This week we take a fascinating look at how highly gendered languages are dealing with the drive to become more inclusive. Plus, we look at the differences between "simple" and "simplistic" and "backward" and "backwards."Transcript: https://grammar-girl.simplecast.com/episodes/how-gendered-languages-are-changing-jugopop| Subscribe to the newsletter for regular updates.| Watch my LinkedIn Learning writing course.| Peeve Wars card game. | Grammar Girl books. | HOST: Mignon Fogarty| VOICEMAIL: 833-214-GIRL (833-214-4475) or https://sayhi.chat/grammargirl| Grammar Girl is part of the Quick and Dirty Tips podcast network.| Theme music by Catherine Rannus at beautifulmusic.co.uk.| Grammar Girl Social Media Links:https://www.quickanddirtytips.com/podcastshttps://www.tiktok.com/@therealgrammargirlhttp://twitter.com/grammargirlhttp://facebook.com/grammargirlhttp://instagram.com/thegrammargirlhttps://www.linkedin.com/company/grammar-girlReferences for the gendered language segment by Valerie Fridland:Braun, F., Sczesny, S., & Stahlberg, D. (2005). Cognitive Effects of Masculine Generics in German: An Overview of Empirical Findings. Communications (Sankt Augustin), 30(1), 1-21. Carreiras, M., Garnham, A., Oakhill, J., & Cain, K. (1996). The use of stereotypical gender information in constructing a mental model: evidence from English and Spanish. The Quarterly journal of experimental psychology. A, Human experimental psychology, 49(3), 639–663. DeFranza, D., Mishra, H., & Mishra, A. (2020). How language shapes prejudice against women: An examination across 45 world languages. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 119(1), 7–22.Eilers, S., Tiffin-Richards, S. P., & Schroeder, S. (2018). Individual differences in children's pronoun processing during reading: Detection of incongruence is associated with higher reading fluency and more regressions. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 173, 250-267.Stahlberg, D., Braun, F., Irmen, L., & Sczesny, S. (2007). Representation of the sexes in language. In K. Fiedler (Ed.), Social communication. A volume in the series Frontiers of Social Psychology.163-187.Moehlman, Lara. (2018) Can Hebrew Be Gender Neutral? https://momentmag.com/can-hebrew-be-gender-neutral/. Accessed 8.7.2022.
On this episode of 40k Frontiers Alex, Towse, and Sam catchup, talk about recent events and how the whole crew were able to snag tickets to Uprising:Adelaide, the largest Warhammer 40k tournament in Australia! Alex and Sam then interview Tomek and Michal (Tweek and Joker) from the Polish podcast Contact Lost about what the Polish community is all about, what things are like, and their early predictions for WTC. Finally, the boys answer some listener questions and cover some local events. Don't forget, if you have any questions for the hosts or would like to highlight your own event/ area. Please reach out to us by commenting down below or messaging us directly :). If you'd like to help support this show or the network, consider purchasing some #Merch from https://www.bestintabletop.com/store. Proceeds from which go directly to each show/ program and help produce more content for everyone :).
Research has rekindled interest in the therapeutic power of psychedelics in the clinical treatment of anxiety, depression, and addiction. Dr. Thomas Cabel and Chad Harman, CEO of Psycheseuticals, explore the status of the field in this revealing interview.
When the U.S. Supreme Court overturned Roe v. Wade in June, the controversial decision ended the right to abortion that was upheld for nearly 50 years. So what does a post-Roe world look like? In this program, UC Irvine law professor Michele Bratcher Goodwin and UC Santa Barbara feminist studies professor Laury Oaks discuss the wide-ranging impact of the decision on legal, medical, and political mobilizations. (Note: this program was recorded on May 9, 2022, prior to the ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court to overturn Roe v. Wade.) Series: "Ethics, Religion and Public Life: Walter H. Capps Center Series" [Public Affairs] [Health and Medicine] [Humanities] [Show ID: 38308]
Description: On this episode of 40k Frontiers, Sam returns from his Honeymoon to talk to Alex and Ben about their recent 40k adventures at Gonghammer and Cavcon. Sam and Alex then interview the three musketeers of Tasmania with Liam, Henry, and Adam as they talk about life in Tasmania, the 40k scene, and upcoming North South GT. The hosts also answer some listener questions and discuss upcoming regional events. Don't forget, if you have any questions for the hosts or would like to highlight your own event/ area. Please reach out to us by commenting down below or messaging us directly :). Warhammer 40k in Tasmania - https://www.facebook.com/groups/2905344129785994/
It seems that something BIG is on the horizon, with everything that's been going down when it comes to the IDW Sonic comic, the upcoming Frontiers game, Prime, and more. And I get this feeling that within the next year, either at something like New York Comic-Con or even next year's San Diego Comic-Con, we will finally get the announcement we (as Sonic fans) have been waiting. And just in time for the 20th anniversary of both the Archie Sonic Comic and Sonic SatAM. Here I will explain. Comments are Welcomed Like The Podcast Superchats are Open and Welcomed VENMO: @Brian-Walmer-2 Cash App: $bwrosas98 #sandiegocomiccon #newyorkcomiccon #sonicthehedgehog #archiesonic #sonicsatam #rally4sally --- Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/bwrosas/support
On this episode, I was joined by Dr. Kasem Akhras, Senior Director, Translational Access, Geneconomics & Outcomes Research - New Products at Novartis. Dr. Akhras and I discuss: -His Book "Frontiers in Market Access" -History of Market Access from the 1980's to now -Where the Market Access function fits in within Product Development -Market Access and Clinical Trials -Over-Utilization -Value Based Pricing -US Pharmaceutical Prices Dr. Akhras is a global Pharmaceutical Expert with 25 years of experience leading and building teams in the most critical functions in the Pharmaceutical Industry; Pricing, Reimbursement, Market Access, and Health Policy. Visionary, Passionate, and results driven leader. Well published in peer-reviewed journal and author of the book Frontiers in Market Access - A Practical Approach of Mastering Market Access. Dr. Akhras has held roles in Market Access and Health Economics at Novartis, Astrazeneca, Pfizer, Takeda, J&J and Sanofi. He is an Adjunct Professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago - Department of Pharmacy Systems, Outcomes and Policy.
The RSB Show 8-2-22 - COVID vax injuries, Kevin Sorbo, Medical freedom, Defeat the mandates, Jamie Dorley, Joe Messino, Nutritional Frontiers, Joint Health & Bone Health
In this episode, Kris and Paul discuss a paper that investigates how different energy systems contribute to climbing performance: Climbing-Specific Exercise Tests: Energy System Contributions and Relationships With Sport Performance Authored by Marcin Maciejczyk, Michail Lubomirov Michailov, Magdalena Więcek, Jadwiga Szymura, Robert Rokowski, Zbigniew Szygula, and Ralph Beneke; published in Frontiers in Physiology in January, 2022. They'll explain the different energy systems and how they were measured in the study using three finger flexor muscle tests. They'll consider how well these measurements can act as reliable performance indicators for climbing. Special thanks to AJ Sobrilsky at Excel Physical Therapy in Bozeman and also the Climb Strong team for suggesting this paper! New episodes of Breaking Beta drop on Wednesdays. Make sure you're subscribed, leave us a review, and share! And please, tell all of your friends who have their energy system training totally dialed in but say “Take!” as soon as they are getting pumped, that you have the perfect podcast for them. Breaking Beta is brought to you by Power Company Climbing and Crux Conditioning, and is a proud member of the Plug Tone Audio Collective. Find full episode transcripts, citations, and more at our website. Season 2 of Breaking Beta is proudly supported by Gnarly Sports Nutrition. For a limited time, Breaking Beta listeners can take 15% off their purchase using the code BETA15 at checkout! Or simply click the link above to shop and have the discount automatically applied. Follow Kris and Breaking Beta on Instagram Follow Paul and Crux Conditioning on Instagram If you have questions, comments, or want to suggest a paper we should cover, find us at our Community + Knowledge Hub. Our music is from legendary South Dakota band Rifflord.
Welcome to Ask Stago, The Podcast dedicated to provide expert answers to your expert questions in coagulation. In today's episode, our guest Dr Bryan G Fry, aka Venom Doc, will make us enter his world and understand how venom interact with coagulation and how they can prove useful for assay or drug design & development Literature sources: Fry BG, Roelants K, Champagne DE, Scheib H, Tyndall JD, King GF, Nevalainen TJ, Norman JA, Lewis RJ, Norton RS, Renjifo C, de la Vega RC. The toxinogenomic multiverse: convergent recruitment of proteins into animal venoms. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet. 2009, 10: 483-511. Bittenbinder, M. A., C. N. Zdenek, B. Op den Brouw, N. J. Youngman, J. S. Dobson, A. Naude, F. J. Vonk and B. G. Fry (2018). "Coagulotoxic Cobras: Clinical Implications of Strong Anticoagulant Actions of African Spitting Naja Venoms That Are Not Neutralised by Antivenom but Are by LY315920 (Varespladib)." Toxins (Basel) 10(12): 516. Chowdhury, A., M. R. Lewin, C. N. Zdenek, R. Carter and B. G. Fry (2021a). "The Relative Efficacy of Chemically Diverse Small-Molecule Enzyme-Inhibitors Against Anticoagulant Activities of African Spitting Cobra (Naja Species) Venoms." Front Immunol 12: 752442. Seneci, L., C. N. Zdenek, A. Chowdhury, C. F. B. Rodrigues, E. Neri-Castro, M. Benard-Valle, A. Alagon and B. G. Fry (2021). "A Clot Twist: Extreme Variation in Coagulotoxicity Mechanisms in Mexican Neotropical Rattlesnake Venoms." Front Immunol 12: 612846. Chowdhury, A., C. N. Zdenek, J. S. Dobson, L. A. Bourke, R. Soria and B. G. Fry (2021b). "Clinical implications of differential procoagulant toxicity of the palearctic viperid genus Macrovipera, and the relative neutralization efficacy of antivenoms and enzyme inhibitors." Toxicol Lett 340: 77-88. Chowdhury, A., C. N. Zdenek, M. R. Lewin, R. Carter, T. Jagar, E. Ostanek, H. Harjen, M. Aldridge, R. Soria, G. Haw and B. G. Fry (2021). "Venom-Induced Blood Disturbances by Palearctic Viperid Snakes, and Their Relative Neutralization by Antivenoms and Enzyme-Inhibitors." Frontiers in Immunology 12: 2251. Zdenek, C. N., B. O. den Brouw, D. Dashevsky, A. Gloria, N. Youngman, E. Watson, P. Green, C. Hay, N. Dunstan, L. Allen and B. G. Fry (2019a). "Clinical implications of convergent procoagulant toxicity and differential antivenom efficacy in Australian elapid snake venoms." Toxicol Lett 316: 171-182. Zdenek, C. N., C. Hay, K. Arbuckle, T. N. W. Jackson, M. H. A. Bos, B. Op den Brouw, J. Debono, L. Allen, N. Dunstan, T. Morley, M. Herrera, J. M. Gutierrez, D. J. Williams and B. G. Fry (2019b). "Coagulotoxic effects by brown snake (Pseudonaja) and taipan (Oxyuranus) venoms, and the efficacy of a new antivenom." Toxicol In Vitro 58: 97-109. Sousa, L. F., C. A. Nicolau, P. S. Peixoto, J. L. Bernardoni, S. S. Oliveira, J. A. Portes-Junior, R. H. Mourao, I. Lima-dos-Santos, I. S. Sano-Martins, H. M. Chalkidis, R. H. Valente and A. M. Moura-da-Silva (2013). "Comparison of phylogeny, venom composition and neutralization by antivenom in diverse species of bothrops complex." PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7(9): e2442. Rogalski, A., C. Soerensen, B. Op den Brouw, C. Lister, D. Dashevsky, K. Arbuckle, A. Gloria, C. N. Zdenek, N. R. Casewell, J. M. Gutierrez, W. Wuster, S. A. Ali, P. Masci, P. Rowley, N. Frank and B. G. Fry (2017). "Differential procoagulant effects of saw-scaled viper (Serpentes: Viperidae: Echis) snake venoms on human plasma and the narrow taxonomic ranges of antivenom efficacies." Toxicol Lett 280: 159-170. Youngman, N. J., J. Llinas and B. G. Fry (2021). "Evidence for Resistance to Coagulotoxic Effects of Australian Elapid Snake Venoms by Sympatric Prey (Blue Tongue Skinks) but Not by Predators (Monitor Lizards)." Toxins (Basel) 13(9). Content is scientific and technical in nature. It is intended as an educational tool for laboratory professionals and topics discussed are not intended as recommendations or as commentary on appropriate clinical practice.
Ancient cultures all over the world used the pulse as a diagnostic tool. And eventually, we figured out how to measure blood pressure, and hypertension came to be viewed as a disease. Research: Booth, Jeremy. “A Short History of Blood Pressure Measurement.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. Vol. 70. Nov. 1977. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/003591577707001112 Elias, Merrill F. and Amanda L. Goodell. “Setting the record straight for two heroes in hypertension: John J. Hay and Paul Dudley White.” Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 9/21/2019. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8030549/#jch13650-bib-0004 Greene, Jeremy A. “Releasing the Flood Waters: Diruil and the Reshaping of Hypertension.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Vol. 79, No. 4, Winter 2005. https://doi.org/10.1353/bhm.2005.0153 Harold, John Gordon. “Harold on History | Historical Perspectives on Hypertension.” American College of Cardiology. 11/20/2017. https://www.acc.org/latest-in-cardiology/articles/2017/11/14/14/42/harold-on-history-historical-perspectives-on-hypertension Hay, John. “The Significance of a Raised Blood Pressure.” British Medical Journal. 7/11/1931. Johnson, Richard J. et al. “The discovery of hypertension: evolving views on the role of the kidneys, and current hot topics.” Renal Physiology. 1/2/2015. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00503.2014 Kotchen, Theodore A. “Historical Trends and Milestones in Hypertension Research: A Model of the Process of Translational Research.” Hypertension. Vol. 58, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.177766 Labos, Christopher. “The Current Hypertension Controversy: There is None..” McGill. 2/8/2018. https://www.mcgill.ca/oss/article/general-science/current-hypertension-controversy-there-none Lüscher, Thomas F. “High blood pressure: new frontiers of an old risk factor.” European Heart Journal (2017) 38, 2791–2794. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehx544 Moser, Marvin. “Historical Perspectives on the Management of Hypertension.” Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 5/22/2007. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-6175.2006.05836.x Postel-Vinay, Nicolas, editor. “A Century of Arterial Hypertension 1896-1996.” Wiley. 1996. Saklayen, Mohammad G. and Neeraj V. Deshpande. “Timeline of History of Hypertension Treatment.” Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine. 2/23/2016. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4763852/ See omnystudio.com/listener for privacy information.
The past year has contributed far too many deeply concerning news stories from around the globe. The debacle that was the withdrawal from Afghanistan, the ongoing Russian invasion of Ukraine. Now, we hear that tensions are rising with China as House Speaker Nancy Pelosi plans a trip to Taiwan. Meanwhile, military leaders sound the alarm that recruitment numbers are down. So far down that they're comparable to low recruitment following the Vietnam War. George Landrith, President of Frontiers of Freedom, joins to dive into the issues affecting our military and the threats arising abroad. Richard Manning, President of Americans for Limited Government, picks back up from our conversation last week, and Jonathan Alexandre and Alfonso Aguilar are back, as we analyze and discuss the relentless drive to enforce conformity to a leftist narrative within the military and where we stand with our national security in the midst of a weak presidency.
It's a busy week for the crew, finishing up edits from last season while prepping for the next hunting season. Wolves, being the charismatic megafauna they are, often pop up in national and hunting-related news feeds. They often gain so much attention for very different reasons depending on the audience. A recent article in Frontiers in Conservation Science reviewed numerous scientific articles and found that many of the extreme stories about wolves are drastically overstated. The Federal Subsistence Board also voted to close two Dall sheep units to hunters this week for the next two years. Email us email@example.com Join Fresh Tracks+ For Early Access - https://www.freshtracks.tv Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices
It's estimated that 1 in 10 of us hear voices, which may be a sign of mental illness. Or not. We examine the phenomena through Caroline Mazel-Carlton. She's part of a movement of people who have come to find meaning in the experience of hearing voices (or seeing visions) and who learn to incorporate those experiences in their life. Many forgo use of some or all medications and are seeking wellness through peer-support networks and harm-reduction strategies.Mazel-Carlton tells host Seán Collins that many of the voices she hears have a cautionary or protective role in her life and have reminded her to be more mindful of the aspects of her life the voices comment upon.She serves on the board of the HEARING VOICES NETWORK—USA (@HVN_USA) and works at the Wildflower Alliance (@WildflwrAlliance) in western Massachusetts, a grassroots peer support, advocacy, and training organization with a focus on harm reduction and human rights. Her work includes training in suicide alternatives.Earlier this year, Caroline Mazel-Carlton was profiled in a story in the New York Times reported by Daniel Bergner: Doctors gave her antipsychotics. She decided to live with her voices.If you are thinking about harming yourself, HELP IS AVAILABLE. Call or text 988 and connect with someone today. FURTHER READINGA comprehensive review of auditory verbal hallucinations: lifetime prevalence, correlates and mechanisms in healthy and clinical individuals. by S de Leede-Smith, E, Barkus Frontiers of Human Neuroscience. (2013)
Peter Gabriel, one-time member of Genesis, is an English musician who is renowned for powerful, innovative, "intelligent" music. When Gabriel left Genesis in 1975, after the album The Lamb Lies Down On Broadway, he stunned fans and critics alike by teaming up with Bob Ezrin (Lou Reed, Pink Floyd, Kiss, Alice Cooper) to produce the album known as “Car”, a disparate collection of songs – including “Solsbury Hill” - with strong riffs, great guitar work, a variety of styles, to establish his solo credentials. His 3rd album, known as “Melt”, broke Peter Gabriel as a world phenomenon. It received great reviews (mostly 5-star) and was much more rhythm-focussed, with songs like “Games without Frontiers” and “Biko”. The album has a lot of “strange” sounds on it, and introduced Kate Bush on backing vocals. It was a high point for Peter Gabriel, who has made other great albums after this but never anything better! Our album to “Hear before You Die” this week is “1999”, Prince's 5th studio album from 1982. This album contains songs that have since become standards - “1999” and “Little Red Corvette” - and highlight his obsession with sex. Prince influenced so many people – as songwriter, musician and studio experimenter. His sound was a key influence on R & B music through to the 90's. “1999” is not the type of album we would normally listen to, but it's just so damn good!References: Prince, “1999, Steve Lillywhite, Hugh Padgham, XTC - “Drums & Wires”, “Black Sea”, “War”, U2, Kirsty MacColl, “An Assassin's Diary”, Arthur Bremer, George Wallace, JFK, Steve Biko, Polaroids, Lewis Morley, Ahmet Ertegun, Jerry Marotta, “Ein Deutsches Album”, Johnny Warman, “Walking into Mirrors", “Sledgehammer”, “The Book of Love”, Alan Parker, Hipgnosis, Peter Gabriel.com The Rock TiktokGabriel PlaylistGabriel Concert
During our charity stream, we recorded a live episodes about the Sonic Frontiers news at the time! Give it a listen to hear our thoughts on the game so far! Follow the podcast on twitter: @SonicPod Christian's Twitter: @C_Dobbins Sean's Twitter: @Sean8UrSon [Intro music created and provided by Rem Ropp/Qbomb]
¡ÚNETE A NUESTRO GRUPO DE 🔵 TELEGRAM 🔵 PARA ESTAR AL TANTO DE LAS MEJORES OFERTAS! https://t.me/gr_ofertas_videojuegos 🔴Consigue tus juegos a un precio incomparable a través de nuestros enlaces de afiliados ¡ASÍ NOS AYUDAS!: Instant Gaming - https://www.instant-gaming.com/?igr=guardadorapido CDKeys - https://www.cdkeys.com/es_es/?mw_aref=Guardadorapido Eneba - https://www.eneba.com/es/sell-games-consoles-accessories?aff=60d30d1441b9e Amazon - https://amzn.to/2Tl37IL ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Síguenos en nuestras redes y demás plataformas: WEB-- http://www.guardadorapido.com PATREON-- http://www.patreon.com/guardadorapido PODCAST-- https://www.ivoox.com/podcast-guardado-rapido_sq_f1404596_1.html TWITCH-- https://www.twitch.tv/guardadorapido 💥SORTEAMOS UN CÓDIGO DE 14 DÍAS DE XBOX GAME PASS ULTIMATE ENTRE TODOS LOS QUE DEIS A ME GUSTA A LOS AUDIOS DE ESTA SEMANA💥 WEB-- https://www.guardadorapido.com PATREON-- https://www.patreon.com/guardadorapido TWITCH -- https://www.twitch.tv/guardadorapido SUSCRÍBETE A YOUTUBE https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCxcqs2_4q5rKwQBHrbpIYVA?sub_confirmation=1 SUSCRÍBETE A TWITCH https://www.twitch.tv/guardadorapido APÓYANOS EN IVOOX Y ACCEDE A CONTENIDO EXCLUSIVO https://www.ivoox.com/premium?affiliate-code=66232985b87dc6122ad49d08d659cfe3 WEB www.guardadorapido.com 🔉 Nuevo programa de verano de Guardado Rápido en el que os traemos las últimas noticias sobre The Witcher 4, Bayonetta 3, The Last of Us, Sonic Frontiers y mucho más... 🔉 Esperamos que os guste el programa tanto como nosotros hemos disfrutado grabándolo. HAN COLABORADO EN ESTE PROGRAMA: - José Miguel Rodríguez. (@josemirr93gamer) PRESENTA: - Carlos Gallego. (@gallego_bernabe) DIRIGE: - Carlos Gallego. EDICIÓN - Carlos Gallego. FORMAS DE CONTACTO Twitter, Instagram y Facebook: @GuardadoRapido Email de contacto: firstname.lastname@example.org Contacto para prensa y distribuidores: email@example.com Escucha el episodio completo en la app de iVoox, o descubre todo el catálogo de iVoox Originals
Hello Boys and Girls! Thank you for listening! Please give us a follow and or subscribe to us on Apple Pod. Thank you. That is all. Enjoy the show. Quit reading this. No really just listen to show already. Why are you still reading this...go listen! --- Send in a voice message: https://anchor.fm/dirty-masenko/message
Want to learn one simple thing you can do to lower stress and guard the atmosphere of your home? In this episode, Janice talks about the one thing that was most helpful for her family as they tried to cultivate a comfortable, positive atmosphere for learning. Perhaps you'll find it helpful, too! Host biography Janice Campbell, a lifelong reader and writer, loves to introduce students to great books and beautiful writing. She holds an English degree from Mary Baldwin College, and is the graduated homeschool mom of four sons. You'll find more about reading, writing, planning, and education from a Charlotte Mason/Classical perspective at her websites, EverydayEducation.com, Excellence-in-Literature.com, and DoingWhatMatters.com. Resources Have you Heard? Noise Can Affect Learning from Education World Keep it Down (and Rediscover Silence) excerpted from Choosing Civility by P. M. Forni Path to Quiet from Hearing Health Quarterly Noise, Acoustics, Student Learning, and Teacher Health from The National Academies Press Daily Noise Pollution: Its Effects and What You Need to Know from Zen Soundproof Does Noise Affect Learning? from Frontiers in Psychology Noise Pollution Clearinghouse Education by Design, Not Default by Janet Newberry Connect Janice Campbell | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter | Pinterest | Website Homeschooling.mom | Instagram | Website Thank you to our sponsors! Medi-Share: an affordable Christian alternative to traditional health insurance Have you joined us at one of the Great Homeschool Conventions? We hope to see you there! For more encouragement on your homeschooling journey, visit the Homeschooling.mom site, and tune in to our sister podcast The Charlotte Mason Show. View full show notes on the blog.
RAFAEL R. IORIS: QUEM SALVARÁ A AMAZÔNIA? - 20 Minutos EntrevistaO historiador e escritor Rafael R. Ioris estará no programa 20 MINUTOS ENTREVISTA com Breno Altman nesta segunda-feira (18/07), às 11h, para discutir quem poderá salvar a Amazônia. Não perca! Ao vivo, nos canais de Opera Mundi.Rafael R. Ioris é Professor de História Latinoamericana e Política Comparada da Universidade de Denver. É formado em Ciências Sociais pela Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, tem mestrado em Relações Internacionais pela Universidade de Brasília, e doutorado em História Latinoamericana pela Emory University. É autor de vários artigos acadêmicos e na midia em geral. E, entre seus livros, estão: Transforming Brazil: a History of National Development in the PostWar Era; Qual Desenvolvimento?; Frontiers of Development in the Amazon; e, agora, está lançando pela Alameda Editorial o livro Amazônia no Século XXI: Trajetórias, Dilemas e Perspectivas.----Quer contribuir com Opera Mundi via PIX? Nossa chave é firstname.lastname@example.org (Razão Social: Última Instância Editorial Ltda.). Desde já agradecemos!Assinatura solidária: http://www.operamundi.com.br/apoio★ Support this podcast ★
Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a core feature of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and depression. Recently, some studies have shown promising results with brief protocols of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) focused on RNT in the treatment of emotional disorders in adults. The current study analyzes the effect of an individual, 3-session, RNT-focused ACT protocol in the treatment of severe and comorbid GAD and depression.Dr Francisco J. Ruiz is among the world's leading experts on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Relational Frame Theory (RFT). He is currently a Professor in the area of Clinical and Experimental Psychology at the Konrad Lorenz University Foundation in Bogotá, Colombia.Specifically, Dr Ruiz's work has focused on developing an ACT-based intervention model designed to dismantle dysfunctional patterns of Repetitive Negative Thinking (RNT), including worry and rumination, know as RNT-focused ACT. He has published more than 75 articles in peer-reviewed journals and served on several editorial boards, including the Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, and Frontiers in Psychology.Among Dr Ruiz's honors is his appointment as Distinguished Researcher Juan Alberto Aragón at the Konrad Lorenz University Foundation.In this episode you will hear:What is repetitive negative thinkingHow acceptance and commitment therapy can help you to tackle persistent thoughts about the past or the futureWhat defusion isWhat willingness isResources:Francisco Ruiz's labAcceptance and commitment therapyRelational Frame Theory of Language See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
Despite existing on the planet for millions of years with minor morphological changes, crocodiles are having a difficult time in a new human dominated world. However, there are success stories. This episode we take a look at the rebound of American Crocodiles, and also explore how long herpetofauna live for. Become a Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/herphighlights Full reference list available here: http://www.herphighlights.podbean.com Main Paper References: Mazzotti FJ, Balaguera-Reina SA, Brandt LA, Briggs-González V, Cherkiss M, Farris S, Godahewa A. 2022. Natural and Anthropogenic Factors Influencing Nesting Ecology of the American Crocodile in Florida, United States. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 10:904576. DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2022.904576. Reinke BA, Cayuela H, Janzen FJ, Lemaître J-F, Gaillard J-M, Lawing AM, Iverson JB, Christiansen DG, Martínez-Solano I, Sánchez-Montes G, Gutiérrez-Rodríguez J, Rose FL, Nelson N, Keall S, Crivelli AJ, Nazirides T, Grimm-Seyfarth A, Henle K, Mori E, Guiller G, Homan R, Olivier A, Muths E, Hossack BR, Bonnet X, Pilliod DS, Lettink M, Whitaker T, Schmidt BR, Gardner MG, Cheylan M, Poitevin F, Golubović A, Tomović L, Arsovski D, Griffiths RA, Arntzen JW, Baron J-P, Le Galliard J-F, Tully T, Luiselli L, Capula M, Rugiero L, McCaffery R, Eby LA, Briggs-Gonzalez V, Mazzotti F, Pearson D, Lambert BA, Green DM, Jreidini N, Angelini C, Pyke G, Thirion J-M, Joly P, Léna J-P, Tucker AD, Limpus C, Priol P, Besnard A, Bernard P, Stanford K, King R, Garwood J, Bosch J, Souza FL, Bertoluci J, Famelli S, Grossenbacher K, Lenzi O, Matthews K, Boitaud S, Olson DH, Jessop TS, Gillespie GR, Clobert J, Richard M, Valenzuela-Sánchez A, Fellers GM, Kleeman PM, Halstead BJ, Grant EHC, Byrne PG, Frétey T, Le Garff B, Levionnois P, Maerz JC, Pichenot J, Olgun K, Üzüm N, Avcı A, Miaud C, Elmberg J, Brown GP, Shine R, Bendik NF, O'Donnell L, Davis CL, Lannoo MJ, Stiles RM, Cox RM, Reedy AM, Warner DA, Bonnaire E, Grayson K, Ramos-Targarona R, Baskale E, Muñoz D, Measey J, de Villiers FA, Selman W, Ronget V, Bronikowski AM, Miller DAW. 2022. Diverse aging rates in ectothermic tetrapods provide insights for the evolution of aging and longevity. Science 376:1459–1466. DOI: 10.1126/science.abm0151. Species of the Bi-Week: Koch, Claudia, and Pablo J Venegas. 2016. “A Large and Unusually Colored New Snake Species of the Genus Tantilla (Squamata; Colubridae) from the Peruvian Andes.” PeerJ 4: e2767. OPEN ACCESS Other Links/Mentions: BBC article on the giant Mekong stingray - https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-61862169 Music: Intro/outro – Treehouse by Ed Nelson Species Bi-week theme – Michael Timothy Other Music – The Passion HiFi, www.thepassionhifi.com
2 Sonic fanboys discuss the recent hands-on coverage people have had for Sonic Frontiers, plus another Yuji Naka tweet-storm! Follow us on Twitter: Official account - https://twitter.com/SonicMovieShow Devon - https://twitter.com/CursonaFun Ethan - https://twitter.com/EthanAbsolutely
In COVID-19 clinical update #123, Dr. Griffin discusses rapid diagnostic testing in response to the monkeypox outbreak, leading causes of death in the US during the COVID-19 pandemic, antibody evasion by subvariants, broadly-neutralizing antibodies against emerging variants, factors associated with severe outcomes among hospitalized immunocompromised adults, measurement of the burden of hospitalizations during the pandemic, parental vaccine hesitancy in diverse communities, evaluating saliva sampling to improve access to diagnosis in low-resource settings, oral sabizabulin for high-risk hospitalized adults, lower-risk of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and neurovascular injury with complement activation and inflammation during infection. Subscribe (free): Apple Podcasts, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV! Links for this episode Monkeypox outbreak rapid testing response (CDC) Leading causes of death during pandemic (JAMA) FDA recommends vaccine update (FDA) Antibody evasion by subvariants (Nature) Broadly-Neutralizing antibodies against variants (Frontiers in Immunology) Severe outcomes factors in immunocompromised adults (CDC) Measurement of the burden of hospitalizations (OFID) Vaccine hesitancy among parents (Academic Pediatrics) PAXLOVID patient eligibility screening checklist (FDA) Remdesivir fact sheet for providers (Veklury) Bebtelovimab fact sheet for providers (FDA) Saliva evaluation to improve diagnostics (ASTMH) Oral Sabizabulin for high-risk adults (NEJM) Lower risk of MIS-C in children (CID) Neurovascular injury during infection (Brain) Paul Offit on TWiV 917 Contribute to FIMRC fundraiser at PWB Dr. Griffin's treatment guide (pdf) Letters read on TWiV 918 Timestamps by Jolene. Thanks! Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees Send your questions for Dr. Griffin to email@example.com
This episode is the second of Jack's investigations into self-driving cars. Last time, he was interested in Phoenix, Arizona. This time, he's back home in London, an old, complicated, messy city with an extensive public transport system. The episode was presented and written by Jack Stilgoe and edited by Gemma Milne, with research assistance from Nuzhah Miah.Relevant links- Joe Moran, (2006). Crossing the road in Britain, 1931–1976. The Historical Journal, 49 (2), 477-496.- Joe Moran (2010). On roads: a hidden history. Profile Books.- Lucy Suchman (1987). Plans and situated actions: The problem of human-machine communication. Cambridge university press.- Peter Norton (2011). Fighting traffic: the dawn of the motor age in the American city. MIT Press.- Peter Norton (2021). Autonorama: The Illusory Promise of High-tech Driving. Island Press.- https://www.wayve.ai/ (and the company's published papers, e.g.: Hawke, J., Badrinarayanan, V., & Kendall, A. (2021). Reimagining an autonomous vehicle. arXiv preprint arXiv:2108.05805). - Chris Tennant, & Jack Stilgoe, (2021). The attachments of ‘autonomous' vehicles. Social Studies of Science, 51(6), 846-870. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/03063127211038752- Tennant, C., Neels, C., Parkhurst, G., Jones, P., Mirza, S., & Stilgoe, J. (2021). Code, culture and concrete: Self-Driving Vehicles and the Rules of the Road. Frontiers in Sustainable Cities, 122.Transcript and study questions available at thereceivedwisdom.org.
This is the first in my “BPD Shorties” series where I tackle some of the most commonly asked questions about borderline personality disorder. Often, when someone first discovers that they identify with the symptoms of BPD or are struggling to come to terms with a new diagnosis, they find themselves wondering about the cause. It's only natural to wonder why we ended up experiencing these painful symptoms that can make us feel like life is nearly impossible to bear. In this mini-episode, I'll attempt to tackle this extremely complex and nuanced question with some of the most up-to-date research and my own personal experience.
In this episode James Durbin joins the podcast. James talks about the new band Cleanbreak and their debut album “Coming Home”, working with Mike Flyntz (Riot), Perry Richardson (Stryper) and Robert Sweet (Stryper), writing with Alessandro Del Vecchio, working with Frontiers, his album “The Beast Awakens”, getting kudos from Rich Ward, meeting and performing in front of Steven Tyler for the first time, his time on American Idol, Quiet Riot, MJF, Jushin Liger, Dave Grohl, and a ton more! The episode kicks off with Trent's thoughts on the Pantera news, Nita Strauss leaving / Kane Roberts returning to Alice Cooper, and more. Thanks for listening, and please share! #jamesdurbin #podcast #pantera #allkillernofiller This episode is brought to you by DEB Concerts. Follow DEB on Facebook and Twitter to get updates on upcoming shows from Poison, Tom Keifer, Rocklahoma's Roadhouse Stage, and more! This episode is also brought to you by Med Pharm. Follow their Facebook page and visit medpharmok.com to find out why they are “Cannabis With a Cause.” 30% of profits go towards building no-kill animal shelters in the area. They have a wide selection of products, and they have a doctor on site every Friday and Saturday. Mention Thunder Underground and receive 10% off on your first purchase! This episode is also brought to you by Sunset Tattoo Tulsa. Sunset Tattoo has over 25 years of experience, and is located at 3146 E. 15th St. in Tulsa, OK. They are state licensed and Mother approved! The tattoos are "Done Good and Proper" so be sure to like their facebook page for more details. Become a Thunder Underground #patron on Patreon: www.patreon.com/thunderunderground Stream us anytime everywhere podcasts are heard.
On this episode of 40k Frontiers, Sam's away getting married/honeymooning (big congrats!), Alex makes a splash at his first event in Korea, and regales us with moving stories and first experiences in his new home. Meanwhile Ben's been a snowflake at two more tourneys, and Towse takes more baby steps towards running events! If you'd like to support BITN, please consider subscribing on Patreon to join the wonderful discord. For more behind-the-scenes videos and additional content including but not limited to BITREPS, Chasing the Narrative part 2, and exclusive segments, please consider supporting BITN on YouTube by joining the member's area. Want more? http://www.patreon.com/bestintabletop
A Debate Over How The Universe Began Even though it's commonly accepted today, the Big Bang theory was not always the universally accepted scientific explanation for how our universe began. In fact, the term ‘Big Bang' was coined by a prominent physicist in 1949 to mock the idea. In the middle of the 20th century, researchers in the field of cosmology had two warring theories. The one we would come to call the Big Bang suggested the universe expanded rapidly from a primordial, hot, and ultra-dense cosmos. Conversely, the so-called ‘Steady State' theory held that the universe, at any given point in time, looked roughly the same. The story of how the Big Bang became the accepted theory of physics is also a story of two men. One, Fred Hoyle, was a steady state supporter who thought the universe would last forever. Meanwhile, George Gamow, the major public advocate of the Big Bang, begged to differ. They debated in the pages of Scientific American and in competing popular books, as both dedicated scientists and earnest popularizers of their field. And while Gamow ended up winning the debate, for the most part, the two men managed to come together in one way: They accidentally explained the origins of every element of matter by being part right, and part wrong. The truth, it turned out, would lie in the middle. Ira talks to physicist and science historian Paul Halpern about this story, detailed in his book, Flashes of Creation: George Gamow, Fred Hoyle, and the Great Big Bang Debate. The World According To Sound: Listening To Black Holes Collide In this piece, you can actually listen to gravitational waves, the ripples in spacetime made by the tremendous mass of colliding black holes. It is possible to hear them, because their wavelengths have been shifted all the way into the human range of hearing by MIT professor Scott Hughes. Drawn together by their immense gravity, nearby black holes will swirl faster and faster until they are finally absorbed completely into one another. When the pitch rises, it means the force of gravity is increasing as the black holes collide. Not all black holes come together at the same rate or release the same amount of gravitational waves, so each combining pair has its own particular sonic signature. Some black holes collide quickly. Others slowly merge. Some produce relatively high pitches, because of the intensity of the gravitational waves, while others have a low bass rumbling. Some even make the sound of a wobbling top as the two black holes swirl around each other, before eventually meeting and becoming totally absorbed into one another. A Maggot Revolution In Modern Medicine In a bloody battle during World War I, two wounded soldiers were stranded on the battlefield in France, hidden and overlooked under some brush. Suffering femur fractures and flesh wounds around their scrotum and abdomen, they lay abandoned without water, food, or shelter for a whole week. At the time, outcomes for these kinds of wounds were poor: Patients with compound femur fractures had a 75 to 80% mortality rate. By the time the soldiers were rescued and brought to a hospital base, orthopedic surgeon William Baer expected their wounds to be festering, and their conditions fatal. But much to his surprise, neither showed any signs of fever, septicaemia, or blood poisoning. Read more at sciencefriday.com. Trying To Determine Forest Health? Look To The Lichens There aren't very many old-growth forest left in North America. And while it would be wonderful to be able to preserve all of them, resources to protect those forest patches are also in limited supply. So if you're forced to choose between two areas of old-growth forest, how do you prioritize which of these islands of biodiversity to focus on? One of the standard ways to identify significant patches of forest is to look at the size of the trees. But new work published this week in the journal Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment suggests that examining the lichens in a forest plot may give a better picture of the ecological health of an area. Because lichens feed from the air flowing over them, they're quite sensitive to changes in moisture, nutrients, and pollution, and need long, continuous periods undisturbed. Troy McMullin, a research scientist in lichenology at the Canadian Museum of Nature in Ottawa, Ontario, joins Ira to talk about the stories lichens can tell about the forest ecosystem. Transcripts are available on sciencefriday.com.
What does the urge to gamble have in common with a breastfeeding mother? What is dopamine's role in disorders like schizophrenia, Parkinson's, and depression? Today we discuss dopamine and its many functions, and dispel pop-psychology myths surrounding it. References: Lebowitz MS, Ahn WK, Nolen-Hoeksema S. Fixable or fate? Perceptions of the biology of depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2013;81(3):518-527. doi:10.1037/a0031730 Kvaale EP, Gottdiener WH, Haslam N. Biogenetic explanations and stigma: A meta-analytic review of associations among laypeople. Social Science & Medicine. 2013;96:95-103. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.07.017 Dunlop, B. W., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2007). The role of dopamine in the pathophysiology of depression. Archives of general psychiatry, 64(3), 327-337. Ehringer, H., & Hornykiewicz, O. (1998). Distribution of noradrenaline and dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine) in the human brain and their behavior in diseases of the extrapyramidal system1 This article was originally published in German in the journal Klinische Wochenschrift, volume 38, issue 24, 15 December 1960, pp. 1236–1239.1. Parkinsonism & related disorders, 4(2), 53-57 Christian, H. C., Chapman, L. P., & Morris, J. F. (2007). Thyrotrophin‐releasing hormone, vasoactive intestinal peptide, prolactin‐releasing peptide and dopamine regulation of prolactin secretion by different lactotroph morphological subtypes in the rat. Journal of neuroendocrinology, 19(8), 605-613.. Brisch, R., Saniotis, A., Wolf, R., Bielau, H., Bernstein, H. G., Steiner, J., ... & Gos, T. (2014). The role of dopamine in schizophrenia from a neurobiological and evolutionary perspective: old fashioned, but still in vogue. Frontiers in psychiatry, 5, 47. Adinoff, B. (2004). Neurobiologic processes in drug reward and addiction. Harvard review of psychiatry, 12(6), 305-320. --- This episode is sponsored by · Anchor: The easiest way to make a podcast. https://anchor.fm/app Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/noggin-psychologypodcast/support
Author professor Richard Boyatzis joins me to talk how management isn't about just IQ, competencies, Daniel Goleman, why leadership training doesn't work, emotional contagion, neuroscience, nature, stress, renewal movements, play, hope, what leads to change, sobriety, weight loss, and narcissism. A wise experienced man worth listening to. Richard E. Boyatzis is Distinguished University Professor of Case Western Reserve University, He graduated from MIT and Harvard. He has authored more than 200 articles and 9 books on leadership, competencies, emotional intelligence, competency development, coaching, neuroscience and management education, including the international best-seller, Primal Leadership with Daniel Goleman and Annie McKee and the recent Helping People Change with Melvin Smith and Ellen Van Oosten. His Coursera MOOCs have over a million enrolled. Professor, Departments of Organizational Behavior, Psychology, and Cognitive Science Connect with Richard Boyatzis : https://www.facebook.com/richard.boyatzis Read also Helping People Change from Harvard Business Review Press on Amazon.com at https://www.amazon.com/Helping-People-Change-Coaching-Compassion/dp/1633696561/ Our latest paper on renewal and stress: Boyatzis, R.E., Goleman, D., Dhar, U., & Osiri, J.K. (2021). Thrive and survive: Assessing personal sustainability. Consulting Psychology Journal. 73 (1).27-50. https://doi.org/10.1037/cpb0000193 To access a free copy of our recent paper on quality of relationships: Boyatzis, R.E., & Rochford, K. (2020). Relational climate in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement and validation. Frontiers in Psychology. 11(article 85). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00085 Check out my FREE online course, Inspiring Leadership through Emotional Intelligence https://www.coursera.org/#course/lead-ei
Last time we spoke, the death of Nurhaci led to the rise of his grandson Hung Taiji. The Sea King Mao Wenlong was finally caught lying about his military achievements and even secretly negotiating with the Jin. Mao's rival Yuan Chonghuan took little time to get rid of Mao, thus riding himself of the man stealing his limelight. Unfortunately it was not long when Yuan would fall victim to a sneaky ploy of Hung Taiji and was executed under the false pretense that he was a turncoat like Mao. Hung managed to gain some very valuable Ming defectors and upgraded his military with new cannons and naval units. Then Hung proclaimed his people to be the Manchu under a brand new Qing dynasty as he conquered all of Korea. With the Koreans now giving him tribute, he soon turned his gaze towards the Ming, with some new toys in hand. Welcome to the Fall and Rise of China Podcast, I am your dutiful host Craig Watson. But, before we start I want to also remind you this podcast is only made possible through the efforts of Kings and Generals over at Youtube. Perhaps you want to learn more about the history of Asia? Kings and Generals have an assortment of episodes on world war two and much more so go give them a look over on Youtube. So please subscribe to Kings and Generals over at Youtube and to continue helping us produce this content please check out www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. If you are still hungry for some more history related content, over on my channel, the Pacific War Channel where I cover the history of China and Japan from the 19th century until the end of the Pacific War. This episode is The Rebellion of Li Zicheng In early 1634, one man, Chen Qiyu, was instilled with an incredible amount of power. He was made Supreme commander of Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, Huguang and Sichuan. The Ming Court had realized the required authority necessary to coordinate operations against the wandering bandit menace. Droughts, famine, even cannibalism was seen all over, driving peasants to swell the ranks of bandits who soon became rebel armies. So many officials in numerous provinces complained they lacked the resources necessary to feed their troops, distribute relief or quell rebellions. In turn when they would fail, they would be dismissed, leading to a further shortage of competent men to manage the terrible situation. In the area between Shaanxi and Henan, over 200,000 rebels began taking smaller towns and killing local officials. The rebels would routinely attack smaller towns, usually in groups of 10,000 and perform atrocities against officials. They would avoid any open battles with Ming forces, always on the move. Then all the prominent rebel leaders got together for a meeting, which would be a rather dramatic turning point. The overarching leader amongst them was Li Zicheng who would make many key decisions for them all. They decided to divide their forces and strike out simultaneously in all directions. The most successful of these groups would be the Rebel leaders Zhang Xianzhong and Gao Yingxiang who hit Nan Zhili. Enroute to their target, their troops carried around banners declaring themselves followers of the True Primal Dragon Emperor and thus they were identifying themselves as something more than just mere bandits. They marched through Henan on their way into Nan Zhili, looting the town of Fengyang. There they killed over 4000 Ming officials and civilians performing some heinous atrocities, some stating they even ripped fetuses out of pregnant women. They razed everything to the ground and looted the place for days. Once they were done, Gao headed west and Zhang went east to attack Luzhou. Defending Luzhou was commander Wu Dapo who deployed peasants and troops to defend the town. He set up cannons atop walls and stockpiled large logs to be thrown at the rebels. Then as the bandits got close, his forces opened fire killing around a 1000 of them.Yet such local competent commanders were increasingly becoming rare and the Emperor continuously resorted to dispatching eunuchs wherever he could to resolve matters. These eunuchs of course were not military men and many had ulterior motives. The bandits were moving further south freaking out the Ming Court and Emperor. Drastic measures were enforced such as rushing 43,000 troops from other theaters, such as from the northeast where the Qing could strike at any moment. In the wake of the absolute disaster at Fengyang, Hong Chengchou was given the task to crush the rebels within 6 months time and the emperor followed this up by pledging almost 1 million taels worth of supplies for the task. Despite all these major efforts, Hong had far too few troops, too much ground to cover and far little time. The rebels roamed freely, prompting one official in Henan to state “the villages are bereft of people, white bones fill the wilderness and at night the crying of ghosts can be heard everywhere”. Rice inflation was so high, it is alleged people were buying human flesh of the deceased in markets. The rebel groups were demonstrating more and more tactical awareness. They began burning crops in certain areas to deny food supplies to pursuing Ming forces. Gao Yinxiang besieged Guangzhou with a force of possibly 70,000 and used many heavy cannons. Gao followed this up by attacking Taozhou, dangerously close to the secondary capital of the Ming, Nanjing. His forces would crush a Ming army in Song and Henan before he returned to Shaanxi in 1636. The rebels and Ming officials would go back and forth with countless battles and one Ming official realized the rebellions now needed to be quelled as a first priority. The Minister of War Yang Sichang stated the rebels were a “disease of the heart” and that the capital region must be protected from the spreading poison of the rebels. The frontier war with the Manchu he deemed to be like the arms of a person, not necessary for survival, but the heart was. Yang saw the greatest danger being in Shaanxi, Henan, Huguang and Jiangbei. He thought the empire required a bold new strategy to restore state control of the central plains. Once this was achieved, then they could turn their attention towards the Manchu threat. Yang's plan was to become known as “shi ian zhi wang” the Ten-sided net. Like most grand proposals during this time, it looked amazing on paper and would be a catastrophic failure. By 1637 the scope of the rebellions had expanded greatly and the center of its activity was shifting from south and east closer to the capital and the agricultural heartland of the Ming dynasty. Thus Yang proscribed the construction of more defenses along the frontier, hoping to bolster everything aside from troops. He wanted to keep around just 50,000 troops outside the Great Wall, thinking it would be a sufficient deterrent against the Manchu. The idea was, if the 50,000 were attacked by Manchu invaders, they could buy enough time for reinforcements to come. In the meantime they could even open up peace talks with the Manchu simply to buy more time for what he really wanted to do, quell the rebellions once and force all. There was quite an uproar in the Ming Court over the idea of opening peace talks with the Manchu, but it would begrudgingly be done. Some others in the court advised opening up trade markets with their Mongol allies to procure horses, hoping to drive a wedge between the Manchu and their Mongol allies. Ming intelligence at the time suggested the Mongolia frontier situation was a hot spot not just between the Ming and Manchu, but also between the Manchu and certain Mongol groups. The idea as stated by one official was “to use barbarians to control barbarians”. Yang believed given adequate supplies, how many times have I stated that one at this point, given adequate supplies the soldiers could be fed and would fight, and in turn would be able to depend on the populace accordingly. Once the populace felt safe, they would direct their allegiance to the Ming government and be less inclined to join rebel groups. Then with the populace, they could form militias and finally cut off, isolate and stave out the rebel groups. Yang then prescribed punishment and even execution for Ming officials who were derelict in their duties. This was the “ten-sided net” strategy. Yang said Shaanxi, Henan, Huguang and Jiangbei would have 4 lines of defense, each with a pacification commissioner assigned. At Yansui, Shaanxi, Shandong, Jiangnan, Jiangxi and Sichuan would be 6 auxiliary lines of defense, each also assigned pacification commissioners. Those commissioners would be directing both defensive and offensive operations. Through their efforts they would gradually close in around rebel positions until all were trapped, then killed or captured. Defense was the primary function of it all. Once the net closed in on the rebels, the Ming would employ “clearing the fields and strengthening the walls” as a general strategy. Thus with heavily defended cities and no supplies available to them, the rebels would eventually be forced to surrender. 2 supreme commanders, the Zongli and Zongdu would smash the enemy wherever possible, while the rest of the officials would act more locally. The Zongli and Zongdu's troops would be elite troops with better mobility. Yang estimated they would need 10,000 troops in key defensive posts and around 30,000 for each supreme commander. In total they would require 120,000 troops, of which 36,000 would be mounted. Overall, the problem should be resolved in a matter of just 6 months, sure. Now to equip and supply all these troops it was estimated to cost 2.8 million taels. How were they going to pay for all this, taxes taxes taxes. Yang argued they could increase the land tax by about 12 ounces of grain to bring in an extra 1.9 million taels and get another 400,000 via special taxes on surplus lands. 200,000 from postal revenues and the rest perhaps by raising the sales tax a bit. There was a ton of debate in the Court over all this, but Yang got his way. The plan was a go though it certainly had its critics. One major critic against Yang and his plan was Sun Chuanting, the Grand coordinator of Shaanxi. Sun argued countless problems with the ten-sided net plan. First he argued the funds and manpower for it were highly unrealistic “how can the state raise an extra 2.8 million tales when they've already spent more than 1 million taels in extra revenues”. Sun re-iterated this argument asking where the troops would even come from and how the hell would he manage to do all this in just 6 months. Sun also stated the seasons when this would take place were not the same seasons the bandits usually were at large. There was also the issue of terrain, the rebels could still flee to mountains and forests, which large Ming armies would lose them in. Sun said many more troops would actually be required for this plan and those officials appointed needed to not only be competent, but also very knowledgeable at the local levels. Sun characterized the plan to be more of an “empty net strategy”. But like most critics, hell the majority of our politicians today to boot, Sun had no alternative plan. I am sure any of you in the audience can already see one of the largest issues with this plan, that of taxation. The peasants are rebelling because there is no food or funds in their regions, so the plan is to further tax them to stop them from rebelling? This issue did not go unnoticed, the Emperor stated himself “leadership and money needs to come from the gentry, not the masses. Suppressing the bandits requires a big campaign which requires lots of troops. The money can't come from the people, but should come from the treasury, but the treasury is empty”. Xiong Wencan, a man who gained a reputation for quelling rebels was appointed as one of the supreme commanders, alongside Hong Chengchou. Out in the field, Xiong and Hong managed to achieve many victories against the rebels, Hong even managed to defeat Li Zicheng, one of the biggest rebel leaders at large. But these victories did not amount to peace for the populace. Many of the pacifications armies would loot and rape as they drove the rebels into the mountains. As is expected, Ming commanders would not venture deep into mountains, fearing rebel ambushes. Ming forces won numerous battles, claiming the lives of thousands of rebels, but were never able to eliminate the enemy entirely from any given region. At one point, the rebel leader Zhang Xianzhong was defeated in battle and had to surrender. This prompted some Ming officials to discuss the idea of using Zhang Xianzhong to kill other rebel leaders. Most officials deemed the idea completely insane and it was soon disregarded. While the discussions were going on however, Xiong Wencan allegedly gave Zhang 20,000 men to help maintain local order. This eye opening moment prompted Yang Sichang to become more more personally involved in the campaign, not liking how his subordinates were simply doing things on their own and some not even following direct orders. Yang also vowed to the emperor it would all be done by the winter of 1638. Yang then berated field commanders to obey the authority of the Ming officials. Winter of 1638 came with no significant results, and Yang asked the emperor to replace him, but was refused. This prompted Yang to make a list of officials who he deemed deserved punishment for lack of action during the campaign, one of the most notable was Hong Chengchou who seemed to be making no ground. Many officials were punished, except for Hong who the emperor personally liked and protected. There were many unforeseen problems, such as local officials hiding resources and bribing the tax agents who came looking for funds. Natural disasters plagued China as well. Locust plagues hit and caused more famines in Henan, Suzhou and Shandong forcing more and more peasants to scrounge for food and many Earthquakes hit Sichuan. More and more the strong joined the rebels and the weak starved to death. Yang himself seemed to not even be following the ten-sided net strategy anymore by 1638. Yang began to prioritize certain regions over others, rather than keeping the net closing overall and when the Emperor questioned him, Yang would argue it was too difficult to coordinate the officials. As I mentioned many of the sub commanders and other officials were beginning to not heed orders and it was becoming a noticeable problem. And of course Yang gave the old, lack of troops, lack of supplies speech. All in all, rebels were certainly being killed or captured and many of their leaders were falling, its not like the Ming were not making headway. Yang was even beginning to feel some confidence that the plan was working and proposed grabbing another million taels for the plan and famine relief. Then disaster would strike. As I previously mentioned, part of the plan was to open up peace talks with the Qing, to bide more time to finish off the rebels. In 1638, the Ming were not looking so good and the Manchu's were coming off multiple war victories making them not too willing to talk about peace. Some in the Ming Court thought they should negotiate making Hung Tiaji a tributary prince, Yang Sichang pushed for this heavily. Yuan Chongzhen held a meeting with many officials over the state of the frontier defenses. They lacked firepower and many competent commanders were busy with the rebels. In the end as a result of the circumstances the Emperor ruled in favor of offering to make Hung Taiji a tributary prince. Meanwhile Qing nobles such as Dorgon, Kong, Geng and Shang began raiding Ming territroy outside the great wall. Then Dorgon had a lucky encounter at a large redoubt near the Great Wall and annihilated the force in it and proceeded across the border and approached the Yellow River. Zu Dashou alerted the capital and demanded relief forces to rush over. The Ming Court debated on what action to take, Yang Sichang advocated for negotiations, while others urged for battle. One commander Lu Xiangsheng argued with Yang “If you discard war but talk of negotiations,you nourish disaster and bring disgrace to the country. Who doesn't know this? What's the point of my receiving the double-edged sword from the emperor if I don't exert myself in battle”. Yang's rebuttal to this was to sneakily transfer troops from Lu Xiangsheng to another commander named Gao Qiqian, leaving Lu with only 20,000 men. The Emperor for his part was outraged by the Qing threat to his capital yet again and yelled at Yang in front of the Court. It seemed the Emperor was most angry about the idea that those around him thought he personally believed peace talks were the best choice of action, as he did not think they were. The Emperor then ordered Lu Xiangsheng to pursue the enemy and for Gao Qiqian to defend Shanhaiguan. The Emperor sent 40,000 taels to Lu as a reward and stated “Peace talks were the idea of the outer court officials. The Emperor personally favors wars”. The Qing attacked Gaoyang, where the now 76 year old and retired Sun Chenzong was. He, alongside his whole family participated in the defense of the city. The city fell after 3 days, poor Chenzong and 19 of his family members perished. Lu Xiangsheng pushed for a counter attack, but Gao Qiqian argued they would be better to take up defensive positions. Lu's forces were fighting the enemy at Baoding, but had no rations left. Lu pleaded with his men to continue fighting “you and I have all received the blessings of the state. In this calamity we may not avoid death, but there is no calamity in which we might not attain life!”. His men resolved to fight on to delay the enemy, praying for relief forces to come. Gao's forces were only 15 miles away when they received a plea from Lu to come help, Gao did not reply. Lu's force was surrounded near the Gaoshui bridge outside Jiazhuang, they then engaged the enemy. The battle lasted 6 hours with cannons, guns and arrows flying off. Lu's sub commanders pleaded to try and break out of the encirclement, but Lu demanded they all make a last stand. Lu would die from 4 arrows and 3 sword blows, allegedly after taking 10 men with him. The Qing took Changping, Jizhou, Pinggu and reached the outskirts of Jinan by January of 1639. Jinan city would fall and be razed to the ground, and the Ming Prince Zhang Bingwen would die from arrow fire in street fighting as the defenders fled. Dorgon then raided some territory around Tianjin before heading back east. By the time any significant Ming relief forces came to bear down on the Qing they were already making a withdrawal. The Qing raids had lasted 5 months, they hit 53 cities of which they captured 8. They fought 57 battles defeating 33 Ming divisions and captured an incredible 473,000 Ming, 4000 taels of gold and nearly a million taels of silver. Over 100 Ming officers were killed and sadly 150,000 civilians. The Ming Court responded first with the execution of 32 officials deemed to have allowed the situation to get out of hand. Yang Sichang was impeached, but managed to avoid execution. Competent commanders who were quelling the rebels were transferred to the northeast to prepare new defenses against future Qing attacks leaving the northwest to fester with more rebellions. A little while back I mentioned the talk of using the surrendered rebel leader Zhang Xianzhong to help kill other rebel leaders. Well this whole time he was in Gucheng training a so-called militia and making promises to the Ming that he would help pacify all of Huguang. He had erected customs houses on the Han river to collect transit taxes, under the guise they were to help defend Gucheng. He was also bribing officials and local administrators left right and center, effectively having them firmly in his hands. Meanwhile Xiong Wencan was still performing offensive operations against the rebels, while the Ming Court in late 1638 falsely believed the rebels were largely quelled. Then Zhang Xinazhong, to the surprise of no one, began rebelling with that so-called militia group he had been training. It should come to no surprise, Zhang's efforts the whole time were in preparation for future rebelling. He had extorted money through the transit tax schemes and used the funds to reinforce the walls of the town where he settled his garrison. On top of bribing so many officials to turn an blind eye to his actions, upon re-commencing with the rebellion, he sent a release of records of all the corrupt officials who dealt with him and made it public, leading to more and more executions. Zhang's force joined up with another rebel leader's force namd Luo Rucai and they soon began to attack Fangxian which fought them for over a week before its gates were opened. The rebels plundered Fangxian and then casually moved into the mountains near the Shaanxi border. The man who had captured Zhang in the first place, Xiong Wencan was berated for all of this of course. Xiong sent Zuo Liangyu to pursue the rebels, but Zuo's force would be ambushed in the mountains, taking 10,000 casualties and having to retreat. It was one of the greatest rebel victories, they had not only killed a large number of Ming soldiers, his force also got their hands on a ton of war supplies and Zuo's official seals of authority. The disgraced and severely deranked Yang Sichang demanded to be allowed to deal with the problem and was reappointed minister of war, Grand secretary, Supreme Commander of Bandit pacification and bestowed the double edged sword of authority in 1639, wow talk about the kitchen sink of appointments. The Emperor agreed to give Yang 5 million taels to wipe the rebels out once and for all and pretty much gave Yang carte blanche for how to operate. Apparently the Emperor even personally served Yang wine at a later banquet and gave him a handwritten poem, what a fall and rise moment. Xiong was impeached of course for his incompetence and even being accused of taking bribes from Zhang Xianzhong. Yang had a 6 step plan now to stop the spread of the rebels. First, taxes would be used to raise local troops with military farms established to feed them. Second, town walls would be improved, Third mercenaries would be hired to help train local militias. Fourth all cities would have firearms mounted on their walls. Fifth the government needed to improve famine relief efforts. And sixth they needed river forces to stop rebel boats and advocated for bringing troops from neighboring regions to help encircle the rebels. As you can imagine, the funding for all of this came from what else, new taxes. Surprisingly, Zuo Liangyu was appointed Bandit Pacifying General despite his enormous defeat to Zhang. Zuo from the offset would also believe he was being held back by Yang, who kept him in a defensive position and denying him any opportunity to get revenge upon Zhang. Despite the efforts, the rebels remained on the rise, now Luo Rucai and Zhang Xianzhong commanded a force of 100,000 by the fall of 1639. Yang decided to surround Zhang's stronghold of Gucheng, as Chongzhen berated him demanding to know how long this would all take. Throughout 1639-1640 the Ming seemed to be piling up victories over the rebels and even Zhang Xianzhong had fled into Sichuan being pursued by a very angry Zuo Liangyu. Yang ordered Zuo to stop pursuing him, but Zuo ignored the order and managed to encircle Zhang near Mount Manao. There he made a major victory, inflicting 3500 casualties, captured several commanders and also Zhang's wives and concubines. Zuo seemingly exonerated himself, but Zhang managed to escape further west into Sichuan, not to mention Yang was not too happy he disobeyed orders. Yang, as was typical of Ming officials, sought to limit those he saw as a rising rival such as Zuo. So Yang recommended another general, He Renlong to be invested with Zuo's title, which would prove to be a serious mistake. Yang's recommendation fell dead, and now he had alienated both Zuo and He. Zuo then turned to pursue Zhang who was beginning a rampage throughout Sichuan. Many Ming soldiers began deserting at this time, prompting Yang to more desperate acts, such as recruiting Shaolin monks at the Temple in Henan. Soon all of Sichuan was in trouble as tons of cities were taken by rebels or simply abandoned. Famines forced peasants to cannibalism and thus many joined the rebels, soon Yang yet again asked to be relieved of his post, but the emperor responded by sending 200,000 taels for famine relief instead. Because of Yang's strategy to coordinate regional defenses, many local communities were left largely to fend for themselves against the wandering rebels. Zhang and Luo's combined forces struck several cities in Sichuan. Yang was pushed to relocate his HQ to Chongqing where he could be closer to the fighting. He then began to place a bounty on Zhang's head and announced clemency for other rebels if they brought him Zhang's head. To make matters worse, the Ming court increasingly became frustrated with Yang's inability to achieve results with his numerous disputes with his subordinates whom all were rallying against him, stating he was incompetent and should be replaced. To all of this Zhng Xianzhong wrote a poem mocking Yang “Before we had coordinator Shao Who often came forth and danced with me Then came the armies who would not fight But followed me around But now we have good commander Yang Who graciously leaves me a three day road!”. The rebels took Luzhou in December of 1640 and fled at the first sight of Ming troops trying to encircle them. Yang was desperate and ordered all his commanders to assemble at Yunyang and to mount one more campaign to crush the rebels once and for all. Yet by this point many of the commanders were simply ignoring Yang's orders. For example Zuo Liangyu headed east trying to stop rebels from escaping into Shaanxi and He Renglong had gone west doing a similar operation. Yang was lashing out at the commanders arguing with so much terrain to cover it was now better to go on the offense than defense, but all the commanders ignored him. Then Yang's fears were realized when Zhang Xianzhong managed to capture Ming Prince Xiang at Xiangyang. Zhang's men had plundered some seals of office from Ming forces and used them to get into the town. Now Zhang occupied the prince's seat in his palace. Zhang allegedly poured the prince some wine at the palace and demanded of Xiang “I wish to have the head of Yang Sichang, but he is far away in Laikou, so now I'll have to borrow the prince's head in his stead. This will cause Sichang to suffer the full penalty of the law for having lost his princely fief. Now the prince should use all his strength to finish his wine”. Zhang then tied prince Xiang to the palace wall and lit him and his concubines on fire. Zhang then distributed some 150,000 taels from the prince's treasury to the people, but it should be noted his men also performed horrible atrocities upon the people as well. They cut several hands, feet, ears and noses from random civilians when they captured towns in the area. Now the rebel army moved east taking even more towns, even Guangzhou. Upon hearing the news Yang was livid with the commanders, who all defended themselves stating they were guarding against raids from Li Zicheng's rebel army from the north. To add insult to injury, Li Zichengs forces did strike from the north hitting Luoyang and managed to capture the extraordinary fat Prince Fu and his grandson. By contemporary accounts, its estimated Prine Fu may have been over 400 pounds and was quite reviled by the local populace. Prince Fu kowtowed before Li, begging for his life. Li of course killed him and then distributed a lot of his wealth to the people of Luoyang stating to them “the prince and the wealthy stripped away the flesh of the people and had no regard for the life or death of the common folk. I've killed him on your behalf”. Allegedly, Li and his sub commanders then stripped flesh from Prince Fu and consumed it with wine as a cruel pun. For taking Luoyang, Li became the foremost rebel leader and the term “dashing Prince” began to be associated with him. Luo Rucai similarly held the title “generalissimo chosen by heaven to pacify the people”. Yang fell into despair believing all was lost, now he sent a letter to the emperor asking for his own execution. Yang eventually stopped eating and died in march of 1641. Zhang Xianzhong would later capture Yang's ancestral home of Wuling and dig up his grave and desecrate Yang's corpse. Yang's demise truly illustrates the many problems of the late Ming politics and Military situation. All too often, sweeping authority was bestowed on civil officials who lacked military experience. The ten-sided net strategy was doomed from the beginning. The main problem with it was that of resource allocation. If perhaps the Manchu threat had been contained in the northeast, then maybe Yang ould have mustered the forces and resources necessary to beat the rebels. But the entire time there was a fight over resources between the Manchu problem or the Rebel problem, and many in the Court did not know which one was the largest threat. The numerous natural disasters that led to wide scale famines did not help at all and were only made worse by Yang's lack of military experience. While the Ming forces pretty much always bested the Rebels during battle, the rebels enjoyed superior mobility and easily disappeared when needed. For the remainder of 1641 the Ming tried to fight off the rebels in central China. Ding Qirui replaced Yang Sichang and Fu Zonglong was appointed Vice Minister of War and Supreme commander of Shaanxi. Li Zicheng had risen to be the most powerful rebel leader with Zhang Xianzhong and Luo Rucai beneath him, but all held significant reputations and status. As a result of all the battles to destroy the rebels, now the rebels had earned significant battle experience, technological expertise and a ton of weapons. The Ming were losing their technological edge in war against the rebels. After the Qing raid into Shandong, the Qing launched a probe attack on Songshan in March of 1639. A Qing force of 30,000 approached Songshan and were met with 37 heavy cannon fire which repulsed the invaders quite quickly. Hung realized the Ming were not yet ready to abandon their defenses outside the Great Wall so easily. Plans for defending the Liaodong region continued, but at this point Ming officials feared to advance any plan for war in fear of failing and being punished for it. It goes without saying the Emperor's temper was pretty high at this point and one was likely to be executed or atleast lose significant status for such ventures if they did not pan out. As the war against the rebels intensified in western and central China, the Qing began to make more noise in Liaodong. Ningyuan remained a thorn in Hung Taiji's side, alongside Songshan and Jinzhou for over a decade now. Since early 1640, the Qing began setting up military farms in preparation for future attacks on Ming territory. The Joseon dynasty was now also helping the war effort by sending food supplies by ship to Xiaolinghe and Dalinghe. Many war plans were brought to Hung by his commanders, and eventually one would be approved. The plan was to capture Songshan and Jinzhou which were thought to be the key to take Shanhaiguan. The war planners argued that previous raids had failed against Shonghan and Jinzhou because the Ming held Shanhai-son jin corridor, but if that was severed, the Qing could consolidate all Liaodong and then hit China proper. Now the Ming were not sitting by idle, they saw the Qing build up and knew a massive invasion was incoming. The Ming also rightfully deduced an attack would be made on Songshan and Jinzhou so both were heavily fortified and prepared for sieges. The Qing first made their attack on Jinzhou in may of 1640. The Qing began to dig trenches around the city preparing for a very long siege. By March of 1641, Zu Dashous sent a messenger outside the walls of Jinzhou stating to the Qing forces “we've got enough food to last 2-3 years. It will be a long siege; will you be able to hold out that long to outlast us?”. The Qing replied “we aren't lifting the siege, whether it lasts 2-3 or even 4-5 years. How are you going to keep getting food?”. The back and forth talk seemed to unsettle the Ming's Mongol allies at Jinzhou who began to negotiate with the Qing separately. This drove Zu to panic somewhat and go out and strike up a battle with the Qing, but was beaten back into the city. The Qing began to hack their way through the first layers of the city defenses as the Ming continuously sent relief forces from Xingshan, but all were being ambushed and defeated. Then in April of 1641, the Qing assaulted the outpost of Chayeshan. The Qing bombarded it with large cannons and arquebuses. The soldiers and a small force of monks there fought back as best they could using spears, boulders and incendiaries. Soon the Qing overwhelmed the outpost with firepower and razed it to the ground. Then in May of 1641 the Ming engaged a Qing force just outside Xingshan led by Wu Sangui. Wu's force was outmaneuvered despite having a lot of cavalry and encircled by the Qing commanders Dodo and Jirgalang. The Ming lost a few thousand men and several commanders fled, only to then get caught up in another engagement around Liangmashan just a few miles from Jinzhou. At Liangmashan the Ming dug in and tried to bait a force of 3000 Qing into a fight, but the Qing did not take the bait. More fighting occurred outside various outposts and the Ming kept driving off Qing raiders who in turn would just wait until night time to hit walls with siege ladders. Songshan resisted a 37 day long siege under heavy Qing fire, until a Ming relief force arrived. The Qing were camped a few miles due east of Songshan and had to fend off multiple Ming strikes against them. It seemed all the outposts and major walled cities were managing to hold off the Qing. The Qing strategy of bombarding them and trying to draw them out into decisive battles in the field was not working. It seemed the Ming still enjoyed the edge when it came to firepower, but Ming scouts were sending concerning reports that the Qing were busy building a ton of weapon carts and ships at Shenyang. It was clear that a purely defensive war would not be enough. The Ming commanders began to analyze the situation and they discussed the importance of trying to force a decisive battle that might allow them to retake Liaodong. They believed if they could dictate the place and style of combat then they might stand a chance. The Ming also began to get reports that Korean ships were transporting Qing soldiers in the Bohai Gulf which raised the concern the Qing might sever their sea supply lines. This all accumulated into a major war planning session in april of 1641. The Ming commanders held a conference at Ningyuan and decided they needed to break the Qing encirclement of Songshan and Jinzhou. Wu Sangui would lead an initial attack followed up by Zu Dashou from Jinzhou. They ended up clashing with a Qing cavalry force of about 8000, sending the Qing fleeing with their superior cannons. The battle was embarrassing for the Qing, and the commander of the force, Jirgalang was replaced by Hung's brother Dorgon from that point on. It was also around this time the rebels armies had captured and killed the 2 Ming princes and Yang Sichang suicide. All the northeast outposts and cities were demanding further relief forces and supplies, but the Ming court decided to focus on the increasing rebel problem and thus the northeast would just have to rely on what had on hand. In the summer of 1641, Hung renewed the efforts against Jinzhou and Songshan. The Qing erected their siege weapons, dug moats and trenches around the cities to thwart any relief or supply efforts and dispatched mobile forces to hit anyone outside walls. Chongzhen did not want to send any significant force against the Qing, believing by autumn the Qing would become weakened through attrition. The Emperor did not agree with this plan however and sent the Minister of War Chen Xinjia and Zhang Ruoqi to goad Chongzhen into action. Chen began attacking Chongzhen for what he argued was his lack of faith in the Ming forces. The same factionalism that had plagued the Ming for decades was soon going to force a catastrophe. Meanwhile, since the death of Yang Sichang, the rebel leader Li Zicheng's ambitions were growing each day. He was now recognized as a charismatic leader and quite the military genius. The way in which he dealt with Prince Fu had gained him a lot of notoriety with the populace since he was handing out money and food. Li then gained the attention of some gentry, one notable one was named Li Yan. Li Yan joined Li and advised him “you must take capturing the hearts of all the people under heaven as the root. If you don't kill people, then you'll win their hearts”. This seems to have had a profound effect on Li as he began to do just that. Li also began a program of making popular slogans for his rebel movement, one went like this “Kill your oxen and sheep. And prepare your wine and spirits.Open your gates and welcome the Dashing Prince. When the Dashing Prince comes. You won't be paying taxes”. A man after my own heart and wallet, if I must say. Shortly after Li Zicheng began changing how his force rebelled, more gentry joined him such as Niu Jinxing and a midget sorcerer named Song Xiance. Yes a Midget sorcerer. Song Xiance was a native of Guide in Henan. He walked with a limp because of a bad right foot and was known by locals as Son the Child. His reputation as a sorcerer came from the fact he went around telling fortunes and casting divinations, which was something seen throughout Chinese history for midgets. Well one of these fortunes he told was that of Li Zicheng who he predicted would have his 18th grandson assuming the imperial throne and that his name would also be Li. So as Li Zicheng enjoyed popular support and expanded his movement, other rebel leaders continued to rampage throughout western and central China. Widespread famine and more people resorting to cannibalism swelled the rebel armies ranks. The situation dramatically changed in august of 1641 when Luo Rucai broke off from Zhang Xianzhong and joined up with Li Zicheng in Henan. Alongside Luo other smaller rebel leaders also joined Li and Li took this newfound force to attack Xincai along the Henan - Nan Zhili border. The commander at Xincai was Fu Zonlong who managed to beat back the rebels with cannons, but the rebel hoards kept coming. Fu then sent word to He Renlong and Li Quoqi asking the 2 commanders for help, but both complained it was not possible to cut through the rebel lines to get to Xincai. Li began to step up the siege and Fu's defenders were soon running low on food. It is alleged, Fu's forces were forced to eat the corpses of slain rebels. When the gunpowder ran out Fu had no other choice but to attack the rebels. Fu led 6000 men out at night to attack the rebels and managed to kill an estimated 1000 rebels before breaking out of the encirclement. They fled for their lives being chased by rebel forces and Fu was eventually captured. The rebels then tried to use Fu to open the gates of Xincai. When he was marched in front of the gate he screamed out “I am the commander of Shaanxi and though I have fallen into rebel hands and there are rebels on all sides of me, I will never serve you. I am a high official. If you wish to kill me, then kill me. How can I not sacrifice my life rather than help you bandits deceive those in the city?”. With all of that said, the rebels beat him to the ground, cut off his nose and Fu would die from his wounds, Xincai would soon after. Zuo Liangyu would attack Li and Luo's force, driving them in the direction of Henan. From there the rebels would target Nanyang in November of 1641. Nanyang was defended by Meng Ruhu who died trying to defend the city. When Nanyang fell, Li burnt down the residence of Prince Tang furthering his personal war against the Ming monarchy. After this Li began to occupy towns in southwestern Henan much to the dismay of the Ming Court. The Ming Court appointed Sun Chuanting straight out of jail, to be the new Supreme Commander of the 3 Frontiers. By the way I have not made much mention of it, but so many officials were jailed for failing their jobs, only to later be reappointed to that same job or another job and taken out of jail, it really was chaotic. At this time the Ming official Wang Qiaonian decided to attack Xiangcheng in central Henan which had recently fallen to rebels. Wang led 10,000 well trained troops to take the city and found it relatively undefended, little did he know the rebels had moved on early. Unfortunately, once the rebels heard of Wang taking Xiangcheng they soon returned and surrounded the city. Wang along with many of his men would be killed in street fighting over the city. Zhang Xianzhong made an assault on Shucheng in southwestern Nan Zhili in march of 1642 which fell quite easily after a 3 day siege. Zhang changed the city's name to Desheng meaning “attained victory”. Over the next few months, Li Zicheng and Luo Rucai continued to raise hell in Henan, he rebel forces were rotting the Ming Dynasty to its core. I would like to take this time to remind you all that this podcast is only made possible through the efforts of Kings and Generals over at Youtube. Please go subscribe to Kings and Generals over at Youtube and to continue helping us produce this content please check out www.patreon.com/kingsandgenerals. If you are still hungry after that, give my personal channel a look over at The Pacific War Channel at Youtube, it would mean a lot to me. The Ming dynasty was like a roast beef rotting from the inside while being carved up from the outside. Droughts, famines and terrible administration led so many starving and wartorn peasants to join rebel groups and now Li Zicheng emerged the largest rebel leader amongst others who now held entire armies at their command. Yang Sichang began the disastrous “ten sided net plan” which resulted in many victories over the rebels, but at terrible costs. The more the Ming allocated resources towards quelling the rebels in the northwest and center of China, the weaker their northeastern frontier became, ripe for the plucking for Hung Taiji. Now Hung focused his attention on long term sieges of major Ming held fortresses outside the Great Walls, but once those fell he could attack China proper.
In this week's episode of The Game Informer Show, the crew discusses our Sonic Frontiers cover story and divulges new details about the game's open zones, combat, and a few returning characters, including Big The Cat. During The Playlist, we chat about our time playing Cuphead: The Delicious Last Course, Overwatch 2's new tank Junker Queen, and several promising games from Steam Next Fest. Follow us on Twitter: Alex Stadnik (@Studnik76), Alex Van Aken (@itsVanAken), Jill Grodt (@Finruin), Brian Shea (@BrianPShea) The Game Informer Show is a weekly gaming podcast covering the latest video game news, industry topics, exclusive reveals, and reviews. Join hosts Alex Stadnik and Alex Van Aken every Thursday to chat about your favorite games – past and present – with Game Informer staff, developers, and special guests from around the industry. Listen on Apple Podcasts, Spotify, or your favorite podcast app. Check out the timestamps below to jump to a particular point in the discussion: 00:00:00 - Intro 00:01:31 - Sonic Frontiers Cover 00:30:49 - The Playlist 00:32:00 - Cuphead: The Delicious Last Course 00:42:04 - Overwatch 2 Beta 00:53:54 - Steam Next Fest 00:57:24 - Nine Sol 01:03:19 - Blocky Dungeon 01:05:13 - Metal Hellsinger 01:09:22 - Terra Nil 01:15:24 - Steam Next Fest Lightning Round 01:21:46 - Housekeeping 01:25:06 - Listener Emails
Videos: 1. Artificial Intelligence: The Coming Storm | Michael Harrison | TEDxBlinnCollege (8:00)*Michael holds a Bachelor of Science degree with a major in theoretical physics minor in quantum chromodynamics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He earned distinction in his master's program in aerospace systems architecture at the University of Southern California. 2 . Vitamin Authentication. Electronic pill that stays in your body & will become a 18bit Battery operated chip (1:00) 3. Pfizer CEO ‘Almost Certain' Americans Will Have To Take New COVID Vaccines ‘Every Year' 4. There was an unexpected 40% increase in ‘all cause deaths' in 2021 5. Hear ex-CIA director's prediction about who will win in Ukraine 6. Jonathan Haidt The Coddling of the American Mind Anticoagulant activities of curcumin and its derivative Kyungpook National University (South Korea) Curcumin, a polyphenol responsible for the yellow color of the curry spice turmeric, possesses antiinflammatory, antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activities. However, anticoagulant activities of curcumin have not been studied. The anticoagulant properties of curcumin and its derivative (bisdemethoxycurcumin, BDMC) were determined by monitoring activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT) as well as cell-based thrombin and activated factor X (FXa) generation activities. Data showed that curcumin and BDMC prolonged aPTT and PT significantly and inhibited thrombin and FXa activities. They inhibited the generation of thrombin or FXa. In accordance with these anticoagulant activities, curcumin and BDMC showed anticoagulant effect in vivo. Surprisingly, these anticoagulant effects of curcumin were better than those of BDMC indicating that methoxy group in curcumin positively regulated anticoagulant function of curcumin. Therefore, these results suggest that curcumin and BDMC possess antithrombotic activities and daily consumption of the curry spice turmeric might help maintain anticoagulant status. Probiotics may prevent breast cancer: Study Western University (Ontario), June 27, 2022 A new study has found probiotics may prove to be a critical factor in preventing breast cancer. Dr Gregor Reid, the professor of microbiology, immunology and surgery at the Western University in Ontario, Canada, said the bacteria having the potential to abet breast cancer are present in the breasts of cancer patients, while beneficial bacteria are more abundant in healthy breasts. In the study, Reid's PhD student Camilla Urbaniak obtained breast tissues from 58 women, who were undergoing lumpectomies or mastectomies for either benign (13 women) or cancerous (45 women) tumors as well as from 23 healthy women, who had undergone breast reductions or enhancements. Researchers found that women with breast cancer had elevated levels of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis, two bacteria known to induce double-stranded breaks in DNA in HeLa cells, which are cultured human cells. They say the breaks are prone to errors, which can cause cancer to develop. Health-promoting bacteria Lactobacillus and Streptococcus (lactic acid bacteria) were more abundant in women with healthy breasts, both are anti-carcinogenic. 'Mystical' psychedelic compound found in normal brains University of Michigan, June 27, 2022 In the past few years, thrill-seekers from Hollywood, Silicon Valley and beyond have been travelling to South America to take part in so-called Ayahuasca retreats. Their goal: to partake in a brewed concoction made from a vine plant Banisteriopsis caapi, traditionally used by indigenous people for sacred religious ceremonies. Drinkers of Ayahuasca experience short-term hallucinogenic episodes many describe as life-changing. The active ingredient responsible for these psychedelic visions is a molecule called dimethyltryptamine (DMT). For the first time, a team led by Michigan Medicine has discovered the widespread presence of naturally-occurring DMT in the mammalian brain. The finding is the first step toward studying DMT-- and figuring out its role -- within the brains of humans. "DMT is not just in plants, but also can be detected in mammals," says Jimo Borjigin, Ph.D., of the Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology. Her interest in DMT came about accidentally. Before studying the psychedelic, her research focused on melatonin production in the pineal gland. In the seventeenth century, the philosopher Rene Descartes claimed that the pineal gland, a small pinecone-shaped organ located deep in the center of the brain, was the seat of the soul. Since its discovery, the pineal gland, known by some as the third eye, has been shrouded in mystery. Scientists now know it controls the production of melatonin, playing an important role in modulating circadian rhythms, or the body's internal clock. The core idea seems to come from a documentary featuring the work of researcher Rick Strassman, Ph.D. with the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. In the mid-1990s, he conducted an experiment in which human subjects were given DMT by IV injection and interviewed after its effects wore off. In a documentary about the experiment, Strassman claims that he believed the pineal gland makes and secretes DMT. Borjigin sought to discover how and where DMT was synthesized. They found DMT in other parts of the brain, including the neocortex and hippocampus that are important for higher-order brain functions including learning and memory." A paper published in 2018 by researchers in the U.K. purported that DMT simulates the near death experience, wherein people report the sensation of transcending their bodies and entering another realm. Puffing curcumin may blast Alzheimer's Vanderbilt University, Jun 22, 2022 The new delivery method may be more effective than others in getting the compound past the blood-brain barrier and into the brain, where it can fight the plaque that leads to Alzheimer's. Deep breaths of curcumin may be key to fighting Alzheimer's disease, according to a new study from Vanderbilt University. Curcumin, a compound in the spice turmeric, has a demonstrated ability to smash the plaques in the brain that lead to the neuron loss that causes Alzheimer's, according to the study's senior author,Wellington Pham, Ph.D The challenge, however, has been getting the curcumin into the brain. Pham and colleagues at Shiga University of Medical Science in Otsu, Japan, developed a new delivery strategy. They created a curcumin moleculte that could be tracked with an MRI, to be administered as an aerosol through a nebulizer. This method delivers the dose more directly to the brain than taking the compound orally and digesting it. After tests in mice, the team found that “delivery to the cortex and hippocampal areas is more efficient using aerosolized curcumin than intervenous injection in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease,” said Pham. Anti-anxiety medication limits empathetic behavior in rats University of Chicago, June 27, 2022 Rats given midazolam, an anti-anxiety medication, were less likely to free trapped companions because the drug lessened their empathy, according to a new study by University of Chicago neuroscientists. The research, published in the journal Frontiers in Psychology, validates studies that show rats are emotionally motivated to help other rats in distress. In the latest study, rats treated with midazolam did not open the door to a restrainer device containing a trapped rat, although control rats routinely freed their trapped companions. Midazolam did not interfere with the rats' physical ability to open the restrainer door, however. In fact, when the restrainer device contained chocolate instead of a trapped rat, the test rats routinely opened the door. The findings show that the act of helping others depends on emotional reactions, which are dampened by the anti-anxiety medication. "The rats help each other because they care," said Peggy Mason, PhD, professor of neurobiology at the University of Chicago. "They need to share the affect of the trapped rat in order to help, and that's a fundamental finding that tells us something about how we operate, because we're mammals like rats too." 7 Simple Ways to Unclog Your Arteries Naturally GreenMedInfo, June 23, 2022 Statistically, atherosclerosis (the progressive clogging of the arteries) is the #1 killer on the planet. A complex process, involving autoimmunity, infection, dietary incompatibilities, and many known and unknown factors, it is – despite conventional medical opinion – entirely preventable, and in some cases reversible. Here is the peer-reviewed, published research proving the fact: B Vitamins – yes, something as simple as adding a source of B-complex to your regimen can prevent the juggernaut of heart disease from taking your life prematurely. A doubled-blind, randomized study, published in 2005, in the journal Atherosclerosis found that a simple intervention using 2.5 mg folic acid, 25 mg Vitamin B6, and 0.5mg Vitamin B12 for 1 year, resulted in significant reductions in arterial thickness (as measured by intima media thickeness). Even niacin ]or folic acid alone has been show to have this effect in patients. [Note: Always opt for natural sources of the B-group vitamins, including probiotic supplementation (which produce the entire complement for you), or a whole food extract, versus synthetic or semi-synthetic vitamins which, sadly, predominate on the market today]. Garlic – as we have documented extensively previously, garlic can save your life. It has been found to regress plaque buildup in the arteries, among many other potentially life-saving health benefits. Pomegranate – this super healing fruit has been found to regress plaque buildup in the arteries, as well as being demonstrated to provide dozens of validated health benefits, including replacing the function of the mammalian ovary! Fermented Cabbage – Kimchi, a Korean recipe, which includes fermented cabbage, hot pepper, and various other ingredients, including fermented fish, appears to stall the atherosclerotic process in the animal model. Additionally, strains of good bacteria in kimchi have been found capable of degrading toxic chemicals that can additional bodily harm. L-Arginine: This amino acid is capable of preventing arterial thickening – up to 24% reduction! -- in the animal model. We have done an extensive literature review on arginine supplementation and have found that in over 30 studies demonstrating this fact addition to 150 known health benefits, it is capable of addressing the underlying dysfunction associated with cardiovascular disease: endothelial dysfunction, with no less than 20 studies proving this fact. Curcumin: the primary polyphenol in the Indian spice turmeric known as curcumin has been found to be an excellent cardioprotective, with over 30 studies demonstrating this fact. One study found that curcumin prevented damage to the arteries associated with blockage (neointima formation). Sesame Seed: probably one of the most underappreciated super foods on the planet, sesame seed, which we have shown is as effective as Tylenol for arthritic pain, may be an excellent cardioprotective substance, ideally suited for preventing the progression of atherosclerosis. One animal study found it was capable of preventing atherosclerosis lesion formation.