visit: http://www.openpediatrics.org OPENPediatrics™ is an interactive digital learning platform for healthcare clinicians sponsored by Boston Children's Hospital and in collaboration with the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies. It is designed to promote the exchange of knowledge between healthcare providers around the world caring for critically ill children in all resource settings. The content includes internationally recognized experts teaching the full range of topics on the care of critically ill children. All content is peer-reviewed and open access-and thus at no expense to the user. For further information on how to enroll, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:09).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImageExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 9-24-21. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of September 27, 2021. This episode is part of a series this fall on water connections to the human body and human biology. This week, we start with some mystery sounds. Have a listen for about 25 seconds, and see if you know the body system you can hear at work in all of these sounds. And here's a hint: it'll be a show of strength if you guess this. SOUNDS - ~23 sec If you guessed the muscular system, you're right! Walking, dribbling a basketball, lifting weights, and jumping rope all involve some of the over 600 skeletal muscles in the human body. Skeletal muscles, also called striated or voluntary muscles, are one of three muscle types in the body. The other two are smooth, or involuntary muscles, found in internal organs; and cardiac muscle in the heart. Whatever their location or function, muscles have several important connections to water, including the following six. First, water is a major component of muscles, making up over 70 percent of muscle mass. Second, cell volume, that is, the space within cells, is affected by the amount of water that cells contain, or the cells' hydration state. This is believed to be related to muscle strength and contraction capacity by affecting the shape and function of muscle proteins. Third, water is the medium containing all the dissolved biochemicals that the body needs to function, including those involved in muscular contraction and in nourishing muscle cells. Fourth, water is involved in reactions that release energy from the molecule ATP, and water is associated with the important energy-storage molecule glycogen. Fifth, water helps regulate body temperature, including the heat generated by muscular activity. And sixth, water helps lubricate moveable joints, the structures upon which skeletal muscles act to move parts of the body. Overall, water plays a significant role in muscle strength and function, and muscle, in turn, is an important area of water storage for the body. We close with some music whose title speaks of one of the most common uses of our muscles. Here's the closing 25 seconds of “Walk This Way For Awhile,” by the Harrisonburg and Rockingham County, Va.-based band, The Steel Wheels. MUSIC - ~25 sec – Lyrics: “…you walk this way for awhile; will you walk this way for awhile? I think you will, I know you still, I hope you will.” SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment. For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624. Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this show. In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The sounds heard in this episode were recorded by Virginia Water Radio in Blacksburg, Va., on September 23, 2021. “Walk This Way for Awhile,” by The Steel Wheels, is from the album “Live at Goose Creek,” recorded October 14, 2010, at Franklin Park Performing Arts Center, Purcellville, Va., and produced by Goose Creek Music; used with permission of The Steel Wheels. The song is also on The Steel Wheel's 2010 album, “Red Wing.” More information about The Steel Wheels is available online at http://www.thesteelwheels.com/. More information about Goose Creek Music is available online at http://www.goosecreekmusic.com/. More information about the Franklin Park Arts Center is available online at http://www.franklinparkartscenter.org/. This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio in Episode 286, 10-19-15. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGE Structure of a representative human skeletal muscle. Illustration from National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute, SEER Training Module, “Muscular System/Structure of Skeletal Muscle,” online at https://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/muscular/structure.html. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT THE HUMAN MUSCULAR SYSTEM The following information is quoted from the National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute, SEER Training Module, “Muscular System/Introduction” online at https://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/muscular/. “The muscular system is composed of specialized cells called muscle fibers. Their predominant function is contractibility. Muscles, attached to bones or internal organs and blood vessels, are responsible for movement. Nearly all movement in the body is the result of muscle contraction. Exceptions to this are the action of cilia, the flagellum on sperm cells, and amoeboid movement of some white blood cells. “The integrated action of joints, bones, and skeletal muscles produces obvious movements such as walking and running. Skeletal muscles also produce more subtle movements that result in various facial expressions, eye movements, and respiration. “In addition to movement, muscle contraction also fulfills some other important functions in the body, such as posture, joint stability, and heat production. Posture, such as sitting and standing, is maintained as a result of muscle contraction. The skeletal muscles are continually making fine adjustments that hold the body in stationary positions. The tendons of many muscles extend over joints and in this way contribute to joint stability. This is particularly evident in the knee and shoulder joints, where muscle tendons are a major factor in stabilizing the joint. Heat production, to maintain body temperature, is an important by-product of muscle metabolism. Nearly 85 percent of the heat produced in the body is the result of muscle contraction.” SOURCES Used for Audio Ann Baggaley, ed., Human Body, Dorling Kindersley Publishing, New York, N.Y, 2001. Cedric Bryant and Daniel Green, eds., Essentials of Exercise Science, American Council on Exercise, San Diego, Calif., 2017. Michael Houston, Biochemistry Primer for Exercise Science, 3rd Edition, Human Kinetics, Champaign, Ill., 2006. Isabel Lorenzo et al., “The Role of Water Homeostasis in Muscle Function and Frailty: A Review,” Nutrients, Vol. 11, No. 8 (August 2019, accessed online at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6723611/(subscription may be required for access). National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute, SEER Training Modules, “Muscular System,” online at https://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/muscular/. Science Direct, “Synovial Fluid: Structure and Function,” excerpted from Textbook of Pediatric Rheumatology, 5th Edition, Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2005; accessed online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/synovial-fluid(subscription may be required for access). Scott Powers and Edward Howley, Exercise Physiology: Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance, 8th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, N.Y., 2012.U.S. Geological Survey, “The Water in You: Water and the Human Body, online at https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/water-you-water-and-human-body?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects. For More Information about Water and the Human Body American Society of Hematology, “Blood Basics,” online at https://www.hematology.org/education/patients/blood-basics. Cleveland [Ohio] Clinic, “Heart & Blood Vessels: How Does Blood Travel Through Your Body,” online at https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/heart-blood-vessels-blood-flow-body. Cleveland [Ohio] Clinic, “Lymphatic System,” online at https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/21199-lymphatic-system.Eric Cudler, “Neuroscience for Kids,” online at https://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html. Franklin Institute of Philadelphia, Penn., “Blood Vessels,” online at https://www.fi.edu/heart/blood-vessels. Mayo Clinic Health System, “Water: Essential to your body,” online at https://www.mayoclinichealthsystem.org/hometown-health/speaking-of-health/water-essential-to-your-body. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, “Facts About Blood and Blood Cells,” online at https://www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/patient-education/facts-about-blood-and-blood-cells. National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute, SEER Training Modules, “Nervous System,” online at https://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/nervous/. National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute, SEER Training Module, “Skeletal System,” online at https://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/skeletal/.National Institutes of Health/National Library of Medicine, “Blood, Heart and Circulation,” online at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/bloodheartandcirculation.html. University of Bristol (England), School of Medical Sciences, “Brain Basics: The Fundamentals of Neuroscience,” online at http://www.bris.ac.uk/synaptic/basics/basics-0.html. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). See particularly the “Science” subject category. Another episode related to human exercise is Episode 483, 7-29-19. It focuses on buoyancy and drag in the water and is designed for middle school and high school students. Following are links to other episodes on connections of water to human biology. Please note that some of these episodes are being redone in fall 2021; in those cases, the respective links below will have information on the updated episodes. Episode 195, 1-6-14 – Water thermodynamics.Episode 393, 11-6-17 – Disease: Influenza.Episode 466, 4-1-19 – Water intake and sports.Episode 517, 3-23-20 and Episode 519, 4-6-20 – Disease: Water connections to COVID-19.Episode 592, 8-30-21 – Overview of water's roles in the body.Episode 593, 9-6-21 – Circulatory system connections to water.Episode 594, 9-13-21 – Neurological system connections to water.Episode 595, 9-20-21 – Skeletal system connections to water. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-3 plus 5: Force, Motion, and Energy5.2 – Energy can take many forms.5.3 – There is a relationship between force and energy of moving objects. Grades K-4: Living Systems and Processes4.2 – Plants and animals have structures that distinguish them from one another and play vital roles in their ability to survive. Grade 66.6 – Water has unique physical properties and has a role in the natural and human-made environment. Life ScienceLS.2 – All living things are composed of one or more cells that support life processes, as described by the cell theory.LS.4 – There are chemical processes of energy transfer which are important for life. BiologyBIO.2 – Chemical and biochemical processes are essential for life.BIO.3 – Cells have structure and function. Virginia's SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/. Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels. Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rdgrade.Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade.Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten.Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade.Episode 333, 9-12-16
Panelists Drs. Jorge Orbay, Deana Mercer, Nathan Hoekzema, and Ben Plucknette discuss management of complex distal elbow injuries with the Distal Elbow Set. Travis Mark hosts this engaging conversation. For more information about the Distal Elbow Set, please visit: https://skeletaldynamics.com/ For additional educational resources visit https://ota.org/
(Intro) Carded (Topic) In honor of the Met Gala last night, what's the most ridiculous article of clothing you own? (Dirty) Nicki Minaj tweets about the vaccine & having Covid. Celebs serve looks at the Met Gala. Drake dominates the Billboard Hot 100. Dua Lipa announces tour with Megan Thee Stallion. (5TYNTK) Record number of Maine Covid patients on ventilators. Portland's City Council postponed a vote on mask mandate until next Monday. Skeletal remains found near the I-295 overpass in Falmouth. UMaine at Farmington recognized by U.S. News & World Report. Allagash Brewing wins big at Great American Beer Fest. (Outro) Fast Food subscription
I'm BAAAACCCCKKKKK!! I've collected some interesting stories for you today, from different ends of “the fear spectrum”, shall we call it. From strange sightings to near-death experiences, we've got them all in here today, and I'm so excited to share them with all of you! I know I've said it before, but I really love […]
Welcome to Midnight Slumber! We have a fun short story for you. In this story, an aerial battle leads to a creepy home buyer. Sit back, relax, enjoy this short story, and thanks for listening! Written and Narrated by Zack Miller. Follow us on Twitter @The_MNS_Podcast, Instagram @midnight_slumber_podcast, our YouTube Channel - Midnight Slumber, and on Facebook – Midnight Slumber.
A fascinating look at the teeth and skeletal remains from colonial Jamestown with Dr. Marty Levin. Dr. Levin is an Adjunct Professor of Endodontics at the University of Pennsylvania, School of Dental Medicine. At the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. Levin is currently Chair of the Dean's Council. He received the Alumni Award of Merit, served as Chair of the Board of Advisors from 2004-2008 and remains an ex officio member of the board. He served as Co-Chair and of the Joint Special Committee of the American Association of Endodontists (AAE) and the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology on the use of cone beam computed tomography in endodontics and serves on the update committee. Dr. Levin is currently appointed to the AAE's Special Committee to Develop an Outcomes Consensus Conference. Dr. Levin speaks both nationally and internationally on advanced technologies in endodontic practice, office operations management and anthropology investigations. He is a contributor to “Pathways of the Pulp,” Ingle's Endodontics,” “Cone Beam CT: Oral and Maxillofacial Diagnosis and Applications,” and the Journal of Endodontics as well as the author of numerous other book chapters and peer-reviewed articles. He is included on the Recommended Speakers List of the AAE on cone beam computed tomography and is the American Association of Endodontists' representative to the Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging. He has conducted forensic research at the University of Pennsylvania Museum, Jamestown, the Nanomaterials Characterization Core Facility, Virginia Commonwealth University and the National Institutes of Standards and Technology. He has co-authored papers presented at the American Academy of Forensic Sciences and Society for American Archeology. Dr. Levin earned his degree in dental medicine from the University of Pennsylvania in 1972, where he was a member of the Omicron Kappa Upsilon Honor Society. After completing his post-doctoral residency in endodontics at the University of Pennsylvania, he became a Diplomate of the American Board of Endodontics, and a member of the College of Diplomates. The Dental Clinical Companion Podcast (DCCP) is provided for general informational purposes only. The DCCP, MounceEndo, LLC, Dr. Joel Fransen, Richmond Endodontics CA, and Dr. Richard Mounce personally have no liability for any clinical, management, or financial decisions or actions taken or made by you based on the information provided in this program. The DCCP is not intended to offer dental, medical, legal, management, investment, surgical, tax, clinical, or any other professional advice. Reliance on the information in the DCCP is done entirely at the listeners own risk. No guarantees, representations, or warrantees are made with regard to the completeness, accuracy, and/or quality of the DCCP. The DCCP takes no responsibility for, does not endorse, and does not imply a relationship/affiliation to any websites, products, services, devices, individuals, organizations which are hyperlinked to any DCCP component or mentioned in the DCCP. Third party materials, hyperlinks, and/or DCCP content does not reflect the opinions, standards, and policies of MounceEndo, LLC (owner of the DCCP, Dr. Richard Mounce, the guest, or show sponsors). The DCCP makes no warranty that the Podcast and its server are free of computer viruses or other destructive or contaminating code elements. The Dental Clinical Companion Podcast expressly disclaims any and all liability or responsibility for any direct, indirect, incidental, special consequential or other damages arising out of any individuals use of, reference to, reliance on, or inability to use, this podcast or the information presented in this podcast. Support the show (http://mounceendo.com/)
Most of the meat we consume is from the skeletal muscle of animals, which provides a great source of protein in our diet. However, the organs of animals are incredibly nutrient-dense and often overlooked. They are great sources of essential fats, minerals, and vitamins. The common misconception is that organ meat is not palatable. Of course, this depends on which meats and how they are prepared. In today's episode, we discuss the important nutrients you might be missing out on if you don't eat “Offal”. Today on The Lab Report: 2:05 What is “Offal” eating? 4:25 Skeletal muscle vs. organ meat 7:35 Offal nutrients 10:45 Cautions when eating offal 13:20 Kitchen Cook-cophony! Subscribe, Rate, & Review The Lab Report Thanks for tuning in to this week's episode of The Lab Report, presented by Genova Diagnostics, with your hosts Michael Chapman and Patti Devers. If you enjoyed this episode, please hit the subscribe button and give us a rating or leave a review. Don't forget to visit our website, like us on Facebook, follow us on Twitter, Instagram, and LinkedIn. Email Patti and Michael with your most interesting and pressing questions on functional medicine: email@example.com. And, be sure to share your favorite Lab Report episodes with your friends and colleagues on social media to help others learn more about Genova and all things related to functional medicine and specialty lab testing. Disclaimer: The content and information shared in The Lab Report is for educational purposes only and should not be taken as medical advice. The views and opinions expressed in The Lab Report represent the opinions and views of Michael Chapman and Patti Devers and their guests. See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
BBB head off to Fort Gumbo to begin preparations to climb up Bone Mountain. However, they run into some old friends while in town. Later, they meet some very nasty looking eyeballs. sailsofftherails.com Music Used: Moon Rock - Nathan Moore; Leaning on the Everlasting Arms - Zachariah Hickman; Willow and the Light - Kevin MacLeod; Roundup on the Prairie - Aaron Kenny; Shasta - Jesse Gallagher; Satan's Choir - Coyote Hearing; The Banquet - Hainbach; Ice Demon - Kevin MacLeod; Dark Alley Deals - Aaron Kenny; Dance of the U-boat - Aakash Gandhi; Epic Journey - Yung Logos; Cavalry - Aakash Gandhi; Diggy - Patrick Patrikios; Before the Apocalypse - Robert Abraham; Action Epic - Komiku; A State of Despair - Mid-Air Machine; Line of Flight - Revolution Void; Barbarian - Pierlo; Clash Defiant - Kevin MacLeod; Tyrant - Kevin MacLeod; The Descent - Kevin MacLeod; Urban Gauntlet - Kevin MacLeod; Dragon and Toast - Kevin MacLeod; Fastest Man on Earth - Jahzzar; Veracruz - Quincas Moreira
Why hello. I didn't see you there. I'm playing a Skeletal Swarming deck in Magic the Gathering – Adventures in the Forgotten Realms. Join me? The post Skeletal Swarming | MTG ASMR | Adventures in the Forgotten Realms appeared first on Geekspective.
Looking for ways to strengthen and restore your skeletal system? OsteoStrong offers a unique, medication-free approach to improving bone density and reducing joint pain! Go to https://osteostronglosgatos.com (https://osteostronglosgatos.com) for more information.
Chris and Cara chat with Elizabeth Cho, a PhD candidate in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Missouri. Elizabeth talks about her recent AABA presentation and the research behind it. Her findings on the associations between skeletal variations and climate are the result of her analysis of many different collections all across Asia. You can contact Elizabeth at firstname.lastname@example.org Contact the Sausage of Science Podcast and Human Biology Association: Facebook: www.facebook.com/groups/humanbiologyassociation Website:humbio.org/, Twitter: @HumBioAssoc Cara Ocobock, Website: sites.nd.edu/cara-ocobock/, Email:email@example.com, Twitter:@CaraOcobock Chris Lynn, HBA Public Relations Committee Chair, Website: cdlynn.people.ua.edu/, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, Twitter:@Chris_Ly Delaney Glass, Website: dglass.netlify.app/, Email: email@example.com, Twitter: @GlassDelaney Alexandra Niclou, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, Twitter: @fiat_Luxandra
Karen Christman and Marianna Alperin discuss the newest discoveries and cutting-edge techniques for pro-regenerative biomaterials for heart and skeletal muscle with applications to cardiovascular disease and pelvic floor disorders. Series: "Women in Science" [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 36848]
Karen Christman and Marianna Alperin discuss the newest discoveries and cutting-edge techniques for pro-regenerative biomaterials for heart and skeletal muscle with applications to cardiovascular disease and pelvic floor disorders. Series: "Women in Science" [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 36848]
The Missing Piece in Skeletal Growth and Development Episode #299 with Dr. Rebecca Bockow Airway dysfunction can lead to a number of comorbidities — anything from tooth decay to behavioral concerns. And to prevent them, it's important to understand the possible causes. One of them is an undersized jaw, and Kirk Behrendt brings on Dr. Rebecca Bockow to talk about what influences skeletal growth and development, and the importance of early treatment and intervention. For more on identifying and treating tongue and respiratory dysfunctions, listen to Episode 299 of The Best Practices Show! Main Takeaways: Dentists may be the first providers to identify airway issues in patients. Key things in skeletal growth and development happen as early as during breastfeeding. Breathing and tongue placement habit strongly influences skeletal growth. Undersized jaws can lead to comorbidities. Ask patients open-ended questions to identify possible issues. Look to early treatment and early intervention. Treat the “why”. Look for tonsils, airway issues, and tongue-ties. Understand structure, function, and behavior. Quotes: “When we see malocclusion, we might be, as dentists, the first providers to identify for some of these patients that they do in fact have an airway issue. So, this can present, for example, grinding. Grinding in kids and adults is a sign that airway is not great. We can pick up tongue- ties. Certainly, the easy ones to pick up would be a crossbite, open bite, underbite, overbite. These are all linked to airway dysfunction. So, once you see it, you can't not see it. And you'll start to see how prevalent it is.” (05:11—05:48) “As care providers, we can sometimes ask open-ended questions for the patient, ‘How do you sleep?' And it opens up Pandora's box. ‘Oh, I wake up through the night. My child couldn't breastfeed. She's still wearing Pull-Ups at age eight. We've got a lot of behavioral concerns, not paying attention in school, comes into my bed every night, tired during the day.' And we, as orthodontists, see the crossbite. And so, all of a sudden, we're tying things together for these families that they didn't even know were connected.” (05:49—06:28) “If we think about skeletal growth and development, a lot of the key things that happen happen really early on, going back even as early as breastfeeding.” (07:20—07:28) “Thinking about the tongue, all of those movements [when breastfeeding] require a great deal of coordination, as well as flexibility and strength. And so, if you have a child that has a condition called apraxia, and there's a lot of nuances to this, but globally thinking about a child's ability to move the tongue in a way that's healthy, so getting that tongue up and forward, things like muscle incoordination or things like tongue-ties are going to adversely affect what's going to happen with the tongue.” (08:12—08:49) “The nose is a natural filter. When you have the ability to breathe through your nose, the nose is going to humidify the air. It moistens the air. You filter out all the dust, the allergens, the pollens. Adenoids and tonsils are hypertrophic tissue, so if you have a child that's a mouth-breather, we tend to see bigger tonsils, bigger adenoids. And so, this cycle continues because they're more driven to breathe through their mouth, because now they have nasal respiratory obstruction.” (10:21—10:48) “There's great documentation that links nasal respiratory obstruction with undersized jaws. And then, we start to see other comorbidities that we would notice as dentists, which include grinding, high carious incidents, hypertrophic tissue such as the gum tissue. And the cycle goes on and on. As orthodontists, we see this as crowding because the jaws are small. So, there's insufficient bone to accommodate the eruption of the adult dentition. And so, it's sort of this aha moment when we start to link what goes on early with breathing and tongue function or dysfunction and the way that...
Study strengthens links between red meat and heart disease Queen Mary University (UK), 15 April 2021 An observational study in nearly 20,000 individuals has found that greater intake of red and processed meat is associated with worse heart function. The research is presented at ESC Preventive Cardiology 2021, an online scientific congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).1 "Previous studies have shown links between greater red meat consumption and increased risk of heart attacks or dying from heart disease," said study author Dr. Zahra Raisi-Estabragh of Queen Mary University of London, UK.2,3 "For the first time, we examined the relationships between meat consumption and imaging measures of heart health. This may help us to understand the mechanisms underlying the previously observed connections with cardiovascular disease." The study included 19,408 participants of the UK Biobank.4 The researchers examined associations of self-reported intake of red and processed meat with heart anatomy and function. Three types of heart measures were analysed. First, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) assessments of heart function used in clinical practice such as volume of the ventricles and measures of the pumping function of the ventricles. Second, novel CMR radiomics used in research to extract detailed information from heart images such as shape and texture (which indicates health of the heart muscle). Third, elasticity of the blood vessels (stretchy arteries are healthier). The analysis was adjusted for other factors that might influence the relationship including age, sex, deprivation, education, smoking, alcohol, exercise, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and body mass index (BMI) as a measure of obesity. The researchers found that greater intake of red and processed meat was associated with worse imaging measures of heart health, across all measures studied. Specifically, individuals with higher meat intake had smaller ventricles, poorer heart function, and stiffer arteries - all markers of worse cardiovascular health. As a comparison, the researchers also tested the relationships between heart imaging measures and intake of oily fish, which has previously been linked with better heart health. They found that as the amount of oily fish consumption rose, heart function improved, and arteries were stretchier. Dr. Raisi-Estabragh said: "The findings support prior observations linking red and processed meat consumption with heart disease and provide unique insights into links with heart and vascular structure and function." The associations between imaging measures of heart health and meat intake were only partially explained by high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and obesity. "It has been suggested that these factors could be the reason for the observed relationship between meat and heart disease," said Dr. Raisi-Estabragh. "For example, it is possible that greater red meat intake leads to raised blood cholesterol and this in turn causes heart disease. Our study suggests that these four factors do play a role in the links between meat intake and heart health, but they are not the full story." She noted that the study did not look into alternative mechanisms. But she said: "There is some evidence that red meat alters the gut microbiome, leading to higher levels of certain metabolites in the blood, which have in turn been linked to greater risk of heart disease." Dr. Raisi-Estabragh said: "This was an observational study and causation cannot be assumed. But in general, it seems sensible to limit intake of red and processed meat for heart health reasons." More Fruits and Veggies Improves Sleep for Young Adults University of Michigan, April 15, 2021 Eating more fruits and vegetables can help young adults, especially young women, sleep better, a new study shows Young adults who reported eating less than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day reported a high prevalence of chronic insomnia symptoms, with over one-third reporting difficulties with falling asleep or maintaining sleep at least three times per week for three months or longer. Women who increased their fruit and vegetable intake by three or more servings over a three-month period were more than twice as likely to experience an improvement in these insomnia symptoms, according to the study in the Sleep Health Journal. “We were very excited to see that a fairly simple dietary intervention, such as encouraging an increase in fruit and vegetable consumption, could make such an impact on sleep,” says lead author Erica Jansen, research assistant professor of nutritional sciences at the University of Michigan’s School of Public Health. “We know from other literature that improving sleep improves overall quality of life and many other health outcomes, so the benefits likely extend beyond the sleep changes.” Jansen and senior author Gwen Alexander, a researcher in the public health sciences department at Henry Ford Health System, and colleagues analyzed data of more than 1,400 participants compiled by Detroit-based Henry Ford and the more rural Geisinger Health System headquartered in Danville, Pennsylvania. “From my health educator perspective, our study shows a link between dietary choices and improved sleep for young people who wish to improve their overall health and well-being,” Alexander says. “Our study was unique in that it investigated an understudied population of generally healthy young adults. Future research designed for this population has great potential to lead to better health habits.” Eligible young adults included those ages 21-30, who received any medical care at the centers and who reported eating less than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Researchers randomized the participants into one of three groups: one had an untailored web-based program to encourage higher fruits and vegetables consumption; the second had an age-targeted tailored web-based program; and the third group also included personalized e-coaching support. Young adults who increased their fruit and vegetable consumption by at least three servings experienced modest improvements in sleep latency (time to fall asleep) and insomnia over a three-month period, compared to participants with no change or smaller increases in fruits and vegetable intake, although there were no differences in sleep duration. Women who increased their fruit and vegetable intake by three or more servings reported a four-minute shorter time, on average, to fall asleep at follow-up, and twofold higher odds of improvement in insomnia symptoms. “What is unique about our study is that we were able to see that as fruit and vegetable intake changed, insomnia-related sleep characteristics also changed,” Jansen says. “We still cannot rule out that sleep characteristics changed first, which in turn caused a change in fruit and vegetable intake, but since the participants were part of a trial to increase fruit and vegetable intake, it is more likely the other way around. The participants were not told to change anything about their sleep habits.” The researchers hope the findings will be incorporated into other sleep hygiene principles, which include things like maintaining a consistent bedtime and rise time, eliminating screens prior to going to bed, sleeping in a dark, cool environment, and not drinking caffeine or alcohol before bed. Additional coauthors are from the University of South Carolina School of Medicine and the Henry Ford Health System. Multivits, omega-3, probiotics, vitamin D may lessen risk of positive COVID-19 test British Medical Journal, April 20, 2021 Taking multivitamins, omega-3, probiotics or vitamin D supplements may lessen the risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19 infection—at least among women—indicates a large population study, published online in the journal BMJ Nutrition Prevention & Health. But taking any of vitamin C, zinc, or garlic supplements wasn't associated with a lower risk of testing positive for the virus, the findings show. There has been plenty of celebrity endorsement of the use of dietary supplements to both ward off and treat COVID-19 infection since the start of the pandemic, note the researchers. In the UK alone, market share rose by 19.5% in the period leading up to the first national 'lockdown' on March 23 last year, with sales of vitamin C rising by 110% and those of multivits by 93%. Similarly, zinc supplement sales rose by 415% in the first week of March, at the height of COVID-19 fears in the U.S.. Dietary supplements can help to support a healthy immune system, but whether specific supplements might be associated with a lower risk of catching SARS-CoV-2 isn't known. In a bid to plug this knowledge gap, the researchers drew on adult users of the COVID-19 Symptom Study app to see if regular supplement users were less likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2. The app was launched in the UK, the US, and Sweden in March 2020 to capture self-reported information on the evolution of the pandemic. Initially, it recorded the location, age and core health risk factors of its users. But as time went on, subscribers were asked to provide daily updates on a range of issues, including symptoms, coronavirus test results, and healthcare. People without obvious symptoms were also encouraged to use it. For the purposes of this study, the researchers analysed information supplied by 372,720 UK subscribers to the app about their regular use of dietary supplements throughout May, June, and July 2020 during the first wave of the pandemic as well as any coronavirus swab test results. Between May and July,175,652 UK subscribers regularly took dietary supplements;197,068 didn't. Around two thirds (67%) were women and over half were overweight (BMI of 27). In all, 23,521 people tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 349,199 tested negative between May and July. Taking probiotics, omega-3 fatty acids, multivits or vitamin D was associated with a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection: by 14%, 12%, 13% and 9%, respectively, after accounting for potentially influential factors, including underlying conditions and usual diet. No such effects were observed among those taking vitamin C, zinc, or garlic supplements. And when the researchers looked specifically at sex, age and weight (BMI), the protective associations for probiotics, omega-3 fatty acids, multivits and vitamin D were observed only in women of all ages and weights. No such clear associations were seen in men. Despite some differences, the same overall patterns were mirrored in both the US (45,757) and Swedish (27,373) subscribers. The equivalent figures for the US and Sweden were a reduced risk of:18% and 37%, respectively for probiotics; 21% and 16%, respectively, for omega-3 fatty acids; 12% and 22%, respectively for multivits; and 24% and 19%, respectively, for vitamin D supplements. This is an observational study, and as such, can't establish cause. The researchers also acknowledge several limitations, including that the study relied on self reported data and a self selected group. No information was collected on supplement doses or ingredients either. But although the observed effects were modest, they were significant, note the researchers, who call for large clinical trials to inform evidence-based therapeutic recommendations. "We know that a range of micronutrients, including vitamin D, are essential for a healthy functioning immune system. This, in turn, is key to prevention of, and recovery from, infections. "But to date, there is little convincing evidence that taking nutritional supplements has any therapeutic value beyond maintaining the body's normal immune response," comments Professor Sumantra Ray, Executive Director, NNEdPro Global Centre for Nutrition and Health, which co-owns the journal. "What's more, this study wasn't primarily designed to answer questions about the role of nutritional supplements in COVID-19. This is still an emerging area of research that warrants further rigorous study before firm conclusions can be drawn about whether specific nutritional supplements might lessen the risk of COVID-19 infection," he cautions. Vitamin D deficiency may impair muscle function Garvan Institute of Medical Research (Australia), April 16, 2021 Vitamin D deficiency may impair muscle function due to a reduction in energy production in the muscles, according to a mouse study published in the Journal of Endocrinology. Vitamin D deficient mice were found to have impaired muscle mitochondrial function, which may have implications for muscle function, performance and recovery. This may suggest that preventing vitamin D deficiency in older adults could help maintain better muscle strength and function and reduce age related muscle deterioration, but further studies are needed to confirm this. Vitamin D is a hormone well known to be important for maintaining bone health and preventing rickets and osteoporosis. In recent years, vitamin D deficiency has been reported to be as prevalent as 40% in European populations and linked to increased risk for several conditions, including COVID-19, cancer and diabetes. Although these studies report association rather than causation, the benefits of vitamin D supplementation are now a major subject of health debate. Multiple studies have also linked low vitamin D levels to poor muscle strength, particularly in older people. Skeletal muscle enables us to move voluntarily and perform everyday activities. It is essential that they have enough energy to power these movements. Specialised organs in cells, called mitochondria, convert nutrients in to energy to meet this demand. Previous studies indicate that impaired muscle strength in people with vitamin D deficiency may be linked to impaired muscle mitochondrial function. Determining the role of vitamin D in muscle performance of older people is also difficult, as they may suffer from a number of pre-existing health conditions that can also affect their vitamin D status. Therefore, previous studies have been unable to determine how vitamin D may directly affect muscle performance. Dr Andrew Philp and his team at the Garvan Institute of Medical Research in Australia, and collaborating universities, used a mouse model to determine the effects of diet-induced vitamin D deficiency on skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in young, male mice. Mice were either fed a diet with normal quantities of vitamin D, or with no vitamin D to induce deficiency, for a period of 3 months. A typical vitamin D level for humans is 40-50 nmol.L-1, and acute vitamin D deficiency is diagnosed when levels drop below 12 nmol.L-1. On average, the mice in this study had vitamin D levels of 30 nmol.L1, with diet-induced vitamin D deficiency leading to levels of just 3 nmol.L-1. Although this level was more extreme than typically observed in people, it is still within the clinically-recognised range. Tissue and blood samples were collected monthly to quantify vitamin D and calcium concentrations and to assess markers of muscle mitochondrial function and number. After 3 months of diet-induced vitamin D deficiency skeletal muscle mitochondrial function was found to be impaired by up to 37%. This was not due to a reduced number of mitochondria or a reduction in muscle mass. "Our results show there is a clear link between vitamin D deficiency and oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle. They suggest that vitamin D deficiency decreases mitochondrial function, as opposed to reducing the number of mitochondria in skeletal muscle." Dr Philp comments. "We are particularly interested to examine whether this reduction in mitochondrial function may be a cause of age related loss in skeletal muscle mass and function." These findings suggest that vitamin D deficiency may impair mitochondrial function and reduce the amount of energy produced in the muscles, which may lead to poor muscle function. Therefore, preventing vitamin D deficiency in older people may help maintain muscle performance and reduce the risk of muscle related diseases, such as sarcopenia. However, further studies that investigate the direct effect of vitamin D deficiency on muscle function and strength are necessary to confirm this. Whilst this study indicates that vitamin D deficiency can alter mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle, Dr Philp and his team were unable to determine precisely how this process occurred. Therefore, their future work aims to establish how vitamin D deficiency alters mitochondrial control and function in skeletal muscle. Psychedelic experience may not be required for psilocybin's antidepressant-like benefits So-called 'magic mushroom' drug seems to work through multiple brain mechanisms for its different effects University of Maryland School of Medicine, April 16, 2021 University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) researchers have shown that psilocybin--the active chemical in "magic mushrooms"-- still works its antidepressant-like actions, at least in mice, even when the psychedelic experience is blocked. The new findings suggest that psychedelic drugs work in multiple ways in the brain and it may be possible to deliver the fast-acting antidepressant therapeutic benefit without requiring daylong guided therapy sessions. A version of the drug without, or with less of, the psychedelic effects could loosen restrictions on who could receive the therapy, and lower costs, making the benefits of psilocybin more available to more people in need. In all clinical trials performed to date, the person treated with psilocybin remains under the care of a guide, who keeps the person calm and reassures them during their daylong experience. This can include hallucinations, altered perception of time and space, and intense emotional and spiritual encounters. Researchers in the field have long attributed psilocybin's effectiveness to the intense psychedelic experience. "We do not understand the mechanisms that underlie the antidepressant actions of psilocybin and the role that the profound psychedelic experience during these sessions plays in the therapeutic benefits," says Scott Thompson, Ph.D., Professor and Chair, Department of Physiology at UMSOM and senior author of the study. "The psychedelic experience is incredibly powerful and can be life-changing, but that could be too much for some people or not appropriate." Several barriers prevent the wide-spread use of psychedelic compounds. For example, there is fear that the psychedelic experience may promote psychosis in people who are predisposed to severe mental disorders, like bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, so the clinical therapy sessions performed to-date have been limited to a highly selected screened group without a family history of these disorders. Dr. Thompson adds that there may also be an equity issue because not everyone can take several days off work to prepare and engage in the experience. The costs of staffing a facility with at least one trained guide per treated person per day and a private space may also be prohibitive to all but a few. He says it is conceivable that a depression treatment derived from psilocybin could be developed without the psychedelic effects so people can take it safely at home without requiring a full day in a care facility. For their study, led by UMSOM MD/PhD student Natalie Hesselgrave, the team used a mouse model of depression in which mice were stressed for several hours a day over 2-3 weeks. Because researchers cannot measure mouse moods, they measure their ability to work for rewards, such as choosing to drink sugar water over plain water. People suffering from depression lose the feeling of pleasure for rewarding events. Similarly, stressed mice no longer preferred sugar water over plain water. However, 24 hours after a dose of psilocybin, the stressed mice regained their preference for the sugar water, demonstrating that the drug restored the mice's pleasure response. Psilocybin exerts its effects in people by binding to and turning on receptors for the chemical messenger serotonin. One of these receptors, the serotonin 2A receptor, is known to be responsible for the psychedelic response. To see if the psychedelic effects of psilocybin were needed for the anti-depressive benefits, the researchers treated the stressed mice with psilocybin together with a drug, ketanserin, which binds to the serotonin 2A receptor and keeps it from being turned on. The researchers found that the stressed mice regained their preference for the sugar water in response to psilocybin, even without the activation of the psychedelic receptor. "These findings show that activation of the receptor causing the psychedelic effect isn't absolutely required for the antidepressant benefits, at least in mice," says Dr. Thompson, "but the same experiment needs to be performed in depressed human subjects." He says his team plans to investigate which of the 13 other serotonin receptors are the ones responsible for the antidepressant actions. "This new study has interesting implications, and shows that more basic research is needed in animals to reveal the mechanisms for how these drugs work, so that treatments for these devastating disorders can be developed" says Albert E. Reece, MD, PhD, MBA, Executive Vice President for Medical Affairs, University of Maryland Baltimore, and the John Z. and Akiko K. Bowers Distinguished Professor and Dean, University of Maryland School of Medicine. Tea compound promotes formation of osteoblasts under inflammatory environment and increases bone mass First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University (China), April 7, 2021 According to news originating from Suzhou, People’s Republic of China, the research stated, “Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a disease of bone mass reduction and structural changes due to estrogen deficiency, which can eventually lead to increased pain and fracture risk.” Our news correspondents obtained a quote from the research from First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University: “Chronic inflammatory microenvironment leading to the decreased activation of osteoblasts and inhibition of bone formation is an important pathological factor that leads to osteoporosis. Theaflavin-3,3’-digallate (TFDG) is an extract of black tea, which has potential anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects. In our study, we found that TFDG significantly increased the bone mass of ovariectomized (OVX) mice by micro-CT analysis. Compared with OVX mice, TFDG reduced the release of proinflammatory cytokines and increased the expression of osteogenic markers in vivo. In vitro experiments demonstrated that TFDG could promote the formation of osteoblasts in inflammatory environment and enhance their mineralization ability. In this process, TFDG activated MAPK, Wnt/b-Catenin and BMP/Smad signaling pathways inhibited by TNF-a, and then promoted the transcription of osteogenic related factors including Runx2 and Osterix, promoting the differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts eventually.” According to the news reporters, the research concluded: “In general, our study confirmed that TFDG was able to promote osteoblast differentiation under inflammatory environment, enhance its mineralization ability, and ultimately increase bone mass in ovariectomized mice. These results suggested that TFDG might have the potential to be a more effective treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.” Patients who are overweight or obese at risk of more severe COVID-19 Murdoch Children's Research Institute and University of Queensland, April 16, 2021 Patients who are overweight or obese have more severe COVID-19 and are highly likely to require invasive respiratory support, according to a new international study. The research, led by the Murdoch Children's Research Institute (MCRI) and The University of Queensland and published in Diabetes Care, found obese or overweight patients are at high risk for having worse COVID-19 outcomes. They are also more likely to require oxygen and invasive mechanical ventilation compared to those with a healthy weight. MCRI researcher Dr Danielle Longmore said the findings, which highlighted the relationship between obesity and increased COVID-19 disease burden, showed the need to urgently introduce strategies to address the complex socio-economic drivers of obesity, and public policy measures such as restrictions on junk food advertising. "Although taking steps to address obesity in the short-term is unlikely to have an immediate impact in the COVID-19 pandemic, it will likely reduce the disease burden in future viral pandemics and reduce risks of complications like heart disease and stroke," she said. The study looked at hospitalised SARS-CoV-2 patients from 18 hospitals in 11 countries including China, America, Italy, South Africa and The Netherlands. Among the 7244 patients aged 18 years and over, 34.8 per cent were overweight and 30.8 per cent were obese. COVID-19 patients with obesity were more likely to require oxygen and had a 73 per cent greater chance of needing invasive mechanical ventilation. Similar but more modest results were seen in overweight patients. No link was found between being overweight or obese and dying in hospital from COVID-19. Cardiovascular and pre-existing respiratory diseases were associated with increased odds of in-hospital deaths but not a greater risk for needing oxygen and mechanical ventilation. For patients with pre-existing diabetes, there was increased odds of needing invasive respiratory support, but no additionally increase in risk in those with obesity and diabetes. Men were at an increased risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes and needing invasive mechanical ventilation. In those aged over 65 years, there was an increased chance of requiring oxygen and higher rates of in-hospital deaths. The University of Queensland's Dr Kirsty Short, who co-led the research, said almost 40 per cent of the global population was overweight or obese. "Obesity is associated with numerous poor health outcomes, including increased risk of cardiometabolic and respiratory disease and more severe viral disease including influenza, dengue and SARS-CoV-1," she said. Dr Short said while previous reports indicated that obesity was an important risk factor in the severity of COVID-19, almost all this data had been collected from single sites and many regions were not represented. Moreover, there was a limited amount of evidence available about the effects of being overweight or obese on COVID-19 severity. "Given the large scale of this study we have conclusively shown that being overweight or obese are independent risk factors for worse outcomes in adults hospitalised with COVID-19," she said. MCRI Professor David Burgner, who co-led the research, said the data would help inform immunisation prioritisation for higher-risk groups. "At the moment, the World Health Organization has not had enough high-quality data to include being overweight or obese as a risk factor for severe COVID-19 disease. Our study should help inform decisions about which higher-risk groups should be vaccinated as a priority," he said. Neuroprotective Herbs for the Management of Alzheimer’s Disease University of Central Florida and University of California, Los Angeles Background—Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multifactorial, progressive, neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by memory loss, personality changes, and a decline in cognitive function. While the exact cause of AD is still unclear, recent studies point to lifestyle, diet, environmental, and genetic factors as contributors to disease progression. The pharmaceutical approaches developed to date do not alter disease progression. More than two hundred promising drug candidates have failed clinical trials in the past decade, suggesting that the disease and its causes may be highly complex. Medicinal plants and herbal remedies are now gaining more interest as complementary and alternative interventions and are a valuable source for developing drug candidates for AD. Indeed, several scientific studies have described the use of various medicinal plants and their principal phytochemicals for the treatment of AD. This article reviews a subset of herbs for their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cognitive-enhancing effects. Methods—This article systematically reviews recent studies that have investigated the role of neuroprotective herbs and their bioactive compounds for dementia associated with Alzheimer’s disease and pre-Alzheimer’s disease. PubMed Central, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases of articles were collected, and abstracts were reviewed for relevance to the subject matter. Conclusions—Medicinal plants have great potential as part of an overall program in the prevention and treatment of cognitive decline associated with AD. It is hoped that these medicinal plants can be used in drug discovery programs for identifying safe and efficacious small molecules for AD. 1.1. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) Ashwagandha, commonly called Indian ginseng or winter cherry, is one of the most prominent herbs prescribed as a brain rejuvenator for AD. It is prescribed to increase energy, improve overall health and longevity, and as a nerve tonic . Ashwagandha has been shown to possess antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, as well as an ability to support a healthy immune system . Ashwagandha contains several bioactive compounds of great interest, such as ergostane-type steroidal lactones, including withanolides A-Y, dehydrowithanolide-R, withasomniferin-A, withasomidienone, withasomniferols A-C, withaferin A, withanone, and others. Other constituents include the phytosterols sitoindosides VII-X and beta-sitosterol and alkaloids [86,88]. A subset of these components has been shown to scavenge free radicals generated during the initiation and progression of AD. Molecular modeling studies showed that withanamides A and C uniquely bind to the active motif of Aβ25-35 and prevent fibril formation. Furthermore, these compounds protected PC-12 cells and rat neuronal cells from β-amyloid-induced cell death [89,90,91]. Treatment with the methanol extract of ashwagandha triggered neurite outgrowth in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human neuroblastoma cells , and, in another study involving cultured rat cortical neurons, treatment with Aβ peptide induced axonal and dendritic atrophy and loss of pre-and postsynaptic stimuli . Subsequent treatment with withanolide A induced significant regeneration of both axons and dendrites and restored the pre- and post-synapses in the cultured cortical neurons. In vivo, withanolide A inhibited Aβ(25–35)-induced degeneration of axons, dendrites, and synapses in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus and also restored Aβ-peptide-induced memory deficits in mice . The in vivo ameliorative effects were maintained even after the discontinuation of the drug administration. Aqueous extracts of ashwagandha increased acetylcholine (ACh) content and choline acetyl transferase activity in rats, which might partly explain the cognition-enhancing and memory-improving effects [29,94,95]. Treatment with the root extract caused the upregulation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein, which enhanced the Aβ clearance and reversed the AD pathology in middle-aged and old APP/PS1 mice . Oral administration of a semi-purified extract of ashwagandha reversed behavioral deficits and blocked the accumulation of Aβ peptides in an APP/PS1 mouse model of AD. This therapeutic effect of ashwagandha was mediated by the liver low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein . Using an AD model of Drosophila melanogaster, researchers noted that treatment with ashwagandha mitigated Aβ toxicity and also promoted longevity . Despite the extensive literature on the therapeutic effects of ashwagandha, there are limited data on its clinical use for cognitive impairment . In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study involving 50 subjects with mild cognitive impairment, subjects were treated with either ashwagandha root extract (300 mg twice daily) or placebo for eight weeks. After eight weeks of study, the ashwagandha treatment group demonstrated significant improvements in both immediate and general memory tests compared to the placebo group. Furthermore, the treatment group showed significant improvement in executive function, sustained attention, and information-processing speed . These studies lend credence to ashwagandha’s role in enhancing memory and improving executive function in people with SCI or MCI. 1.2. Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) Brahmi, or Bacopa monnieri (Bm), is a perennial creeper medicinal plant found in the damp and marshy wetlands of Southern and Eastern India, Australia, Europe, Africa, Asia, and North and South America. In the Ayurvedic system of medicine, Bm is recommended for mental stress, memory loss, epilepsy, insomnia, and asthma [34,36]. The bioactive phytochemicals present in this plant include saponins, bacopasides III, IV, V, bacosides A and B, bacosaponins A, B, C, D, E, and F, alkaloids, sterols, betulic acid, polyphenols, and sulfhydryl compounds, which may be responsible for the neuroprotective roles of the plant. Both in vitro and in vivo studies show that these phytochemicals have an antioxidant and free radical scavenging action by blocking lipid peroxidation in several areas of the brain [36,100,101,102]. Bm acts by reducing divalent metals, scavenging reactive oxygen species, decreasing the formation of lipid peroxides, and inhibiting lipoxygenase activity . Numerous studies have also shown Bm’s role in memory and intellect [33,56,100,104,105,106]. To determine the neuroprotective effect of Bm in a rat model of AD, researchers tested an alcoholic extract of Bm at doses of 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg for a period of 2 weeks before and 1 week after the intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of ethylcholine aziridinium ion (AF64A). Spatial memory was tested using the Morris water maze (MWM), and the cholinergic neuron density was determined using histological techniques. The researchers showed that Bm extract improved the escape latency time in the MWM test and blocked the reduction of cholinergic neuron densities . Another group reported the reversal of colchicine-induced cognitive deficits by a standardized extract of Bm. In addition to reversing colchicine-triggered cognitive impairment, the Bm extract also attenuated colchicine-induced oxidative damage by decreasing the protein carbonyl levels and restoring the activities of the antioxidant enzymes . Most of the studies exploring the cognitive-enhancing effects of Bm in humans focused on normal, aged individuals. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on 35 individuals aged above 55 years, subjects received either 125 mg of Bm extract or a placebo twice a day for a period of 12 weeks, followed by a placebo period of another four weeks. Subjects underwent a battery of memory tests, including general information, orientation, mental control, logical memory, digit forward, digit backward, visual reproduction, and paired association learning. Subjects were scored on each sub-test, and total memory score was calculated by adding the score of all subtests. A significant improvement was observed in mental control, logical memory, and paired association learning in Bm-treated patients compared to the placebo group at 8 and 12 weeks after initiation of the trial . The results suggested the use of Bm in the treatment of age-associated memory impairment. Ten subjects were given 500 mg of Sideritis extract, 320 mg Bm extract, or a combination using a crossover design. Sideritis extract is rich in a variety of flavonoids and has been shown to improve cognition in animal models of AD . The Attention d2 Test is a neuropsychological measure of selective and sustained attention and visual scanning speed. Assessment tests revealed that Sideritis extract combined with a low-dose Bm extract resulted in improvement in the d2 concentration test score . A similar effect of Bm alone was observed only after repetitive dosing, suggesting that the long-term memory effects seen with repetitive dosing of Bm may be a promising therapeutic option for subjects suffering from MCI . In another prospective, non-comparative, multicenter trial involving 104 subjects who suffered from MCI, Bm extract in combination with astaxanthin, phosphatidylserine, and vitamin E was given for 60 days. The tested combination formula was well tolerated. Cognitive and mnemonic performance was assessed with validated instruments including Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog) and Clock-Drawing Test (CDT) that can assess the risk of MCI progression to AD. Researchers noted significant improvements in ADAS-cog and CDT scores . The observed sixty-day improvements in ADAS-cog and CDT were statistically significant as compared with baseline values. Memory is affected by several factors, including focus and attention, neurotransmitters, hormones, trophic factors, cyclic AMP, ion channels, protein transcription, synapse formation, and nutrients. Some of these processes can be modulated by Bm extract alone or in combination with other compounds. The abovementioned study design is similar to our therapeutic program for people with SCI and MCI, where Bm is administered in combination with other nutraceuticals and cogniceuticals [15,111]. 1.3. Cat’s Claw (Uncaria tomentosa) Cat’s claw (CC) is a tropical vine with hooked thorns that resemble the claws of a cat and is mainly recommended for its potential role in the treatment of AD and pre-AD. It is found mainly in the Amazon rainforest and other areas of South and Central America. This medicinal plant contains oxindole alkaloids, polyphenols (flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and tannins), glycosides, pentacyclic alkaloids, and sterols [38,39]. CC is known for its immune-modulating and anti-inflammatory effects and for its role as a free radical scavenger. Based on in vitro studies, the anti-inflammatory effect of CC is attributed to its ability to inhibit iNOS gene expression, nitrate formation, cell death, PGE2 production, and the activation of NF-κB and TNF-α . Using a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, a significant reduction in the Aβ load (by 59%) and plaque number (by 78%) in the hippocampus and cortex was observed after treating 8-month-old mice with the CC extract for 14 days . CC extract also caused a significant reduction in astrocytosis and microgliosis, and it improved hippocampus-dependent memory. Some of the components in the CC extract crossed the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and entered the brain parenchyma following intravenous injection . Pre-clinical studies suggest that CC extract inhibits the formation of plaques and tangles, reduces astrocytosis and microgliosis and improves memory in mouse models of AD [43,44]. CC extract not only prevented the formation and aggregation of Aβ fibrils and tau protein paired helical filaments, but it also facilitated the disaggregation of preformed fibrils and tau protein tangles [43,44]. While proanthocyanidin B2 was identified as the primary phytochemical with plaque-and tangle-dissolving activity, other polyphenols present in the CC extract also possess plaque-reducing activity . Based on pre-clinical studies, Cat’s claw may be effective for memory loss and cognitive decline associated with AD, although no studies have been carried out in humans. 1.4. Ginkgo Biloba Ginkgo biloba (Gb) has been in the spotlight primarily for its potential role in treating AD. Gb also appears promising as a therapeutic agent for several other chronic and acute forms of diseases. The main pharmacologically active groups of compounds are flavonoids and terpenoids. Almost all clinical studies use Gb extract that contains a combination of flavonoid glycosides, terpene lactones, and ginkgolic acids . Gb extract has shown beneficial effects in treating Alzheimer’s, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, tinnitus, and other age-associated conditions [49,50]. The suggested mechanisms of the Gb extract are its antioxidant effect, anti-platelet activating factor activity for vascular diseases, inhibition of β-amyloid peptide aggregation in AD, and decreased expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor for stress alleviation [48,49,50]. Gb is popular as a treatment for early-stage AD and vascular dementia. Gb extract reverses β-amyloid and NO-induced toxicity in vitro and reduces apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo [112,113,114]. Treatment with Gb extract enhanced memory retention in young and old rats and improved short-term memory in mice [49,115]. Several studies indicate that ginkgo delays the progression of AD and is as effective as the cholinesterase inhibitors for treating AD. A modest improvement in cognitive function was observed in AD subjects in various randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials [116,117,118]. Gb extract also improves ADLs among AD individuals and is preferred over other AD medications because of its negligible adverse effects [119,120]. 1.5. Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica) Considered both a nutraceutical and cogniceutical, Gotu kola (Gk) is a staple in Chinese, Indonesian, and Ayurvedic medicine . This medicinal plant is used to strengthen the brain, heal skin issues, and promote liver and kidney health. Gk is considered a rejuvenating herb for nerve and brain cells as it is believed to promote intelligence and improve memory [54,55,56,57]. In vitro studies using various Gk plant derivatives (asiaticosides, asiatic acid, madecassoside, and madasiatic acid) showed that these compounds were capable of blocking H2O
On this week’s Sausage of Science, Chris and Cara talk to Stephanie Berger and Jacob S. Griffin who are graduate students in Bioarchaeology at The University of North Carolina and Dr. Sophia Dent who is a Visiting Assistant Professor at Appalachia State University about skeletal plasticity. Specifically, they discuss their roles as co-editors of a special issue in the American Journal of Human Biology “Biocultural approaches to the plasticity of the human skeleton” which you can find here: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/toc/15206300/2021/33/2 You can reach Stephanie email@example.com, Jacob on Twitter @J_SGriffin or firstname.lastname@example.org and Sophia email@example.com Contact the Sausage of Science Podcast and Human Biology Association: Facebook: www.facebook.com/groups/humanbiologyassociation Website:humbio.org/, Twitter: @HumBioAssoc Cara Ocobock, Website: sites.nd.edu/cara-ocobock/, Email:firstname.lastname@example.org, Twitter:@CaraOcobock Chris Lynn, HBA Public Relations Committee Chair, Website: cdlynn.people.ua.edu/, Email: email@example.com, Twitter:@Chris_Ly Delaney Glass, Website: dglass.netlify.app/, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, Twitter: @GlassDelaney Alexandra Niclou, Email: email@example.com, Twitter: @fiat_Luxandra
1. The Ugly Truth About Lockdowns Pt1 - 14 mins Lycopene found to inhibit pathway involved in Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric cancer Yonsei University (South Korea), April 6, 2021 In this study, researchers at Yonsei University in South Korea evaluated the effects of lycopene on hyperproliferation induced by Helicobacter pylori infection. They reported their findings in an article published in the journal Nutrition Research. H. pylori is known to colonize the human stomach and is linked to an increased risk of gastric diseases, including gastric cancer. According to studies, H. pylori increases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which activate Janus-activator kinase 1 (Jak1)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3) in gastric epithelial cells. ROS also mediate hyperproliferation — a hallmark of carcinogenesis — by activating Wnt/B-catenin signaling in various cells. The researchers hypothesized that lycopene, a potent antioxidant with anti-cancer properties, may be able to suppress hyperproliferation by inhibiting the ROS-mediated activation of Jak1/Stat3 and Wnt/B-catenin signaling, as well as the expression of B-catenin target genes. To test their hypothesis, they measured the ROS levels and viability of H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial AGS cells before and after lycopene treatment. The Jak1/Stat3 inhibitor AG490 served as the control treatment. They also measured the protein levels of the following: Total and phosphorylated Jak1/Stat3 Wnt/B-catenin signaling molecules Wnt-1 Lipoprotein-related protein 5 B-catenin target oncogenes (c-Myc and cyclin E) The researchers found that lycopene, like AG490, reduced ROS levels and inhibited the activation of Jak1/Stat3, alterations in the levels of Wnt/B-catenin multiprotein complex molecules, the expression of c-Myc and cyclin E and the proliferation of H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial AGS cells. Lycopene and AG490 also inhibited the increase in Wnt-1 and lipoprotein-related protein 5 expression caused by H. pylori infection. Based on these findings, the researchers concluded that lycopene can be used to prevent H. pylori-associated gastric diseases, thanks to its inhibitory effects on gastric cell hyperproliferation. Less sugar, please! New studies show low glucose levels might assist muscle repair Skeletal muscle satellite cells found to grow better with less glucose in vitro Tokyo Metropolitan University, April 3, 2021 Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University have shown that skeletal muscle satellite cells, key players in muscle repair, proliferate better in low glucose environments. This is contrary to conventional wisdom that says mammalian cells fare better when there is more sugar to fuel their activities. Because ultra-low glucose environments do not allow other cell types to proliferate, the team could produce pure cultures of satellite cells, potentially a significant boost for biomedical research. Healthy muscles are an important part of a healthy life. With the wear and tear of everyday use, our muscles continuously repair themselves to keep them in top condition. In recent years, scientists have begun to understand how muscle repair works at the cellular level. Skeletal muscle satellite cells have been found to be particularly important, a special type of stem cell that resides between the two layers of sheathing, the sarcolemma and basal lamina, that envelopes myofiber cells in individual muscle fibers. When myofiber cells get damaged, the satellite cells go into overdrive, multiplying and finally fusing with myofiber cells. This not only helps repair damage, but also maintains muscle mass. To understand how we lose muscles due to illness, inactivity, or age, getting to grips with the specific mechanisms involved is a key challenge for medical science. A team of scientists from Tokyo Metropolitan University led by Assistant Professor Yasuro Furuichi, Associate Professor Yasuko Manabe and Professor Nobuharu L Fujii have been studying how skeletal muscle satellite cells multiply outside the body. Looking at cells multiplying in petri dishes in a growth medium, they noticed that higher levels of glucose had an adverse effect on the rate at which they grew. This is counterintuitive; glucose is considered to be essential for cellular growth. It is converted into ATP, the fuel that drives a lot of cellular activity. Yet, the team confirmed that lower glucose media led to a larger number of cells, with all the biochemical markers expected for greater degrees of cell proliferation. They also confirmed that this doesn't apply to all cells, something they successfully managed to use to their advantage. In experiments in high glucose media, cultures of satellite cells always ended up as a mixture, simply due to other cell types in the original sample also multiplying. By keeping the glucose levels low, they were able to create a situation where satellite cells could proliferate, but other cell types could not, giving a very pure culture of skeletal muscle satellite cells. This is a key prerequisite for studying these cells in a variety of settings, including regenerative medicine. So, was the amount of glucose in their original experiment somehow "just right"? The team added glucose oxidase, a glucose digesting enzyme, to get to even lower levels of glucose, and grew the satellite cells in this glucose-depleted medium. Shockingly, the cells seemed to fare just fine, and proliferated normally. The conclusion is that these particular stem cells seem to derive their energy from a completely different source. Work is ongoing to try to pin down what this is. The team notes that the sugar levels used in previous experiments matched those found in diabetics. This might explain why loss of muscle mass is seen in diabetic patients, and may have significant implications for how we might keep our muscles healthier for longer. Higher plasma glutathione levels associated with decreased risk of Alzheimer disease Kapodistrian University (Greece), March 31, 2021 According to news reporting originating in Athens, Greece,research stated, “Potential links between oxidative stress and the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have been reported in the existing literature. Biological markers of oxidative stress, such as the reduced form of glutathione (GSH), may have a potential role as predictive biomarkers for AD development.” Funders for this research include Alzheimer’s Association, ESPA-EU program Excellence Grant (ARISTEIA), Ministry for Health and Social Solidarity (Greece). The news reporters obtained a quote from the research from the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, “The aim of the present study was to explore the longitudinal associations between plasma GSH and the risk of developing AD or cognitive decline, in a sample of community-dwelling, non-demented older adults. Participants from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD) were included in the present prospective study. The sample used in the analyses consisted of 391 non-demented individuals over the age of 64 (mean age = 73.85 years; SD = 5.06), with available baseline GSH measurements and longitudinal follow-up. Plasma GSH was treated both as a continuous variable and as tertiles in our analyses. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the hazard ratio (HR) for AD incidence as a function of baseline plasma GSH. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) models were deployed to explore the associations between baseline plasma GSH and the rate of change of performance scores on individual cognitive domains over time. Models were adjusted for age, years of education and sex. Supplementary exploratory models were also adjusted for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at baseline, risk for malnutrition, physical activity and adherence to the Mediter-ranean dietary pattern. A total of 24 incident AD cases occurred during a mean (SD) of 2.99 (0.92) years of follow-up. Individuals in the highest GSH tertile group (highest baseline plasma GSH values) had a 70.1% lower risk for development of AD, compared to those in the lowest one [HR = 0.299 (0.093-0.959); p = 0.042], and also demonstrated a slower rate of decline of their executive functioning over time (5.2% of a standard deviation less decline in the executive composite score for each additional year of follow-up; p = 0.028). The test for trend was also significant suggesting a potential dose-response relationship.” According to the news reporters, the research concluded: “In the present study, higher baseline plasma GSH levels were associated with a decreased risk of developing AD and with a better preservation of executive functioning longitudinally.” This research has been peer-reviewed. Citrus fruit found to decrease risk of stroke University of East Anglia (UK), March 31, 2021 We’ve all heard how good citrus fruit is for us due to its vitamin C content and immune system-boosting properties. Now research is showing that citrus fruit can also help to reduce stroke risk. A study conducted at the University of East Anglia in Norwich, UK reveals that eating citrus fruit, especially oranges, lowers the risk of ischemic stroke significantly. The researchers compared the health of women who ate both oranges and grapefruit regularly versus those who did not. Compounds in citrus fruit improve circulation and blood flow, reducing stroke risk The study looked at the flavonoid content of citrus fruits and how they impacted blood vessel health. Previous studies have found that specific orange phytochemicals are protective against intracerebral hemorrhage and considerably improve blood flow in the brain. Researchers reviewed around 14 years of Nurse’s Health Study data tracking the health and diets of about 70,000 women. Correlations between six flavonoid sub-classes from citrus fruits were assessed related to risks of hemorrhagic, ischemic or complete stroke. Women who consumed the highest amounts of orange and grapefruit as well as juices from these fruits had much better blood circulation, as well as a 19 percent lowered risk of stroke related to blood clotting as compared with women who didn’t eat much citrus fruit. Why an orange alongside that apple – each day – is a powerful combination The women who favored citrus fruit showed a substantially reduced risk of stroke and associated risks. Indeed, if an apple a day keeps the doctor away, an orange a day can keep strokes away. Other studies of flavonoids in fruit substantiate these results regarding a reduction in stroke risk. Higher intake of all kinds of fruit has a positive impact on stroke risk as well as many other areas of health. A 2011 study by Western University in London, Ontario found that an additional benefit of flavonoid intake was the prevention of weight gain. A tangerine flavonoid called Nobiletin was shown to reduce the risk of both type 2 diabetes and obesity in mice. The mice given the Nobiletin flavonoid avoided these issues, while those that did not became obese, developed type 2 diabetes, and had atherosclerosis and fatty liver issues. A 2012 Japanese study found the pulp and juice from satsuma mandarin oranges inhibited tumor growth in cancers of the colon, lung and tongue. Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant known for inhibiting free radical damage in the cells. The Nobiletin in citrus fruit has also been linked with apoptosis, or programmed cell death of cancer cells. Oregon Health & Science University researchers found a connection between eye health and the vitamin C found in citrus fruit. Retinal nerve cells benefited from the compound, and it’s likely brain and nervous system health are positively impacted as well. While fruit juice packs a potent nutritional punch, there are advantages to eating whole oranges, grapefruits and other fruits instead. Whole fruits tend to be richer in vitamins and nutrients, lower in sugar, and higher in fiber. For older patients, focusing on what matters is often the best medicine Yale University, April 4, 2021 A woman in her 80s wanted to play with her great-grandchildren when they came to visit, but knee pain made it difficult for her. A man in his late 70s said he enjoyed going out to dinner, but was constrained by the meal preparation guidelines that he needed to follow because of his diabetes. Both people have multiple chronic conditions. They also have life goals, things they want to do to live their lives fully, like playing with grandchildren and going out to eat. Understanding these goals and barriers to them, helps doctors align care with what matters most to their patients while eliminating unwanted health care, said the authors of a report that was published March 24 in JAMA Network Open. The report, the first systematic description of older adults' health care priorities, describes a structured process called Patient Health Priorities that health care providers can follow to identify the life goals of older adults with multiple chronic conditions as well as their health care preferences. "There is growing awareness of the need to transition health care, particularly for people with multiple chronic conditions, from treating single diseases in isolation to health care that is aligned with patients' priorities," said Mary Tinetti, MD, the principal investigator of the Patient Priorities Care study, and the Gladys Phillips Crofoot Professor of Medicine (Geriatrics) at Yale School of Medicine (YSM). During the study, health care providers asked 163 patients who were 65 and older and have multiple chronic conditions to identify what they value most in life such as connecting with family, being productive, or remaining independent. They then asked what specific and realistic activities they most wanted to be able to do that reflected their values. The participants also were asked to describe the barriers that prevented them from achieving their goals, such as unnecessary doctors' visits, taking too many medications, or health concerns such as fatigue and shortness of breath. "The medications, health care visits, testing, procedures, and self-management tasks entailed in treating multiple chronic conditions require investments of time and effort that may be burdensome and conflict with what patients are willing and able to do," Tinetti said. The study was conducted among patients of 10 primary care doctors from a multi-site practice in Connecticut who invited patients to participate during routine visits. Participants had to be 65 or older and have at least three chronic health conditions that were treated with at least 10 prescription medications. They also had to be under the care of two or more specialists, or have visited the emergency room at least two times, or had been hospitalized once, during the past year. Of the 236 patients at the practice, 163 agreed to participate. Most participants were white, female, about 78 years old, and had four chronic conditions. Nearly half had high school-level or less education. Participants were asked to identify their values with questions such as, "What does enjoying life mean to you?" and "When you have a good day, what happens?" Their health care providers then worked with them to make sure their care was focused on achieving those goals. Participants also were asked what health issues most interfered with their goals, and what aspects of their health care they found helpful and which they felt were unhelpful to too burdensome. The 163 participants identified 459 outcome goals, the most common of which were sharing meals with friends and family (7.8%); visiting with grandchildren (16.3%); going shopping (6.1%), and exercising (4.6%). Twenty participants (4.4%) said they wanted to be able to stay in their homes and live independently. Common barriers to their goals were pain (41%); fatigue, lack of energy or poor sleep (14.4%); unsteadiness (13.5%); and shortness of breath and dizziness (6.1%). Thirty-two participants (19.8%) felt they were taking too many medications, while 57 (35.0%) reported having bothersome symptoms from their medications but did not mention specific drugs. Also, 43 (26%) participants said that visits to their primary care physicians and specialists were helpful, although 15 (9%) said they have too many visits or doctors. "I'm tired of going to so many doctors." Understanding what's important to patients can help with patient-doctor communication and decision-making, Tinetti said. "If a patient's outcome goals are not achievable or realistic given their health status, a conversation might include, "I worry that you might not be able to continue driving your friends to the theater. I wonder if there are other ways to fulfill your desire to see shows and connect with your friends that could be more achievable." Participants were drawn from a single practice with a homogeneous patient population; results may not generalize to other populations, and identifying the priorities of diverse groups is essential, the report's authors noted. "While further research is needed, the study suggests the feasibility of asking people about their goals and preferences, and getting responses that can inform decision-making," Tinetti said. A newly launched website, MyHealthPriorities.org, grew out of the Patient Priorities Care initiative. People can use the website to identify their priorities so they can discuss them with their health care team. "When there isn't a healthcare provider available to do the health priorities identification, there is now this option of the self-directed website," said Jessica Esterson, MPH, project director in the Section of Geriatrics at YSM. "We want to spread this capability to as many older adults as possible. By providing the website directly to individuals we greatly expand its reach and potential." The website walks people through the Patient Priorities Care health priorities identification process. At the end they will have a summary to bring to their doctors that outlines their health priorities—the activities they want their health care to help them achieve based on what they are willing and able to do. Tinetti encourages people of all ages, particularly older adults with multiple health conditions, to use MyHealthPriorities.org. "It will help you think about things you haven't thought about before, and better understand what matters most to you about your health and health care," Tinetti said. "It's important to you, your family, and your doctors." Paleopharmaceuticals from Baltic amber might fight drug-resistant infections University of Minnesota, April 5, 2021 For centuries, people in Baltic nations have used ancient amber for medicinal purposes. Even today, infants are given amber necklaces that they chew to relieve teething pain, and people put pulverized amber in elixirs and ointments for its purported anti-inflammatory and anti-infective properties. Now, scientists have pinpointed compounds that help explain Baltic amber's therapeutic effects and that could lead to new medicines to combat antibiotic-resistant infections. The researchers will present their results today at the spring meeting of the American Chemical Society (ACS). ACS Spring 2021 is being held online April 5-30. Live sessions will be hosted April 5-16, and on-demand and networking content will continue through April 30. The meeting features nearly 9,000 presentations on a wide range of science topics. Each year in the U.S., at least 2.8 million people get antibiotic-resistant infections, leading to 35,000 deaths, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "We knew from previous research that there were substances in Baltic amber that might lead to new antibiotics, but they had not been systematically explored," says Elizabeth Ambrose, Ph.D., who is the principal investigator of the project. "We have now extracted and identified several compounds in Baltic amber that show activity against gram-positive, antibiotic-resistant bacteria." Ambrose's interest originally stemmed from her Baltic heritage. While visiting family in Lithuania, she collected amber samples and heard stories about their medicinal uses. The Baltic Sea region contains the world's largest deposit of the material, which is fossilized resin formed about 44 million years ago. The resin oozed from now-extinct pines in the Sciadopityaceae family and acted as a defense against microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi, as well as herbivorous insects that would become trapped in the resin. Ambrose and graduate student Connor McDermott, who are at the University of Minnesota, analyzed commercially available Baltic amber samples, in addition to some that Ambrose had collected. "One major challenge was preparing a homogeneous fine powder from the amber pebbles that could be extracted with solvents," McDermott explains. He used a tabletop jar rolling mill, in which the jar is filled with ceramic beads and amber pebbles and rotated on its side. Through trial and error, he determined the correct ratio of beads to pebbles to yield a semi-fine powder. Then, using various combinations of solvents and techniques, he filtered, concentrated and analyzed the amber powder extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Dozens of compounds were identified from the GC-MS spectra. The most interesting were abietic acid, dehydroabietic acid and palustric acid -- 20-carbon, three-ringed organic compounds with known biological activity. Because these compounds are difficult to purify, the researchers bought pure samples and sent them to a company that tested their activity against nine bacterial species, some of which are known to be antibiotic resistant. "The most important finding is that these compounds are active against gram-positive bacteria, such as certain Staphylococcus aureus strains, but not gram-negative bacteria," McDermott says. Gram-positive bacteria have a less complex cell wall than gram-negative bacteria. "This implies that the composition of the bacterial membrane is important for the activity of the compounds," he says. McDermott also obtained a Japanese umbrella pine, the closest living species to the trees that produced the resin that became Baltic amber. He extracted resin from the needles and stem and identified sclarene, a molecule present in the extracts that could theoretically undergo chemical transformations to produce the bioactive compounds the researchers found in Baltic amber samples. "We are excited to move forward with these results," Ambrose says. "Abietic acids and their derivatives are potentially an untapped source of new medicines, especially for treating infections caused by gram-positive bacteria, which are increasingly becoming resistant to known antibiotics." Complementary effects of pine bark extract supplementation on inattention, impulsivity, and antioxidative status in children with ADHD Taipei Medical University (Taiwan), April 1, 2021 The purpose of this study was to investigate the complementary effects of polyphenolic compounds from pine bark extract (PE) as a strong antioxidative substrate on the symptoms of inattention and impulsivity in children with attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This was a randomized, double‐blind, crossover, placebo‐controlled study that included two experimental units (4 weeks with PE supplementation and 4 weeks with placebo supplementation) separated by a 2‐week washout period. ADHD participants were supplemented with 25 mg or 50 mg PE. We recruited 20 participants (17 boys and 3 girls) with a mean age of 10.0 ± 2.1 years. PE supplementation caused a significant reduction in the inattention and hyperactivity‐impulsivity items of SNAP‐IV. During the period of PE supplementation, the item of commissions in the Continuous Performance Test III (CPT III) significantly decreased, which was used to evaluate the symptoms of inattention and impulsivity. In addition, the erythrocytic reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio significantly increased, and the plasma TBARs level significantly decreased after 4 weeks of PE supplementation. However, there was no significant correlation between CPT III (commission) and antioxidative status indictors. PE supplementation may have potential effects of ameliorating inattention and impulsivity, and elevating the antioxidative status in children with ADHD.
On this weeks episode, Chris and Cara talk with Dr. Sharon DeWitte who is a Professor at the University of South Carolina in the Department of Anthropology. Much of her work focuses on variation in mortality risks before and after the medieval Black Death as well as demographic implications of the Black Death and its relation to skeletal indicators of puberty. You can find her website here: https://www.sc.edu/study/colleges_schools/artsandsciences/anthropology/our_people/directory/dewitte_sharon.php and you can follow her on Twitter @SharonDeWitte Contact the Sausage of Science Podcast and Human Biology Association: Facebook: www.facebook.com/groups/humanbiologyassociation Website:humbio.org/, Twitter: @HumBioAssoc Cara Ocobock, Website: sites.nd.edu/cara-ocobock/, Email:firstname.lastname@example.org, Twitter:@CaraOcobock Chris Lynn, HBA Public Relations Committee Chair, Website: cdlynn.people.ua.edu/, Email: email@example.com, Twitter:@Chris_Ly Delaney Glass, Website: dglass.netlify.app/, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, Twitter: @GlassDelaney Alexandra Niclou, Email: email@example.com, Twitter: @fiat_Luxandra
This episode carries content warnings for discussion of knives, possession, insect infestation of a living person, death, animal slaughter, being buried alive, and drowning. It has been one year since the folks of Eastern Folly put an end to a generations-long curse, and a few months fewer since a vote brought a new name to the town and its environs: Blackwick County. The name was a compromise, evoking not only the darkening embers of the Triadic Pyre’s ashen dogma, but also the warmth and comfort of night at home coming to its end with a little prayer to Slumbous. Name ain’t the only changed in that town, though. As the days went on, and the understanding that the curse had been broken was felt more firmly, it seemed as both miners and townsfolk let themselves dream of further futures than they had before. Some folks settled down to start families, others sent word for friends and relatives to move to this newly prosperous burg. New business sprung up, and not all of them made it through the year, sure, but more than you’d think. This was a community that was only just now starting to know itself. The sort of town you heard about and thought was made up. A place really, truly, on the upswing. Even the trains seemed to be reliable, more or less. But the powers that be, so to speak, they knew better than to rest on laurels, no matter whose they were. I mean… Skeletal emissaries. Miners going deeper into the mountain. Sounds below the abbey. The damned egg. Can you blame them for putting out the call? Can you blame them for bringing together the Blackwick Group? This week on Sangfielle: The Blackwick Group The Almanac of the Heartland Rider Peoples Caprak (cap-ROK): The goat folks of the northlands, where they put up with dust, ash, snow, and the unilateral “justice” of the Pale Magistratum. Carpana (car - pahn - a): They’re little folks, three to four feet tall or so. A little like capybara, I suppose. Devils: Once, they were contained by (and made to administer) some vast network of hells. But they fought their way out, took over Aldomina, and nurtured a fledgling empire into an expansive one. Drakkan (drah-KAHN): I’ve always thought we look like seahorses. Skin pulled across spiny, exo-skeletal armor. Bright colors. Good looking. Heritrixes (hare-uh-trixes): Heritrixes are immaterial beings, sometimes confused for ghosts, demons, or other sorts of supernatural spirits, who enter into contracts with physical hosts. Human: A smooth-skinned, hornless type of person, mostly found in the Heartland and in the Unschola Republica these days. Unremarkable. “Except in variety,” you’ll often hear a human say, revealing only that they’re more prideful than wise. Ojantani: The Ojantani, who share traits with buffalo and water oxen, are as often melancholic or timorous as they are the loud, stereotypical minotaur sort. Places Blackwick County: From the mines to the lake, the hills to the flats, the town once called Eastern Folly has felt a little more expansive now that it’s out of the hard grip of the old curse. It’s people aren’t perfect, but they’ve made it through some dark times, and that’s more than most can say. The Sleeping City: Every 13 years, a metropolis wakes with the buzzing sound of life. Do not cross its borders uninvited, especially not when it and its inhabitants are at rest. Facts and Figures The Course: There is debate about the true nature of the Heartland’s Truth, the power that turned Sangfielle into what it is today. But the Cleavers call it the Course. Part river, part lesson, part direction traveled. Entirely beyond the grasp of mortal minds. The Structure: Reason, logic, sense. The world is, fundamentally, a place that fits together and functions. We may not like that, say the adherents of the structure. And sometimes, the world may move in ways beyond our particular ken. But there is something holding it together, and that, they say, is the Heartland’s Truth: The Structure. The Shape: Are the trains that run across the Heartland bound to the Structure, or do they direct it? Is the overlap between the two even real at all, or might two machinic forces be at work here in Sangfielle?. Es (she/they): A heritrix with a penchant for the finer things in life and the perilous ventures needed to earn them. Virtue Mondegreen (she/her): Virtue was supposed to have been killed in the great vampiric purge, years before the panic. But it’s like I said before, Sangfielle was strange long before the Devils noticed it. Marn Ancura (she/her): Recently raised to Keen status inside of the Telluricist Union, Marn’s en route to Blackwick with aims to help folks the best she can (and solve one of the great medical mysteries of the heartland). Chine (he/they): The only member of the Blackwick Group to be born in Eastern Folly, Chine was called out to by the truth of the heartland. Duvall (he/him): Born into one of the few human families who still have noble status in Aldomina, Duvall wasted his inheritance on a doomed adventure into Sangfielle. Now colonized by the insectoid servants of the Structure, Duvall searches to solve a question as old as people: What is “the self”? Pickman (she/her): Fifteen years. That’s how long Pickman spent on the train. After being rescued by a Shape Knight, she found herself compelled to take up the armor and join their cause—a reaction that puts her in good company, as many other knights did just the same. Lye “Lyke” Lychen (he/him): Tossed out of one of the many occult academies of the Unschola Republica, Lyke came to Sangfielle to continue his magical education in the most hands-on (and pockets-full) way he could. Organizations The Boundless Conclave: Less of an individual church, more of an association between hundreds of independent faiths. Small sects, nearly forgotten cults, and unjealous gods make up this vast pantheon. The Disciples of the Triadic Pyre: Appropriately devoted to a trio of gods, the Triadic Pyre believe that entropy is the only certain thing in this world, and as such aim to master it. Recently began to mark workers willing to do their tasks in the mines with their brand. The Telluricist Union: Made up by a mix of peoples driven to the hills by Aldomina, this group of knife sharpeners, herbalists, geologists, and all around investigators have made it their job to keep their old wisdom and see it used to help those in need. The best among them are called Keen. The Shape Knights: It took people with clear minds, great ingenuity, and implacable spirit to face down and defeat one of the living trains of Sangfielle. In the time since, they’ve crafted armor from their slain foe, and with that have come to be experts of all things train. They herd, they breach, they redirect. But they haven’t yet killed a second. Hosted by Austin Walker (@austin_walker) Featuring Janine Hawkins (@bleatingheart) Sylvi Clare (@sylvibullet), Ali Acampora (@ali_west), Art Martinez-Tebbel (@atebbel), Jack de Quidt (@notquitereal), Keith J Carberry (@keithjcarberry) and Andrew Lee Swan (@swandre3000) Produced by Ali Acampora and Austin Walker Music by Jack de Quidt (available on bandcamp) Text by Austin Walker Cover Art by Craig Sheldon (@shoddyrobot)
***Sponsored by: Ana Luisa! Visit AnaLuisa.com/Trace and save 10% off your entire purchase with code TRACE***Twenty-seven year old Paul Featherman and twenty year old Nancy Baugh were living their dream on the Hawaiian island of Kauai. Just before summer, on June 2nd, unknown perpetrators entered their rented home near Hanalei Bay. Paul was killed instantly, but Nancy's fate was unknown. Police would ultimately determine after witnessing her boyfriend's murder, she had been abducted by the killers.For thirty-four years the mystery of Nancy's abduction haunted two families. Then, in the winter of 2012 after massive flooding hammered the island, Nancy's remains were discovered. It was ultimately found that she had likely been killed the same night as Paul and her remains had been concealed just miles from the crime scene.Over the years, there have been many rumors about who may have been responsible. For some, it must have had to do with the influx of drug traffickers in the late 1970's, for others it was likely someone the couple knew and trusted. Yet beyond those two theories, there is the one people are too afraid to talk about involving two notorious brothers whose names they dare not speak.FB: https://www.facebook.com/TraceEvidencePod/IG: https://www.instagram.com/traceevidencepod/TW: https://twitter.com/TraceEvPodVisit https://www.trace-evidence.com for more information, case photos, contact information and more.Merch: https://traceevidence.threadless.com/ Music Courtesy of: "Lost Time" Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Author Priya Parker explains how you can make your next gathering more meaningful. But first, you’ll learn about TRPC1, a molecule that promotes muscle health when it’s magnetized. Researchers find a molecule that promotes muscle health when it's magnetized by Cameron Duke Kurth, F., Tai, Y. K., Parate, D., Oostrum, M., Schmid, Y. R. F., Toh, S. J., Yap, J. L. Y., Wollscheid, B., Othman, A., Dittrich, P. S., & Franco‐Obregón, A. (2020). Cell‐Derived Vesicles as TRPC1 Channel Delivery Systems for the Recovery of Cellular Respiratory and Proliferative Capacities. Advanced Biosystems, 4(11), 2000146. https://doi.org/10.1002/adbi.202000146 Mason, S., & Wadley, G. D. (2014). Skeletal muscle reactive oxygen species: A target of good cop/bad cop for exercise and disease. Redox Report, 19(3), 97–106. https://doi.org/10.1179/1351000213y.0000000077 Molecule that promotes muscle health when magnetised. (November 30, 2020). NUS News. National University of Singapore. https://news.nus.edu.sg/molecule-that-promotes-muscle-health-when-magnetised/ Morabito, C., Rovetta, F., Bizzarri, M., Mazzoleni, G., Fanò, G., & Mariggiò, M. A. (2010). Modulation of redox status and calcium handling by extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields in C2C12 muscle cells: A real-time, single-cell approach. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 48(4), 579–589. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.12.005 Three-Tier Biomarker Discovery Platform for Ageing Frailty. (n.d.). Healthylongevitychallenge.org. Retrieved December 13, 2020, from https://healthylongevitychallenge.org/winners/three-tier-biomarker-discovery-platform-for-ageing-frailty/ Yap, J. L. Y., Tai, Y. K., Fröhlich, J., Fong, C. H. H., Yin, J. N., Foo, Z. L., Ramanan, S., Beyer, C., Toh, S. J., Casarosa, M., Bharathy, N., Kala, M. P., Egli, M., Taneja, R., Lee, C. N., & Franco‐Obregón, A. (2019). Ambient and supplemental magnetic fields promote myogenesis via a TRPC1‐mitochondrial axis: evidence of a magnetic mitohormetic mechanism. The FASEB Journal, 33(11), 12853–12872. https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.201900057r Palermo, E. (2015, February 12). Does Magnetic Therapy Work? Livescience.com; Live Science. https://www.livescience.com/40174-magnetic-therapy.html Additional resources from Priya Parker: Pick up "The Art of Gathering: How We Meet and Why It Matters" on Amazon: https://amzn.to/38sYHUN Listen to Priya Parker's New York Times Podcast "Together Apart": https://www.nytimes.com/column/together-apart Website: https://www.priyaparker.com/ Priya Parker on Twitter: https://twitter.com/priyaparker Priya Parker on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Priya-Parker-2108847152464229/ Subscribe to Curiosity Daily to learn something new every day with Cody Gough and Ashley Hamer. You can also listen to our podcast as part of your Alexa Flash Briefing; Amazon smart speakers users, click/tap “enable” here: https://www.amazon.com/Curiosity-com-Curiosity-Daily-from/dp/B07CP17DJY See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.