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Central component of any computer system which executes input/output, arithmetical, and logical operations

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Screaming in the Cloud
Ironing out the BGP Ruffles with Ivan Pepelnjak

Screaming in the Cloud

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 3, 2021 42:19


About IvanIvan Pepelnjak, CCIE#1354 Emeritus, is an independent network architect, blogger, and webinar author at ipSpace.net. He's been designing and implementing large-scale service provider and enterprise networks as well as teaching and writing books about advanced internetworking technologies since 1990.https://www.ipspace.net/About_Ivan_PepelnjakLinks:ipSpace.net: https://ipspace.net TranscriptAnnouncer: Hello, and welcome to Screaming in the Cloud with your host, Chief Cloud Economist at The Duckbill Group, Corey Quinn. This weekly show features conversations with people doing interesting work in the world of cloud, thoughtful commentary on the state of the technical world, and ridiculous titles for which Corey refuses to apologize. This is Screaming in the Cloud.Corey: This episode is sponsored in part by my friends at ThinkstCanary. Most companies find out way too late that they've been breached. ThinksCanary changes this and I love how they do it. Deploy canaries and canary tokens in minutes and then forget about them. What's great is the attackers tip their hand by touching them, giving you one alert, when it matters. I use it myself and I only remember this when I get the weekly update with a “we're still here, so you're aware” from them. It's glorious! There is zero admin overhead  to this, there are effectively no false positives unless I do something foolish. Canaries are deployed and loved on all seven continents. You can check out what people are saying at canary.love. And, their Kub config canary token is new and completely free as well. You can do an awful lot without paying them a dime, which is one of the things I love about them. It is useful stuff and not an, “ohh, I wish I had money.” It is speculator! Take a look; that's canary.love because it's genuinely rare to find a security product that people talk about in terms of love. It really is a unique thing to see. Canary.love. Thank you to ThinkstCanary for their support of my ridiculous, ridiculous non-sense.  Corey: Developers are responsible for more than ever these days. Not just the code they write, but also the containers and cloud infrastructure their apps run on. And a big part of that responsibility is app security — from code to cloud.That's where Snyk comes in. Snyk is a frictionless security platform that meets developers where they are, finding and fixing vulnerabilities right from the CLI, IDEs, repos, and pipelines. And Snyk integrates seamlessly with AWS offerings like CodePipeline, EKS, ECR, etc., etc., etc., you get the picture! Deploy on AWS. Secure with Snyk. Learn more at snyk.io/scream. That's S-N-Y-K-dot-I-O/scream. Because they have not yet purchased a vowel.Corey: Welcome to Screaming in the Cloud. I'm Corey Quinn. I have an interesting and storied career path. I dabbled in security engineering slash InfoSec for a while before I realized that being crappy to people in the community wasn't really my thing; I was a grumpy Unix systems administrator because it's not like there's a second kind of those out there; and I dabbled ever so briefly in the wide world of network administration slash network engineering slash plugging the computers in to make them talk to one another, ideally correctly. But I was always a dabbler. When it comes time to have deep conversations about networking, I immediately tag out and look to an expert. My guest today is one such person. Ivan Pepelnjak is oh so many things. He's a CCIE emeritus, and well, let's start there. Ivan, welcome to the show.Ivan: Thanks for having me. And oh, by the way, I have to tell people that I was a VAX/VMS administrator in those days.Corey: Oh, yes the VAX/VMS world was fascinating. I talked—Ivan: Yes.Corey: —to a company that was finally emulating them on physical cards because that was the only way to get them there. Do you refer to them as VAXen, or VAXes, or how did you wind up referring—Ivan: VAXes.Corey: VAXes. Okay, I was on the other side of that with the inappropriately pluralizing anything that ends with an X with an en—‘boxen' and the rest. And that's why I had no friends for many years.Ivan: You do know what the first VAX was, right?Corey: I do not.Ivan: It was a Swedish Hoover company.Corey: Ooh.Ivan: And they had a trademark dispute with Digital over the name, and then they settled that.Corey: You describe yourself in your bio as a CCIE Emeritus, and you give the number—which is low—number 1354. Now, I've talked about certifications on this show in the context of the modern era, and whether it makes sense to get cloud certifications or not. But this is from a different time. Understand that for many listeners, these stories might be older than you are in some cases, and that's okay. But Cisco at one point, believe it or not, was a shining beacon of the industry, the kind of place that people wanted to work at, and their certification path was no joke.I got my CCNA from them—Cisco Certified Network Administrator—and that was basically a byproduct of learning how networks worked. There are several more tiers beyond that, culminating in the CCIE, which stands for Cisco Certified Internetworking Expert, or am I misremembering?Ivan: No, no, that's it.Corey: Perfect. And that was known as the doctorate of networking in many circles for many years. Back in those days, if you had a CCIE, you are guaranteed to be making an awful lot of money at basically any company you wanted to because you knew how networking—Ivan: In the US.Corey: —worked. Well, in the US. True. There's always the interesting stories of working in places that are trying to go with the lowest bidder for networking gear, and you wind up spending weeks on end trying to figure out why things are breaking intermittently, and only to find out at the end that someone saved 20 bucks by buying cheap patch cables. I digress, and I still have the scars from those.But it was fascinating in those days because there was a lab component of getting those tests. There were constant rumors that in the middle of the night, during the two-day certification exam, they would come in and mess with the lab and things you'd set up—Ivan: That's totally true.Corey: —you'd have to fix it the following day. That is true?Ivan: Yeah. So, in the good old days, when the lab was still physical, they would even turn the connectors around so that they would look like they would be plugged in, but obviously there was no signal coming through. And they would mess up the jumpers on the line cards and all that stuff. So, when you got your broken lab, you really had to work hard, you know, from the physical layer, from the jumpers, and they would mess up your config and everything else. It was, you know, the real deal. The thing you would experience in real world with, uh, underqualified technicians putting stuff together. Let's put it this way.Corey: I don't wish to besmirch our brethren working in the data centers, but having worked with folks who did some hilariously awful things with cabling, and how having been one of those people myself from time to time, it's hard to have sympathy when you just spent hours chasing it down. But to be clear, the CCIE is one of those things where in a certain era, if you're trying to have an argument on the internet with someone about how networks work and their responses, “Well, I'm a CCIE.” Yeah, the conversation was over at that point. I'm not one to appeal to authority on stuff like that very often, but it's the equivalent of arguing about medicine with a practicing doctor. It's the same type of story; it is someone where if they're wrong, it's going to be in the very fringes or the nuances, back in this era. Today, I cannot speak to the quality of CCIEs. I'm not attempting to besmirch any of them. But I'm also not endorsing that certification the way I once did.Ivan: Yeah, well, I totally agree with you. When this became, you know, a mass certification, the reason it became a mass certification is because reseller discounts are tied to reseller status, which is tied to the number of CCIEs they have, it became, you know, this, well, still high-end, but commodity that you simply had to get to remain employed because your employer needed the extra two point discount.Corey: It used to be that the prerequisite for getting the certification was beyond other certifications was, you spent five or six years working on things.Ivan: Well, that was what gave you the experience you needed because in those days, there were no boot camps. Today, you have [crosstalk 00:06:06]—Corey: Now, there's boot camp [crosstalk 00:06:07] things where it's we're going to train you for four straight weeks of nothing but this, teach to the test, and okay.Ivan: Yeah. No, it's even worse, there were rumors that some of these boot camps in some parts of the world that shall remain unnamed, were actually teaching you how to type in the commands from the actual lab.Corey: Even better.Ivan: Yeah. You don't have to think. You don't have to remember. You just have to type in the commands you've learned. You're done.Corey: There's an arc to the value of a certification. It comes out; no one knows what the hell it is. And suddenly it's, great, you can use that to really identify what's great and what isn't. And then it goes at some point down into the point where it becomes commoditized and you need it for partner requirements and the rest. And at that point, it is no longer something that is a reliable signal of anything other than that someone spent some time and/or money.Ivan: Well, are you talking about bachelor degree now?Corey: What—no, I don't have one of those either. I have—Ivan: [laugh].Corey: —an eighth grade education because I'm about as good of an academic as it probably sounds like I am. But the thing that really differentiated in my world, the difference between what I was doing in the network engineering sense, and the things that folks like you who were actually, you know, professionals rather than enthusiastic amateurs took into account was that I was always working inside of the LAN—Local Area Network—inside of a data center. Cool, everything here inside the cage, I can make a talk to each other, I can screw up the switching fabric, et cetera, et cetera. I didn't deal with any of the WAN—Wide Area Network—think ‘internet' in some cases. And at that point, we're talking about things like BGP, or OSPF in some parts of the world, or RIP. Or RIPv2 if you make terrible life choices.But BGP is the routing protocol that more or less powers the internet. At the time of this recording, we're a couple weeks past a BGP… kerfuffle that took Facebook down for a number of hours, during which time the internet was terrific. I wish they could do that more often, in fact; it was almost like a holiday. It was fantastic. I took my elderly relatives out and got them vaccinated. It was glorious.Now, we're back to having Facebook and, terrific. The problem I have whenever something like this happens is there's a whole bunch of crappy explainers out there of, “What is BGP and how might it work?” And people have angry opinions about all of these things. So instead, I prefer to talk to you. Given that you are a networking trainer, you have taught people about these things, you have written books, you have operated large—scale environments—Ivan: I even developed a BGP course for Cisco.Corey: You taught it for Cisco, of all places—Ivan: Yeah. [laugh].Corey: —back when that was impressive, and awesome and not a has-been. It's honestly, I feel like I could go there and still wind up going back in time, and still, it's the same Cisco in some respects: ‘evolve or die dinosaur,' and they got frozen in amber. But let's start at the very beginning. What is BGP?Ivan: Well, you know, when the internet was young, they figured out that we aren't all friends on the internet anymore. And I want to control what I tell you, and you want to control what you tell me. And furthermore, I want to control what I believe from what you're telling me. So, we needed a protocol that would implement policy, where I could say, “I will only announce my customers to you, but not what I've heard from Verizon.” And you will do the same.And then I would say, “Well, but I don't want to hear about that customer of yours because he's also my customer.” So, we need some sort of policy. And so they invented a protocol where you will tell me what you have, I will tell you what I have and then we would both choose what we want to believe and follow those paths to forward traffic. And so BGP was born.Corey: On some level, it seems like it's this faraway thing to people like me because I have a residential internet connection and I am not generally allowed to make my own BGP announcements to the greater world. Even when I was working in data centers, very often the BGP was handled by our upstream provider, or very occasionally by a router they would drop in with the easiest maintenance instructions in the world for me of, “Step one, make sure it has power. Step two, never touch it. Step three, we'd prefer if you don't even look at it and remain at least 20 feet away to keep from bringing your aura near anything we care about.” And that's basically how you should do with me in the context of hardware. So, it was always this arcane magic thing.Ivan: Well, it's not. You know, it's like power transmission: when you know enough about it, it stops being magic. It's technology, it's a bit more complicated than some other stuff. It's way less complicated than some other stuff, like quantum physics, but still, it's so rarely used that it gets this aura of being mysterious. And then of course, everyone starts getting their opinion, particularly the graduates of the Facebook Academy.And yes, it is true that usually BGP would be used between service providers, so whenever, you know, we are big enough to need policy, if you just need one uplink, there is no policy there. You either use the uplink or you don't use the uplink. If you want to have two different links to two different points of presence or to two different service providers, then you're already in the policy land. Do I prefer one provider over the other? Do I want to announce some things to one provider but other things to the other? Do I want to take local customers from both providers because I want to, you know, have lower latency because they are local customers? Or do I want to use one solely as the backup link because I paid so little for that link that I know it's shitty.So, you need all that policy stuff, and to do that, you really need BGP. There is no other routing protocol in the world where you could implement that sort of policy because everything else is concerned mostly with, let's figure out as fast as possible, what is reachable and how to get there. And BGP is like, “Hey, slow down. There's policy.”Corey: Yeah. In the context of someone whose primary interaction with networks is their home internet, where there's a single cable coming in from the outside world, you plug it into a device, maybe yours, maybe ISPs, maybe we don't care. That's sort of the end of it. But think in terms of large interchanges, where there are multiple redundant networks to get from here to somewhere else; which one should traffic go down at any given point in time? Which networks are reachable on the other end of various distant links? That's the sort of problem that BGP is very good at addressing and what it was built for. If you're running BGP internally, in a small network, consider not doing exactly that.Ivan: Well, I've seen two use cases—well, three use cases for people running BGP internally.Corey: Okay, this I want to hear because I was always told, “No touch ‘em.” But you know, I'm about to learn something. That's why I'm talking to you.Ivan: The first one was multinationals who needed policy.Corey: Yes. Many multi-site environments, large-scale companies that have redundant links, they're trying to run full mesh in some cases, or partial mesh where—between a bunch of facilities.Ivan: In this case, it was multiple continents and really expensive transcontinental links. And it was, I don't want to go from Europe to Sydney over US; I want to go over Middle East. And to implement that type of policy, you have to split, you know, the whole network into regions, and then each region is what BGP calls an autonomous system, so that it gets its stack, its autonomous system number and then you can do policy on that saying, “Well, I will not announce Asian routes to Europe through US, or I will make them less preferred so that if the Middle East region goes down, I can still reach Asia through US but preferably, I will not go there.”The second one is yet again, large networks where they had too many prefixes for something like OSPF to carry, and so their OSPF was breaking down and the only way to solve that was to go to something that was designed to scale better, which was BGP.And third one is if you want to implement some of the stuff that was designed for service providers, initially, like, VPNs, layer two or layer three, then BGP becomes this kitchen sink protocol. You know, it's like using Route 53 as a database; we're using BGP to carry any information anyone ever wants to carry around. I'm just waiting for someone to design JSON in BGP RFC and then we are, you know… where we need to be.Corey: I feel on some level, like, BGP gets relatively unfair criticism because the only time it really intrudes on the general awareness is when something has happened and it breaks. This is sort of the quintessential network or systems—or, honestly, computer—type of issue. It's either invisible, or you're getting screamed at because something isn't working. It's almost like a utility. On some level. When you turn on a faucet, you don't wonder whether water is going to come out this time, but if it doesn't, there's hell to pay.Ivan: Unless it's brown.Corey: Well, there is that. Let's stay away from that particular direction; there's a beautiful metaphor, probably involving IBM, if we do. So, the challenge, too, when you look at it is that it's this weird, esoteric thing that isn't super well understood. And as soon as it breaks, everyone wants to know more about it. And then in full on charging to the wrong side of the Dunning-Kruger curve, it's, “Well, that doesn't sound hard. Why are they so bad at it? I would be able to run this better than they could.” I assure you, you can't. This stuff is complicated; it is nuanced; it's difficult. But the common question is, why is this so fragile and able to easily break? I'm going to turn that around. How is it that something that is this esoteric and touches so many different things works as well as it does?Ivan: Yeah, it's a miracle, particularly considering how crappy the things are configured around the world.Corey: There have been periodic outages of sites when some ISP sends out a bad BGP announcement and their upstream doesn't suppress it because hey, you misconfigured things, and suddenly half the internet believes oh, YouTube now lives in this tiny place halfway around the world rather than where it is currently being Anycasted from.Ivan: Called Pakistan, to be precise.Corey: Exact—there was an actual incident there; we are not dunking on Pakistan as an example of a faraway place. No, no, an Pakistani ISP wound up doing exactly this and taking YouTube down for an afternoon a while back. It's a common problem.Ivan: Yeah, the problem was that they tried to stop local users accessing YouTube. And they figured out that, you know, YouTube, is announcing this prefix and if they would announce to more specific prefixes, then you know, they would attract the traffic and the local users wouldn't be able to reach YouTube. Perfect. But that leaked.Corey: If you wind up saying that, all right, the entire internet is available on this interface, and a small network of 256 nodes available on the second interface, the most specific route always wins. That's why the default route or route of last resort is the entire internet. And if you don't know where to send it, throw it down this direction. That is usually, in most home environments, the gateway that then hands it up to your ISP, where they inspect it and do all kinds of fun things to sell ads to you, and then eventually get it to where it's going.This gets complicated at these higher levels. And I have sympathy for the technical aspects of what happened at Facebook; no sympathy whatsoever for the company itself because they basically do far more harm than they do good and I've been very upfront about that. But I want to talk to you as well about something that—people are going to be convinced I'm taking this in my database direction, but I assure you I'm not—DNS. What is the relationship between BGP and DNS? Which sounds like a strange question, sometimes.Ivan: There is none.Corey: Excellent.Ivan: It's just that different large-scale properties decided to implement the global load-balancing global optimal access to their servers in different ways. So, Cloudflare is a typical example of someone who is doing Anycast, they are announcing the same networks, the same prefixes, from hundreds locations around the world. So, BGP will take care that you always get to the close Cloudflare [unintelligible 00:18:46]. And that's it. That's how they work. No magic. Facebook didn't believe in the power of Anycast when they started designing their service. So, what they're doing is they have DNS servers around the world, and the DNS servers serve the local region, if you wish. And that DNS server then decides what facebook.com really stands for. So, if you query for facebook.com, you'll get a different answer in Europe than in US.Corey: Just a slight diversion on what Anycast is. If I ping Google's public resolver 8.8.8.8—easy to remember—from my computer right now, the packet gets there and back in about five milliseconds.Wherever you are listening to this, if you were to try that same thing you'd see something roughly similar. Now, one of two things is happening; either Google has found a way to break the laws of physics and get traffic to a central point faster than light for the 8.8.8.8 that I'm talking to and the one that you are talking to are not in fact the same computer.Ivan: Well, by the way, it's 13 milliseconds for me. And between you and me, it's 200 millisecond. So yes, they are cheating.Corey: Just a little bit. Or unless they tunneled through the earth rather than having to bounce it off of satellites and through cables.Ivan: No, even that wouldn't work.Corey: That's what the quantum computers are for. I always wondered. Now, we know.Ivan: Yeah. They're entangling the replies in advance, and that's how it works. Yeah, you're right.Corey: Please continue. I just wanted to clarify that point because I got that one hilariously wrong once upon a time and was extremely confused for about six months.Ivan: Yeah. It's something that no one ever thinks about unless, you know, you're really running large-scale DNS because honestly, root DNS servers were Anycasted for ages. You think they're like 12 different root DNS servers; in reality, there are, like, 300 instances hidden behind those 12 addresses.Corey: And fun trivia fact; the reason there are 12 addresses is because any more than that would no longer fit within the 512 byte limit of a UDP packet without truncating.Ivan: Thanks for that. I didn't know that.Corey: Of course. Now, EDNS extensions that you go out with a larger [unintelligible 00:21:03], but you can't guarantee that's going to hit. And what happens when you receive a UDP packet—when you receive a DNS result with a truncate flag set on the UDP packet? It is left to the client. It can either use the partial result, or it can try and re-establish over a TCP connection.That is one of those weird trivia questions they love to ask in sysadmin interviews, but it's yeah, fundamentally, if you're doing something that requires the root nameservers, you don't really want to start going down those arcane paths; you want it to just be something that fits in a single packet not require a whole bunch of computational overhead.Ivan: Yeah, and even within those 300 instances, there are multiple servers listening to the same IP address and… incoming packets are just sprayed across those servers, and whichever one gets the packet replies to it. And because it's UDP, it's one packet in one packet out. Problem solved. It all works. People thought that this doesn't work for TCP because, you know, you need a whole session, so you need to establish the session, you send the request, you get the reply, there are acknowledgements, all that stuff.Turns out that there is almost never two ways to get to a certain destination across the internet from you. So, people thought that, you know, this wouldn't work because half of your packets will end in San Francisco, and half of the packets will end in San Jose, for example. Doesn't work that way.Corey: Why not?Ivan: Well, because the global Internet is so diverse that you almost never get two equal cost paths to two different destinations because it would be San Francisco and San Jose announcing 8.8.8.8 and it would be a miracle if you would be sitting just in the middle so that the first packet would go to San Francisco, the second one would go to San Jose, and you know, back and forth. That never happens. That's why Cloudflare makes it work by analysing the same prefix throughout the world.Corey: So, I just learned something new about how routing announcements work, an aspect of BGP, and you a few minutes ago learned something about the UDP size limit and the root name servers. BGP and DNS are two of the oldest protocols in existence. You and I are also decades into our careers. If someone is starting out their career today, working in a cloud-y environment, there are very few network-centric roles because cloud providers handle a lot of this for us. Given these protocols are so foundational to what goes on and they're as old as they are, are we as an industry slash sector slash engineers losing the skills to effectively deploy and manage these things?Ivan: Yes. The same problem that you have in any other sufficiently developed technology area. How many people can build power lines? How many people can write a compiler? How many people can design a new CPU? How many people can design a new motherboard?I mean, when I was 18 years old, I was wire wrapping my own motherboard, with 8-bit processor. You can't do that today. You know, as the technology is evolving and maturing, it's no longer fun, it's no longer sexy, it stops being a hobby, and so it bifurcates into users and people who know about stuff. And it's really hard to bridge the gap from one to the other. So, in the end, you have, like, this 20 [graybeard 00:24:36] people who know everything about the technology, and the youngsters have no idea. And when these people die, don't ask me [laugh] how we'll get any further on.Corey: This episode is sponsored by our friends at CloudAcademy. That's right, they have a different lab challenge up for you called, “Code Red: Repair an AWS Environment with a Linux Bastion Host.” What does it do? Well, its going to assess your ability to troubleshoot AWS networking and security issues in a production like environment. Well, kind of, its not quite like production because some exec is not standing over your shoulder, wetting themselves while screaming. But..ya know, you can pretend in fact I'm reasonably certain you can retain someone specifically for that purpose should you so choose. If you are the first prize winner who completes all four challenges with the fastest time, you'll win a thousand bucks. If you haven't started yet you can still complete all four challenges between now and December 3rd to be eligible for the grand prize. There's only a few days left until the whole thing ends, so I would get on it now. Visit cloudacademy.com/corey. That's cloudacademy.com/C-O-R-E-Y, for god's sake don't drop the “E” that drives me nuts, and thank you again to Cloud Academy for not only promoting my ridiculous non sense but for continuing to help teach people how to work in this ridiculous environment.Corey: On some level, it feels like it's a bit of a down the stack analogy for what happened to me early in my career. My first systems administration job was running a large-scale email system. So, it was a hobby that I was interested in. I basically bluffed my way into working at a university for a year—thanks, Chapman; I appreciate that [laugh]—and it was great, but it was also pretty clear to me that with the rise of things like hosted email, Gmail, and whatnot, it was not going to be the future of what the present day at that point looked like, which was most large companies needed an email administrator. Those jobs were dwindling.Now, if you want to be an email systems administrator, there are maybe a dozen companies or so that can really use that skill set and everyone else just outsources that said, at those companies like Google and Microsoft, there are some incredibly gifted email administrators who are phenomenal at understanding every nuance of this. Do you think that is what we're going to see in the world of running BGP at large scale, where a few companies really need to know how this stuff works and everyone else just sort of smiles, nods and rolls with it?Ivan: Absolutely. We're already there. Because, you know, if I'm an end customer, and I need BGP because I have to uplinks to two ISPs, that's really easy. I mean, there are a few tricks you should follow and hopefully, some of the guardrails will be built into network operating systems so that you will really have to configure explicitly that you want to leak [unintelligible 00:26:15] between Verizon and AT&T, which is great fun if you have too low-speed links to both of them and now you're becoming transit between the two, which did happen to Verizon; that's why I'm mentioning them. Sorry, guys.Anyway, if you are a small guy and you just need two uplinks, and maybe do a bit of policy, that's easy and that's achievable, let's say with some Google and paste, and throwing spaghetti at the wall and seeing what sticks. On the other hand, what the large-scale providers—like for example Facebook because we were talking about them—are doing is, like, light years away. It's like comparing me turning on the light bulb and someone running, you know, nuclear reactor.Corey: Yeah, you kind of want the experts running some aspects on that. Honestly, in my case, you probably want someone more competent flipping the light switch, too. But that's why I have IoT devices here that power my lights, it on the one hand, keeps me from hurting myself on the other leads to a nice seasonal feel because my house is freaking haunted.Ivan: So, coming back to Facebook, they have these DNS servers all around the world and they don't want everyone else to freak out when one of these DNS servers goes away. So, that's why they're using the same IP address for all the DNS servers sitting anywhere in the world. So, the name server for facebook.com is the same worldwide. But it's different machines and they will give you different answers when you ask, “Where is facebook.com?”I will get a European answer, you will get a US answer, someone in Asia will get whatever. And so they're using BGP to advertise the DNS servers to the world so that everyone gets to the closest DNS server. And now it doesn't make sense, right, for the DNS server to say, “Hey, come to European Facebook,” if European Facebook tends to be down. So, if their DNS server discovers that it cannot reach the servers in the data center, it stops advertising itself with BGP.Why would BGP? Because that's the only thing it can do. That's the only protocol where I can tell you, “Hey, I know about this prefix. You really should send the traffic to me.” And that's what happened to Facebook.They bricked their backbone—whatever they did; they never told—and so their DNS server said, “Gee, I can't reach the data center. I better stop announcing that I'm a DNS server because obviously I am disconnected from the rest of Facebook.” And that happens to all DNS servers because, you know, the backbone was bricked. And so they just, you know, [unintelligible 00:29:03] from the internet, they've stopped advertising themselves, and so we thought that there was no DNS server for Facebook. Because no DNS server was able to reach their core, and so all DNS servers were like, “Gee, I better get off this because, you know, I have no clue what's going on.”So, everything was working fine. Everything was there. It's just that they didn't want to talk to us because they couldn't reach the backend servers. And of course, people blamed DNS first because the DNS servers weren't working. Of course they weren't. And then they blame the BGP because it must be BGP if it isn't DNS. But it's like, you know, you're blaming headache and muscle cramps and high fever, but in fact you have flu.Corey: For almost any other company that wasn't Facebook, this would have been a less severe outage just because most companies are interdependent on each other companies to run infrastructure. When Facebook itself has evolved the way that it has, everything that they use internally runs on the same systems, so they wound up almost with a bootstrapping problem. An example of this in more prosaic terms are okay, the data center had a power outage. Okay, now I need to power up all the systems again and the physical servers I'm trying to turn on need to talk to a DNS server to finish booting but the DNS server is a VM that lives on those physical servers. Uh-oh. Now, I'm in trouble. That is a overly simplified and real example of what Facebook encountered trying to get back into this, to my understanding.Ivan: Yes, so it was worse than that. It looks like, you know, even out-of-band management access didn't work, which to me would suggest that out-of-band management was using authentication servers that were down. People couldn't even log to Zoom because Zoom was using single-sign-on based on facebook.com, and facebook.com was down so they couldn't even make Zoom calls or open Google Docs or whatever. There were rumors that there was a certain hardware tool with a rotating blade that was used to get into a data center and unbrick a box. But those rumors were vehemently denied, so who knows?Corey: The idea of having someone trying to physically break into a data center in order to power things back up is hilarious, but it does lead to an interesting question, which is in this world of cloud computing, there are a lot of people in the physical data centers themselves, but they don't have access, in most cases to log into any of the boxes. One of the most naive things I see all the time is, “Oh well, the cloud provider can read all of your data.” No, they can't. These things are audited. And yeah, theoretically, if they're lying outright, and somehow have falsified all of the third-party audit stuff that has been reported and are willing to completely destroy their business when it gets out—and I assure you, it would—yeah, theoretically, that's there. There is an element of trust here. But I've had to answer a couple of journalists questions recently of, “Oh, is AWS going to start scanning all customer content?” No, they physically cannot do it because there are many ways you can configure things where they cannot see it. And that's exactly what we want.Ivan: Yeah, like a disk encryption.Corey: Exactly. Disk encryption, KMS on some level, using—rolling your own, et cetera, et cetera. They use a lot of the same systems we do. The point being, though, is that people in the data centers do not even have logging rights to any of these nodes for the physical machines, in some cases, let alone the customer tenants on top of those things. So, on some level, you wind up with people building these systems that run on top of these computers, and they've never set foot in one of the data centers.That seems ridiculous to me as someone who came up visiting data centers because I had to know where things were when they were working so I could put them back that way when they broke later. But that's not necessary anymore.Ivan: Yeah. And that's the problem that Facebook was facing with that outage because you start believing that certain systems will always work. And when those systems break down, you're totally cut off. And then—oh, there was an article in ACM Queue long while ago where they were discussing, you know, the results of simulated failures, not real ones, and there were hilarious things like phone directory was offline because it wasn't on UPS and so they didn't know whom to call. Or alerts couldn't be diverted to a different data center because the management station for alert configuration was offline because it wasn't on UPS.Or, you know the one, right, where in New York, they placed the gas pump in the basement, and the diesel generators were on the top floor, and the hurricane came in and they had to carry gas manually, all the way up to the top floor because the gas pump in the basement just stopped working. It was flooded. So, they did everything right, just the fuel wouldn't come to the diesel generators.Corey: It's always the stuff that is under the hood on these things that you can't make sense of. One of the biggest things I did when I was evaluating data center sites was I'd get a one-line diagram—which is an electrical layout of the entire facility—great. I talked to the folks running it. Now, let's take a walk and tour it. Hmmm, okay. You show four transformers on your one-line diagram. I see two transformers and two empty concrete pads. It's an aspirational one-line diagram. It's a joke that makes it a one-liner diagram and it's not very funny. So it's, okay if I can't trust you for those little things, that's a problem.Ivan: Yeah, well, I have another funny story like that. We had two power feeds coming into the house plus the diesel generator, and it was, you know, the properly tested every month diesel generator. And then they were doing some maintenance and they told us in advance that they will cut both power feeds at 2 a.m. on a Sunday morning.And guess what? The diesel generator didn't start. Half an hour later UPS was empty, we were totally dead in water with quadruple redundancy because you can't get someone it's 2 a.m. on a Sunday morning to press that button on the diesel generator. In half an hour.Corey: That is unfortunate.Ivan: Yeah, but that's how the world works. [laugh].Corey: So, it's been fantastic reminding myself of some of the things I've forgotten because let's be clear, in working with cloud, a lot of this stuff is completely abstracted away. I don't have to care about most of these things anymore. Now, there's a small team of people that AWS who very much has to care; if they don't, I will say mean things to them on Twitter, if I let my HugOps position slip up just a smidgen. But they do such a good job at this that we don't have problems like this, almost ever, to the point where when it does happen, it's noteworthy. It's been fun talking to you about this just because it's a trip down a memory lane that is a lot more aligned with the things that are there and we tend not to think about them. It's almost a How it's Made episode.Ivan: Yeah. And don't be so relaxed regarding the cloud networking because, you know, if you don't go full serverless with nothing on-premises, you know what protocol you're running between on-premises and the cloud on direct connect? It's called BGP.Corey: Ah. You know, I did not know that. I've done some ridiculous IPsec pairings over those things, and was extremely unhappy for a while afterwards, but I never got to the BGP piece of it. Makes sense.Ivan: Yeah, even over IPsec if you want to have any dynamic failover, or multiple sites, or anything, it's [BP 00:36:56].Corey: I really want to thank you for taking the time to go through all this with me. If people want to learn more about how you view these things, learn more things from you, as I'd strongly recommend they should if they're even slightly interested by the conversation we've had, where can they find you?Ivan: Well, just go to ipspace.net and start exploring. There's the blog with thousands of blog entries, some of them snarkier than others. Then there are, like, 200 webinars, short snippets of a few hours of—Corey: It's like a one man version of re:Invent. My God.Ivan: Yeah, sort of. But I've been working on this for ten years, and they do it every year, so I can't produce the content at their speed. And then there are three different full-blown courses. Some of them are just, you know, the materials from the webinars, plus guest speakers plus hands-on exercises, plus I personally review all the stuff people submit, and they cover data centers, and automation, and public clouds.Corey: Fantastic. And we will, of course, put links to that into the [show notes 00:38:01]. Thank you so much for being so generous with your time. I appreciate it.Ivan: Oh, it's been such a huge pleasure. It's always great talking with you. Thank you.Corey: It really is. Thank you once again. Ivan Pepelnjak network architect and oh so much more. CCIE #1354 Emeritus. And read the bio; it's well worth it. I am Cloud Economist Corey Quinn and this is Screaming in the Cloud. If you've enjoyed this podcast, please leave a five-star review on your podcast platform of choice, whereas if you've hated this podcast, please leave a five-star review on your podcast platform of choice and a comment formatted as a RIPv2 announcement.Corey: If your AWS bill keeps rising and your blood pressure is doing the same, then you need The Duckbill Group. We help companies fix their AWS bill by making it smaller and less horrifying. The Duckbill Group works for you, not AWS. We tailor recommendations to your business and we get to the point. Visit duckbillgroup.com to get started.Announcer: This has been a HumblePod production. Stay humble.

mixxio — podcast diario de tecnología
Conspiración en la Estación

mixxio — podcast diario de tecnología

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 2, 2021 16:17


Rusia vuelve con la tesis del taladro / Bizum tendrá su propia app / Drones que se amarran como pájaros / Quejas de Microsoft Edge / Bloquean la compra de Giphy / Square ahora se llama Block / Qualcomm presenta sus nuevos chips Patrocinador: Esta Navidad protege los ordenadores de tus seres queridos con menos habilidades informáticas instalándoles el antivirus de nueva generación de Panda Security https://www.pandasecurity.com/es/, un Brand Watchguard. Cuesta muy poco asegurarte de que siempre tienen navegación web segura, sistemas anti-phising y anti-ransomware, y mucho más. Rusia vuelve con la tesis del taladro / Bizum tendrá su propia app / Drones que se amarran como pájaros / Quejas de Microsoft Edge / Bloquean la compra de Giphy / Square ahora se llama Block / Qualcomm presenta sus nuevos chips

Google Cloud Platform Podcast
Serverless, Redefined with Jason Polites

Google Cloud Platform Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Dec 1, 2021 23:06


Guest Jason Polites joins Stephanie Wong and Bukola Ayodele this week to talk about advances in serverless computing with Cloud Run and how developers and wallets are benefiting. Cloud Run, a managed service which allows developers to run containers, is now available in all GCP regions, offers increased resource access, global load balancing, and more. Jason tells us how this evolution of Cloud Run has led to the support of bigger, more complicated, and even legacy software fully and efficiently functioning in a serverless environment. The team at Google continues to expand offerings in order to afford the benefits of auto-scaling and other managed services to all workloads. Always On CPU, for example, supports projects with running background functions. Later, Jason gives us examples of projects that best fit a serverless infrastructure and the cost benefits of using Cloud Run. He offers cost-saving tips for projects, like committed use discounts and auto-scaling limits. Balancing cost efficiency with global reliability is important, and Jason tells us how this is easily achieved with Cloud Run features like scaling to zero. To limit the barrier to entry for new Cloud Run and container users, Jason and his team have been working on open source build packs. Developers can turn code into a container without creating Docker files. The containers running in Cloud Run are highly portable as well, giving companies the freedom to move their containers freely. Jason Polites Jason leads the Serverless Compute product team in Google Cloud, including products like Cloud Run and App Engine. Cool things of the week Illicit coin mining, ransomware, APTs target cloud users in first Google Cybersecurity Action Team Threat Horizons report blog Microservices architecture on Google Cloud blog Interview Cloud Run site Cloud Run CPU Allocation docs Run more workloads on Cloud Run with new CPU allocation controls blog Docker site Google Cloud Buildpacks site App Engine site Cloud Functions site GCP Podcast Episode 173: Cloud Run with Steren Giannini and Ryan Gregg podcast GCP Podcast Episode 203: Cloud Run GKE with Donna Malayeri podcast GCP Podcast Episode 261: Full Stack Dart with Tony Pujals and Kevin Moore podcast What's something cool you're working on? Bukola just finished Season 2 of the Click to Deploy series.

Craig Peterson's Tech Talk
Did Your Computer Have "Intel Inside"? It Won't For long!

Craig Peterson's Tech Talk

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 29, 2021 85:08


Did Your Computer Have "Intel Inside"? It Won't For long! We're going to talk a little bit about shopping right now. Then we'll get into our chip crunch, and why Intel is being left on the side of the computer road. [Following is an automated transcript.] [00:00:16] There's lots of fun stuff to do. And it's kind of fun getting out of the house. Isn't it getting out, going out, going around? There's a, an outlet store close by where I live and it's kind of one of these outdoor. Outlet things. And it was fun. Just walking around, enjoying the little bit of fresh air, no matter what the weather has. [00:00:40] Uh, I even enjoy going up there when there's some snow on the ground. Because again, it's a little bit of a, uh, it's, it's fun. It's a little bit of a change, which is not. Part of what I love about living in the Northeast. You really get all four seasons and they can be really, really nice. Well, black Friday of course came and went. [00:01:01] It was not a bad black Friday, but one of the questions I been asked all week long, all month long, frankly, has to do. When should I buy, what should I buy? What are the deals? And it is weird this year. Let me tell you really weird. And the reason I say that is I didn't my show prep. And I spent some hours just looking on different websites and looking at opinion pieces, looking at news sources, just trying to find, okay, what's going on? [00:01:36] What's the real word out there. Our items, as rare as everybody seems to be saying they are, or is it easy enough to find. Well, that's what we're going to talk about right now. Really. We've had a very turbulent two years for retail, every branch of retail, whatever it is, it's been been terrible. So many people have lost their businesses. [00:02:03] So many small businesses, small retail restaurants, some restaurants that I, I enjoy and just haven't been to in years, really. Completely gone, which is such a crying shame. And a lot of people have put a lot of the blame for the general retail malaise on Amazon and Walmart. Because again, you know, I had a discussion just this last weekend with. [00:02:35] Oh, friend's father. And he was saying, well, you know, I've been a biologist in pharmacology for years. And, uh, you know, th this is just as just a science. It's all science talking about the lockdown. And so I pointed out how, well, let me see, let me see. I got family from Canada. They cannot drive across the border because of the lockdown, but in, in the states, they won't let us, us, we won't let them fly. [00:03:03] But they drive in, I should say, but they will let them fly in. How does that science, right. There's coronavirus not survive at 30,000 feet. Is that what it is? You know? No, come on. People it's politics and part of the politics was. Walmart got to stay open and all of these other small businesses couldn't so what are they supposed to do? [00:03:29] How are they supposed to compete? And yet, Hey, I understand you need clothes, right? And you need food. Most Walmarts have both. You might need medicine in order to even survive. So that kind of makes sense, but why. Walmart. Why did the government choose Walmart and target are going to survive all of you, little mom and pops stores, you know, that maybe have been multi-generational where it's your parents. [00:04:00] And maybe even your grandparents that started the store, started the restaurant. And now all of a sudden there's a lockout and you cannot be over. It just, it entirely political, entirely political. And I understand the science behind all of this. I have spent a lot of time studying it and you might remember if you've listened to me even. [00:04:26] Dean or 20 years ago, I'm trying to remember when it was, I started talking with scientists about RNI, RNA interference and the coolest stuff that was happening with African violets and getting the, the purple flowers to change to white and all of the stuff they were doing. It it's exciting. It's fun. But why. [00:04:49] Did we use politics here. And so many people lost their livelihood. So many people lost their businesses. It's, it's absolutely incredible. And just pain companies basically to stay closed. Uh, doesn't make sense either. Because now you're pumping more money into the economy and that's causing inflation because there are not more products or not more vendors. [00:05:15] There's not enough competition. So the prices go up. And when there's inflation, how about people who are retired, who have saved something. And now their money is worth what the inflation rates are. Again, it's a hidden tax, but it's really hard on retirees because their money that they've saved, you know, they're getting the pitons, you put it in a savings account and you're making a fraction of 1%. [00:05:43] And yet we're seeing inflation rates on things like fuel being almost a hundred percent. Think about what it was like in 2019, what the gas prices were. It is insane. So small businesses have to be supported. They are the backbone. They are the innovators. Walmart didn't start as a big company. They started very small. [00:06:10] He innovated his claim to fame. That old Sam Walton was let's go ahead and have the best prices and anywhere. Right. And so they got the best prices by beating up their suppliers, et cetera, but it all worked. And Walmart increased, raised its it's demonstrable again through real science, but they raise the standard of living in every community. [00:06:39] They opened a store. It's absolutely funneling. But Walmart stopped innovating a long time ago. Now again, the innovations come just like they do in the tech world. Typically not from the existing companies, right. Facebook isn't innovating, they bought WhatsApp, they bought so much of the technology they're using to drive their company. [00:07:02] Oculus. You look at it, right? That's their future. According to of course, uh, you know, Mr. Mark. What did it come from? What was the cost? Right. They by their competition. So I want to encourage everybody to really try and go out of your way, try and shop at these small places. There are. And so many of these malls nowadays kind of local stores where they've got together and they're running their co-op or where someone's managing a bind product from local craftsman, really that they, everything from these women that are knitting doilies all the way on out, through very cool black iron work things, things that you can find there. [00:07:54] That maybe you can find on Amazon, maybe they come from China. Maybe they're locally sourced. Not very likely, but it's been a very, very tough, tough time here for so many of these industries. One of the things that I did talk about this week, I, one of my radio appearances is. Tik TOK live shopping. If you haven't heard of tick tock, tick tock is this short form video site. [00:08:21] And it kind of started by people saying, okay, well with this song, uh, use that song to make a funny little 32nd. And 22nd and that's what people did. And it was really quite cool to see they there's some innovative people out there. Tick talk has a lot of, I share nowadays way more popular amongst the younger people than Facebook is Facebook has kind of become something for the older people. [00:08:49] But what tech talk is now doing is providing live shop. And this is an innovation that really started in China, which of course is where tick-tock is located. But in 2020, there was a survey done that found that two thirds of Chinese consumers said that they bought products via live stream in the past year. [00:09:13] So what's live stream. I want you to think about QVC online share or a television shop. Those channels, those infomercials that come on at night, but particularly the channels that are constantly selling stuff like micro did a little bit of that at one point in time, right? His interview was, he came in and the, he, the guy who was interviewing him, held up a pen. [00:09:37] Is that okay, you sell me this pencil. And so micro went on and on for 10 minutes or more just talking about the pencil and everything related to the pencil and what a great quality was. All he course, she didn't know anything about it. Right? And that's part of what bothers me about some of these things, right? [00:09:55] These people are just making stuff up, but talk live now is allowing you to go ahead and make funny little things. Gain an audience. Maybe they're not funny. Maybe they're just informative. Have them inserted into people's streams and then sell it right there. In fact, instant purchasing of a featured product during a live stream. [00:10:22] And then obviously audience participation, they got chat functions, reaction buttons. This is what's coming our way. And so all of you, small businesses out there, I really want to encourage you pay attention to social media. This is the sort of thing that you can do. You can target your local area, which is where most small businesses operate, right? [00:10:48] It's in, in your town. It's maybe a 10, 20 mile radius, depending on what, what you're doing, what you're selling. And you can micro target nowadays. That's the joy. That's the beauty of the online world. Micro-targeting Hey, and if you're interested, let me know. We can talk a lot more about this because I have studied this for years now. [00:11:12] Hey, stick around Craig peterson.com online. [00:11:20] So while you're shopping online, what are some of the things you should do or look out for? I've got a few ideas. I'm going to tell you what I do, and it has worked wonders for me. So here we go. [00:11:35] When you're shopping online, there are some obvious tips, just run through them very, very quickly because I don't, I think you guys being the best and the brightest really know these things. [00:11:50] So just very quickly, make sure your security. Today, make sure that everything is patched up the way that it should be, that you have some really great anti-malware hopefully advanced anti-malware, but apply any updates before you start doing shopping, because this is a bad time of year to lose all of your personal information and to have your money stolen. [00:12:18] Uh, number two. If you're seeing an email or you're seeing a deal that really looks too good to be true. Take, take caution here. Right? Do you see a place? Oh, I got five brand new Sony PlayStation fives for sale. You might not want. To buy those, right? The minister, Jeff Foxworthy. Here's your sign. So be careful about that. [00:12:46] Criminals are really taking advantage of consumers who, uh, you know, life's been tough, money's been tight. You're trying to find a deal. So be careful about that. Okay. Coupons or other way, the bad guys have been trying to get consumers. To compromise their own cyber security. Okay. Uh, 12% of emails out there are considered to be spam emails. [00:13:15] I think it's more like 80% or 90%, but then I've had the same email address for 30 years. Okay. Uh, so don't click on link. Be sure you shop on the real website and apply coupons there by manually typing out the code. So for instance, if, if let's say you use duck, duck, go for your search engine, which you should be using for most cases, most searches a duck duck go says, okay, let me see where coupons here you go. [00:13:46] Here's a site that has a lot of coupons be careful about those sites, because some of them are trying to lure you in. Are the websites you're going to the real ones, the legit one. Are you clicking a link in your email in order to get to that sale site? Double check, because what they're doing is using some of these URLs that aren't. [00:14:14] Right. And we see those all of the time. They'll have a misspelling of the business name or they'll, they'll do something else. So they might have Amazon Dodd bad guys.com. Oh, okay. Amazon. Okay. Is Amazon, uh, obviously they wouldn't say bad guys, but yeah. That's kind of what they're doing. So be careful. So once you're on a website, look for that little padlock that's to the side, click on it and double. [00:14:43] To make sure that it is legit because they might have us. What's called a secure, sir. And they might have a certificate that's valid for the site that you just went to, but it's not, there's a different kit for Amazon or Walmart or target or w you know, whatever Joe's clothing.com. It might be something entirely different. [00:15:07] So be careful, okay. Is what you're looking at on the ad. Because there are a lot of fake advertisements out there that looked like they got great deals. And even though black Friday has come and gone, they're going to continue to do this through the end of the year and be on. Okay. So rather than clicking on the ad, just type in the retailer. [00:15:35] Information, because some of these ads that are showing up are in fact, almost every last one of them is coming from what's called an ad network. So that ad network is where people go and buy ads and they say, Hey, I want to retarget people that were at this site or clicked on this link, et cetera, et cetera. [00:15:54] And now. If you are a bad guy, all you have to do is sneak into one of those big ad networks. And all of a sudden your bad guy ads are showing up everywhere. So you see a great ad for a Chromebook. For instance, we've talked about those before you can just go ahead. Okay. Chromebook. No problem. Wow. Yeah. [00:16:14] Yeah. Type it in. If the ads for a Chromebook from Walmart, just type in walmart.com. Okay. Avoid clicking on ads. Isn't it terrible how bad it's gotten, man. I liked the internet better back in the 1980s and nineties. Uh, how should you pay? We're going to talk about that in a minute. Public why fi is a potential problem. [00:16:40] The bad guys will often create fake hot spots and you are now using their hot spot. Now this isn't as much of a problem as a used to be because your visits to most websites nowadays are encrypted. Do you remember that lock? I mentioned in the URL. Well, that means it is using SSL or TLS, which is a secure communications pro protocol. [00:17:07] So if you're seeing that, you know that you basically have a VPN, you don't have to buy a VPM service. You don't have to use a VPN service. You have a VPN that's being provided by the website, your. And that's really what that lock means. So the public wifi is less of an issue for the monitoring, what you're doing, although yeah, they can still do some monitoring. [00:17:33] They might play with DNS and things, but they can also scan you, which is the biggest problem from my perspective about using public wifi and never. Share your personal data. If you can avoid it, one of the things we're going to be covering in the upcoming boot camps and workshops is using fake or alternate email addresses. [00:17:57] I do it all of the time. That's why I have 3000, 3000. Yes. You heard it right different log-ins right now in use active use on. Uh, in my password manager, at least over the last decade. So I've accumulated a lot of them. So I use a different email address pretty much all of the time. And I'll, I explain how to do that in the boot camps and workshops that are coming up. [00:18:25] So keep an eye on. On my weekly emails again, Craig peterson.com/subscribe. So you can find out about them, you know, these, the free ones. I really want to give you guys all of the basics, right? So that's what I'm going to be doing anyways. How should I pay? This is maybe the even bigger side of things. It is very, very rare that I actually put my credit card number in on a website at least. [00:18:54] Real credit card number. There's a number of options that are available to you now that weren't before, even if it's not a credit card, even if it's a debit card and generically, this is known as single use credit cards. So we've got a few things. I use typically capital one's email E N O. If you have a capital one card of any sort, this is a little browser plugin that you can put on. [00:19:25] Now, the downside of this is they will by default, try and look. Every web page you visit. So from their perspective, it's worth it because now they get that data from you. However, in all modern browsers, you can restrict when it runs. But what happens is I go to a website, it wants a credit card and I can pop up that little Eno browser plugin. [00:19:53] And now. Todd, uh, I can generate a virtual credit card number that's tied in behind the scenes to my real credit card number. I can even put an expiration date on that credit card number. So it can't be used after a certain. Some of these virtual credit card options, even allow you to say, Hey, it really is only single use. [00:20:18] It can only ever be used once. And that way the bad guys can't run up your credit card. Bill Citibank, American express, JP Morgan, and the more have these types of options and basically any visa or MasterCard. Look for virtual credit cards. From your bank or whoever's providing your credit card. Hey, stick around. [00:20:42] You're listening to Craig Peterson and I'll be right back. [00:20:46] We're going to talk a little bit now, since it's getting near the end of the year, about what kind of technology do we think is going to be big next year. And I've got to mention this project. My daughter has been working on it. Finally hit the ocean. [00:21:02] My daughter has been busy. You might know she's been in the maritime industry for quite a while now. [00:21:11] And a man, she went to, she graduated 2008. I think it was this, this daughter. And you probably already know I have five daughters, right? Uh, three sons too. So it was kind of a mix, but she has been working on a ship called the Yarra Burkland it's over in Norway. And what the ship is doing here is hauling fertilizer, anything. [00:21:38] Oh, wow. Isn't that exciting? Wow. Craig, I'm so excited for you. Well, it is the world's first autonomous electric ship period. Okay, cargo ship and what it is doing ultimately, is it to eliminating the need for about 40,000 truck round trips a year. See what's happening over there in Norway is there's a factory that's right. [00:22:07] Located right next to a mine. That's making all of this fertilizer and it needs to be hauled down through some fjords. To get to the main shipping Depot where it can be loaded onto the big ocean ship. So these trucks are going up and over the mountains alongside the fjords. And this is a ship that's going to take a trip that's about seven and a half nautical mile. [00:22:34] So give or take eight miles and on the water. And now Norway is doing this in its own waterways. So there's no problem with international rules and regulations about ships here. This is just local and it loads itself. It drives itself and it unloads itself. I think that's really, really cool. And what it does is it plugs itself. [00:23:02] When it is on either port w now we've seen this with some ships, right? You might've been on some of these ferries that are electric. They work pretty well for electric ferries. Cause they're usually short haul. They connect up to shore power and they do a rapid charge and they're ready for. The next leg of their ship while they are busy taking all of their load in right. [00:23:26] Makes sense. And you might've done it, but this is, this is different. And a lot of the incidents that happen in shipping are due to human error. Think about all of the problems we've had with Navy ships, even running into things, human error, and a lot of that's due to fatigue. On the ships. I don't know if you know it. [00:23:47] I have two kids that, well, three actually that have been in the maritime industry, uh, the, the big maritime industry and they take four hour shifts. So four on four off four on four off every day. So fatigue is a very big deal for a lot of the shipping industry. And for the first few years, they're planning on having the ship be. [00:24:15] They're going to be up, of course, on the bridge monitoring everything, because you've got a problem with artificial intelligence machine learning. If a big ship is coming along and there's a kayak in the way, it's actually the kayaks job to get out of the way. But if you run over a kayaker things, aren't going to go very well for you, frankly. [00:24:37] But how does a computer recognize a kayak? Maybe Marine life or even some sort of a swell that's out there. So they think they've got most of this solved. And this is the project that my daughter's been working on for a few years here. She's a Mariner. She has her captain's license unlimited. Tonnage unlimited vessels on unlimited waterways anywhere in the world is just incredible. [00:25:06] All of the stuff she's done. So the wheelhouse could disappear all together, but they've got to make sure that everything is working pretty darn well. Okay. Uh, large vessels. Do anything about the kayak? All they can do is warn, but they definitely can't maneuver. And that's why the deep draft vessels have priority over sailboats or pretty much anything else that's out there. [00:25:32] But, and what that brings up is the fact that we don't have the regulations yet for these autonomous ship. Well, we don't have the regulations yet for the autonomous cars, right? This is normal. The technology tends to proceed the regulations, and we have regulations in place right now for autonomous vehicles in certain areas. [00:25:57] But they're nowhere near mature. It's going to take a while before everything has all frigging. And now that is leading us into our friends at Ford. Ford's done a couple of interesting announcements over the last couple of weeks. So I have to bring the. And an effort really to deal with this ongoing chip shortage. [00:26:21] Ford has made a deal with global founders. Global foundries is a chip maker and they have a non-binding agreement. Now that makes it interesting. If it's non-binding. Why even bother, but the press release says opening the door for global foundries to deliver more chips to Ford in the short term. But what's happening right now because of the chip shortages. [00:26:50] Well, companies are designing their own. Purpose built chips rather than relying on the general purpose chips made by Intel or AMD Qualcomm, Samsung and video media tech, depending on what kind of chips we're talking about. This is fascinating because it is hurting Intel. No question about it. And AMD. So what does Intel done? [00:27:15] Intel is moving its stance to being more of a contracted chip manufacturer. So you can go to Intel and say, here's my chip design. Go ahead and make that for us. And off they'll go and they will manufacture it and they probably even help you with some of the design things. Fascinating. Now, the other thing that's been happening for a while is if you look at apple, for instance, they have been using their own chips in their I phones and eye pads. [00:27:52] Now they also are using their own chips in the laptops and various desktop computers. So apple is the highest profile example I can think of offhand. That have replaced Intel's chips. That's absolutely amazing. Google has also created its own chip for the latest pixel phone. So if you buy the latest flagship pixel, which I would not do, because this is the first time they're really using their own chip, but they've got their own chip now. [00:28:28] Amazon has been deploying its own chips in its internal servers to improve performance as well as to make it better for the Alexa voice assistant. You see how long tail that's a marketing term, but really how special purpose purpose designed purpose built chips are. So it's huge. Intel's changing course. [00:28:55] They've never been a great chip designer. If he asked me and a few know my history, you know, I've been down at the chip level. I was down there for many years in the kernel of operating systems and dealing directly with all. From chips, you know, when you're thinking about drivers and the low end and the operating system, that's what I did for a lot of years. [00:29:18] So I'm, I'm glad to see this happen. It's going to be better for you because the devices can be cheaper because they don't use a general purpose chip. The chip is built and designed. For what it's being used for. So good news there for four, because Ford is going to be kind of doing the same sort of thing. [00:29:39] I bet mark my words. Okay. Well, I didn't get to the predictions for this year, but I will, when we get back this upcoming year, stick around, of course you listening to Craig, Peter Sohn, you can get all kinds of information. And in fact, if you sign up for my email list, which is not a heavy marketing. [00:30:02] Believe me, you'll get a bunch of different special reports. So ones I think are going to help you out the most. Craig peterson.com. [00:30:13] Well, we just talked about the future when it comes to chips and our computers, we're going to continue that discuss discussion right now on artificial intelligence and machine learning. What else is going to be important next? [00:30:29] So, what is the future? [00:30:31] We're getting close to, you know, the end of the year and the beginning of the year. So what am I looking forward to? Well, you just got my basic predictions about what's going to happen with chip manufacturing. These various vendors of various devices are going to continue to move away from Intel AMD, et cetera, these general purpose chips and move more to special purpose chips. [00:31:02] Now there's a number of special purpose type designs that have been out there for a very long time. For instance, a six OCB in industry. No, those I programmed some way back when. I have gotten much more complicated, but for instance, when we're putting in systems for a business, we will typically use Cisco systems that have a basics so that everything is extremely fast. [00:31:29] You don't notice any delay and yet it can do very heavy duty filtering. Packet examination, stream examination, because it's being done in hardware. That's the advantage to it. So we're going to see more and more that since Apple's already moved to their own chips, Google has already moved to their own chips, Amazon, their own chips, et cetera. [00:31:53] And there'll always be a need for general purpose chips. In fact, you can say that the apple chips for instance, are fairly. The purpose they're being used in your iOS devices, your iPhone, your iPad, but they're also being used in desktop applications. But if you look more closely at what Apple's done, it has a couple of different types. [00:32:16] Of CPU's inside the chip. So it has the high-performance CPU's that are only engaged when it needs some serious computing going on. It has the low power, lower performance CPU's that are also built into that same chip that now handle kind of background tasks, things. Dated the don't need a whole lot of CPU or don't need to be really fast. [00:32:42] And then it also has graphics processing units that will handle things like screen updates, moving stuff around on the screens. There is a lot of technology in that chip in reality, it's it would use to take three. Completely different sets of chips to do what the one apple chip can do. So it is an example of a special purpose CPU. [00:33:11] We're going to be seeing more and more of those now as a consumer, you're not really going to notice other than, wow, this thing's fast or wow. This battery lasts forever. You're going to have some great, great functionality. And I think we are seeing, because they're spinning. $2 billion a week right now in the industry, you're going to be seeing more of these fabs come online, chip fabrication plants, and they take a long time to build and put up online, but they're going to be making more specialized chips, which I really. [00:33:46] Well, there's an article that came out based on a survey from the I Tripoli. And this is called the impact of technology in 2022. And beyond of these are some global technology leaders. Of course I Tripoli was all about electrical engineering back in the day today, it's more about general technology. But here's the results. [00:34:12] What is important for next year? Now, remember, I don't give investment advice. So don't look at this as things you should be putting your money into. This is just stuff that is good to know and probably should be considered, but this is not again, investment advice. So. Technologies will be the most important in 2022. [00:34:33] While according to this kind of little, little brain trust, if you will, amongst the respondents more than one in five, say that AI and machine learning are going to be very important. What's the difference between artificial intelligence and machine learning. Uh, the lines are blurred nowadays. They used to be a lot more clear machine learning used to be the, the machine, the computer learns it. [00:35:02] Let's say it's working on a factory floor and it has to do some welding on a joint. And the, it has sensors and it learns, oh, okay. Well, this part, when it comes into me may be here, but I might be there and I might be here. So I got to kind of move around a little bit. That's basic machine. Artificial intelligence, which I think is a super set of machine learning, but other people argue the other way, but you know, they don't know what they're talking about. [00:35:30] There is artificial intelligence is where it doesn't even have to be taught how to learn. It. Just figures things out. So it's. When it's built, talk to learn where that piece that it needs to weld is likely going to be and how to find it. It just knows. Okay, well, I'm supposed to weld. So how do I do that? [00:35:56] That's much more of an artificial intelligence. So that's number one, artificial intelligence next. Cloud computing 20%. Now my opinion on cloud computing is not very high, frankly, because cloud is just the name for somebody else's computer cloud computing does not mean it's safer. It does not mean that it requires less work on your part where I think cloud computing can help a business is where. [00:36:30] Push over flow to the cloud. The many businesses that have moved technology to the cloud have moved it back now because frankly, the cloud did not provide them with what they thought they'd get, which is cheaper, better computing. And a lot of the breaches that we're getting nowadays are in the cloud. [00:36:53] People's databases being exposed, applications, being exposed. It's great for hackers because they know. Okay, well, let me see. Amazon has the majority of all cloud computing in the world, so let's just scan Amazon computers and see what we can find. Right. And they're going to find that this bank has this opener, that company has that database available, et cetera, et cetera. [00:37:17] So be careful with that, but they think cloud's number two, five G. 17% that I am very excited about it. And here's why five G is kind of a generic term for the high speed, uh, room wireless data. So think cell phone basically, but why it really matters is it's designed to handle billions of devices. So that you can have a lot of people sharing data and getting to data, sharing a network connection in a densely populated area. [00:37:58] That's where it really, really shined. And then it also has a faster data rate than the older technology. One of the things you'll find as you compare, if you really dig into the technology compare, the various cell companies is that for instance, T mobile, which is who I use has a lower frequency spectrum. [00:38:24] Lower frequencies can not carry as much data for, but what they can do, I'm really oversimplifying. But what they can do is more readily peers, glass, and brick and walls. So T-Mobile's frequencies are lower than Verizon, for instance. So Verizon can get you faster data. But can't get it into as many places and not as well as T-Mobile just really putting this quite simply. [00:38:57] And in fact, just what was it? Two weeks ago, we had a court order stopping the deployment of these higher frequency, 5g networks. Because of complaints from some people, uh, particularly in the avionics, in the airline industry where they're saying, well, they could be squashing some of our critical systems because they're using some of the old satellite frequencies for 5g up in the upper bands. [00:39:25] Anyhow, one of the things that 5g. Which has already been used for is what I was involved with. You know, I was involved with emergency medicine for a long time and I was an EMT I P D uh, back in the day. So almost a paramedic. And think about what could happen now, you're in the back of an ambulance that you could be the hands for the doctor who can be seeing the patient as you're driving down the highway, bringing that person in, because historically I remember this one woman. [00:40:01] Placenta previa and had just soaked through some towels with blood. She was in really bad shape and we were squeezing IVs to get fluid into her. It was, it was incredible. It was something else. And we brought her right in on the gurney, in emergency room and right up to the operating room and put her on the table, right from her ambulance gurney while with five G. [00:40:27] They can be doing that now, not just in an ambulance, but in, in more rural areas, doctors can be operating remotely on someone. It's very cool. This whole tele medicine, including remote surgery. It's huge. So these technology leaders agreed with me on that 24% is the number one, most benefit four or five G telemedicine. [00:40:53] Number two, remote learning and education 20%. Personal and professional day-to-day communications. Think of all of the stuff we're doing now, how much better that's going to get entertainment, sports, live streaming, manufacturing, and assembly transportation, traffic control. Now we're down to 7% and by the way, that's where the cars are talking to each other. [00:41:16] If you have five G. You don't need a mesh because you can use 5g, carbon footprint reduction in energy efficiency. That's 5% and 2% farming and agriculture. Our farming equipment is already using GPS in order to plow fields, planned fields, harvest fields. It's amazing. So there you go. Those are the top pieces of technology that are predicted to influence us next year. [00:41:46] I think it's absolutely correct. And I've got to give you a bit of good news here again. 97% of these people polled agree that their teams are working more closely than ever before. Because of these working from home workplace technologies and apps for office check-in, et cetera. Good news. All around. [00:42:11] Hey, if you want more good news. If you want to know what's happening, even some bad news, I got the right place for you to go. I have five minute little trainings in my emails every week. I have bootcamps again, all of this is the freeze stuff. You imagine what the paid stuff is like, but I want you to understand this. [00:42:32] Okay. Craig, peter.com/subscribe. Do it right now. [00:42:39] I had a good friend this week that had his life's work stolen from him. Yeah. And you know what caused it? It was his passwords. Now, you know what you're supposed to be doing? I'm going to tell you exactly what to do right now. [00:42:55] Well, let's get right down to the whole problem with passwords. [00:43:00] I'm going to tell you a little bit about my friend this week. He has been building a business for. Maybe going on 10 years now, and this business relies on advertising. Most businesses do so in some way, we need to have new customers. There's always some attrition there's customers that go away. So how do we keep them? [00:43:25] Well, we do what we can. How do we get new customers? Well, for him, it was. Advertising, primarily on Facebook. He did some Google ads as well, but Facebook is really where he was focused. So how did he do all of that? Here's the bottom line. You have to, if you are going to be advertising on Facebook, you have to have an advertising account. [00:43:51] Same thing's true with Google. And then on that account, you tie in either your bank account or your credit card. I recommend a credit card so that those transactions can be backed up. And on top of all of that now, of course you have to use a pixel. So the way the tracking works is there are pixels on websites, you know, about those already. [00:44:17] And the bottom line with the pixels. Those are also. Cookie's about the pixels are used to set a cookie so that Facebook knows what sites you've gone to. So he uses those. I use those. In fact, if you go to my website, I have a Facebook pixel, the get set. And the reason for all of that is so that we know with. [00:44:39] I'd be interested in something on the site. So I know that there's a lot of people that are interested in this page or that page. And so I could, I have not ever, but I could now do some advertising and I could send ads to you so that if you were looking at something particular, you'd see ads that were related to that, which is what I've always said. [00:45:04] Is the right way to go. If I'm looking to buy a pickup truck, I love to see ads for different pickup trucks, but if I don't want a car or truck, I don't want to see the ads. Right. It isn't like TV where it seems sometimes every other ad is about. Car or a pickup truck. It drives me kinda crazy because it's a waste of their money in advertising to me because I don't want those things. [00:45:33] And it's also not only just annoying in money wasting. There are better ways to do targeting. And that's what the whole online thing is. Anyways, I told you about that because he had set up this pixel years ago. Basically the Facebook pixel gets to know you gets to know. All of the people who like you, that might've bought from you. [00:45:58] Cause you can have that pixel track people through your site, your purchase site, they know what you purchase on the shopping cart, et cetera. And you can identify these people over on Facebooks and them ads because they abandoned the cart or whatever it is you want to do there. There's just a whole ton of stuff that you can do for these people. [00:46:19] And it's so bad. It is so valuable. It takes years to build up that account years to put that pixel in place. And our friend here, he had done exactly that. Then he found that his account had been compromised. And that is a very bad thing in this case because the bad guy used his account to place ads. Now there's really two or three problems here. [00:46:52] We'll talk about one of them is. Why was the bad guy going after him? Well, he has been running ads on Facebook for a long time. So as far as Facebook is concerned, his account is credible. All of the ads he runs don't have to be reviewed by a human being. They can, can go up almost immediate. He doesn't have to wait days for some of these things to go up. [00:47:21] So our bad guy can get an account like his, that has years worth of advertising credibility, and now start advertising things that are not correct. So there again is part of the value of having one of these older accounts for advertising. And so the bad guy did that use his credibility. And then secondly, he used 25 grand worth of my friend's money to run ads. [00:47:51] Also of course, very bad, very, very bad. So I sat down with him. In fact, it was this last week and I was out on a trip with just kind of a vacation trip. It was absolutely wonderful. You know, I, I never just do vacation. Right. It's always business plus work whenever I do anything like this, but I was on. [00:48:11] Trip last week. And so my eldest son who works closely with me, and he's also part of the FBI InfraGuard program. I had him reach out to my friend and they, he helped them out and they talked back and forth. Here's the problem that he has. And I'm trying to figure out a really good way to solve this. And I haven't figured that out yet. [00:48:35] And you know, if you guys have an idea because you are the best and brightest, you really are. Go ahead and drop me an email me@craigpeterson.com if you know, a good way around this particular problem, which is he has. This Facebook could count as well as many other accounts, including his website, hosting account, his email account, et cetera. [00:48:57] And. Uh, he has people who manage his ads for him who manages website for him, who put up some of the promotions for him, you know, the advertising and everything else. So these are third-party. This is what we generically call a supply chain, risk people who are not him have access to his stuff, his private stuff. [00:49:24] And, well, how does he do it or how did he do it? Is he went ahead and gave them. Access by giving them accounts or passwords. How well were they guarding their passwords and their accounts? So the first thing I had my friend do was go to have I been poned.com. You'll find that online at have HIV. E I been. [00:49:50] Poem dispelled PW, N E d.com. So I took him to have I been poned and I had him put in his email address, the one he uses the most and it showed up in five different. Hacks data dumps. So these are five different sites where he had used that same email address in this case. And he found out that in those five cases, the bad guy's got his passwords and personal information. [00:50:21] All bad. Right. And he went ahead and cleaned it up. So I said, well, put in the password because have I been, poned also let you check your password, just see if it has been used by someone else and then stolen. So there are billions of passwords in this database. It's incredibly. Of all of these known passwords. [00:50:44] So he put in his password and no it had not been stolen, but the problem is how about the people that were managing his ads on Facebook and managing his Facebook ad. We're the usernames, which are typically the email addresses and the passwords kept securely. That's a supply chain thing I'm talking about, and that's where I I'd love to get him. [00:51:12] But from you guys, me@craigpeterson.com. If you think you have a good answer, What we've been doing. And our advice to him was use one password. That's the only one to use. I don't trust the last pass anymore. After their last big hack where they got hacked, uh, one password, the digit one password. And go ahead. [00:51:33] And set it up. And in a business scenario, you can have multiple vaults. So have a vault. That's just for people that are dealing with your Facebook ad account, maybe have another vault for people who are posting for you on Facebook. Or better yet when it comes to Facebook, go ahead and have an intermediary that is trusted, uh, kind of like the, if this, then that, or there's a few of them out there that can see that you put the post up on the website and automatically posted on Facebook. [00:52:09] So you don't have to get. All of these people, your passwords, but again, it's up to you. You got to kind of figure out if that makes sense to you that those are the types of things that I think you can do. And that is what we do as well. Now, one of the beauties of using one password like that, where you're not sharing all of your passwords to everything you're sharing, the minimum amount of login information that you possibly can share is that if they leave your employees, All you have to do is remove their access to the appropriate vault or volts, or maybe all of your volts. [00:52:49] And this is what I've done with people that worked for me in the U S and people would work for me overseas and there have been a lot of them and it has worked quite well for me. So with one pass, We can enforce password integrity. We can make sure the passwords on stolen. One password ties automatically into have I been postponed. [00:53:12] So, you know, if a password has been exposed, if it's been stolen online, it's a great way to go. Now I've got an offer for you guys who are listening. I have a special report that I've sold before on passwords, and it goes through talks about one password. He talks about last pass, which I'm no longer really recommending, but give some comparisons and how you can use these things. [00:53:35] Make sure you go and email me right now. Me, M e@craigpetersohn.com. That's Emmy at Craig Peter Sohn, S O. Dot com and just ask me for the password special report, and I'll be glad to get that on off to you. There is a lot of good detail in there and helps you, whether you're a home user or a business. [00:54:02] So the next step in your security is multi-factor authentication. Interesting study out saying that about 75% of people say that they've used it for work or for business, but the hard numbers, I don't think the. [00:54:18] One of the things that you have to do is use good passwords. And the best way to do that is to use a password manager. [00:54:27] I was talking about a friend of mine who had been hacked this last week and his account was hacked. His Facebook ad account was hacked. We asked him if we could reach out to. BI and he said, sure. So we checked with the FBI and they're looking to turn this into a case, a real case, because they've never seen this type of thing, the hijacking of an advertising account who hijacked it. [00:54:56] And why did they hide jacket? Was this in preparation maybe for. Playing around with manipulating our next election cycle coming up. There could be a lot of things that they're planning on doing and taking over my friend's account would be a great way to have done it. So maybe they're going to do other things here. [00:55:15] And our friends at the FBI are looking into it. How now do you also keep your data safe? Uh, easily simply. Well, when we're talking about these types of accounts, the thing to look at is known as two factor authentication or multifactor authentication. You see my friend, if he had been using multi-factor authentication. [00:55:42] I would not have been vulnerable. Even if the bad guys had his username, email address and his password, they still would not be able to log in without having that little six digit code. That's the best way to do multi-factor authentication. When we're talking about this code, whether it's four or 5, 6, 8 digits long, we should not be using our cell phones to receive those. [00:56:16] At least not as text messages, those have a problem because our phone numbers can be stolen from us and they are stolen from us. So if we're a real target, in other words, they're going after you. Joe Smith and they know you have some, $2 million in your account. So they're going after you while they can, in most cases take control of your phone. [00:56:45] Now you might not know it and it doesn't have to be hacked. All they have to do is have the phone company move your phone number to a new phone. Once. So that means one of the things you need to do is contact your telephone vendor, whoever it is, who's providing new that service. That's a company like Verizon sprint T-Mobile, uh, a T and T one of those companies that are giving you cell service, you have to contact them and set up a pass. [00:57:15] So that if they have a phone call coming in and that phone call can be faked. So it looks like it's coming from your phone, even if there was a phone call coming in, whether it's coming from your phone or not, they have to get that password or pass code that you gave them. And once they have that pass code now, Right. [00:57:37] Uh, and that's great, but if you don't have that in there targeting you specifically, then you're in trouble. So for many of us really, it, it may not make a huge difference. Uh, but I would do it anyways. I have done it with every one of my cell phone carriers now. A couple of decades set up a password. So the next step is this multifactor authentication. [00:58:03] If I'm not supposed to get it via text message to my phone, how do I get it? Well, there are a couple of apps out there. There's a free one called Google authentic. And Google authenticator runs on your phone. And once it's there on your phone and you are setting it up on a website, so Facebook, for instance, your bank, most websites out there, the bigger ones, all you have to do is say, I want to set up multi-factor authentication, and then it'll ask you a case. [00:58:34] So how do you want to do it? And you can say, I want an app and they will display. A Q R code. That's one of those square codes with a bunch of little lines inside of it. You're seeing QR codes before they become very common. And you take your phone with the Google authenticator app. Take a picture. Of that little QR code on the screen, and now it will start sinking up so that every 30 seconds Google authenticator on your phone will change that number. [00:59:08] So when you need to log back into that website, it's going to ask you for the code. You just pull up Google authenticator and there's the code. So that's the free way to do it. And not necessarily the easiest way to. Again, going back to one password. I use this thing exclusively. It is phenomenal for keeping my passwords, keeping them all straight and then encrypted vault, actually in multiple encrypted vault it's so that I can share some of them. [00:59:37] Some of them are just strictly private, but it also has that same authenticator functionality built right into it. Microsoft has its own authenticator, but you can tell Microsoft that you want to use the standard authenticator. Of course, Microsoft has to do everything differently. Right. But you can tell it. [01:00:00] And I do tell it, I want to use a regular authenticator app, not Microsoft authentication. By the way. That's why I advise you to do don't use the Microsoft authenticator, just use one authenticator for all of the site, and then Microsoft will give you that same QR code. And then you can take that picture and you're off and running. [01:00:20] Next time you log in, it asks you for the code and instead of texting it to you to your phone smarter, otherwise it will not. That require you to open up your authenticator. So for me, for instance, when I'm logging into a website, it comes up and asks for the username, asked for the password. Both of those are filled out automatically by one password for me. [01:00:44] And then it asks for that code, uh, indication code and. One password automatically puts it into my pace to buffer copy paste, buffer, and I just paste it in and they they've got the code. So I don't have to remember the codes. I don't remember passwords. I don't have to remember usernames or email addresses. [01:01:05] One password remembers them all for me. Plus it'll remember notes and other things. So you can tell, I really like one password. We use it with all of our clients. That's what we have for them. And it does meet even a lot of these DOD requirement on top of. Depending again, how much security you need. We will use duo D U O and it also has this authenticator functionality and we will also use UBI keys. [01:01:37] These are those hardware key. They do oh, can provide you with hardware tokens. Those are those little tokens that can go onto your key ring. That show a changing six digit number every 30 seconds. And that's the same number that would be there in your smartphone app. Your one password or Google authenticator smartphone. [01:01:59] Hopefully, I didn't confuse you too much. I think most of the reason we're not using the security we should is because we're not sure how to, and we don't know what we're going to be. And I can see that being a big problem. So if you have questions about any of this, if you would like a copy of my password security, special report, just send an email to me. [01:02:25] M e@craigpetersohn.com. That's me M e@craigpeterson.com. That's S O n.com. I'll be glad to send it to you. Also, if you sign up for my newsletter there on my website@craigpeterson.com, you are going to get. I was hold little series of these special reports to help you out, get you going. And then every week I send out a little bit of training and all of my articles for the week. [01:02:56] It's usually six to 10 articles that I consider to be important so that, you know, what's going on in the cybersecurity world. So you can. With it for yourself, for your family, for your business. Craig peterson.com. Stick around everybody. We'll be right back again. Craig peterson.com. . [01:03:20] According to researchers. 32% of teen girls said that when they felt bad about their bodies, Instagram made them feel worse. And you know what Facebook knew and knows Instagram is toxic for teen girls. [01:03:37] There's a great article that came out in the wall street journal. [01:03:40] And I'm going to read just a little bit here from some of the quotes first. When I went on Instagram, all I saw were images of chiseled bodies, perfect. Abs and women doing 100 burpees in 10 minutes, said, Ms. Uh, now 18, who lives in Western Virginia. Amazing. Isn't it. The one that I opened now with 32% of teen girls said that when they felt bad about their bodies, Instagram, I made them feel worse. [01:04:12] So that is some studies again, that looks like, um, yeah, these were researchers inside Instagram and they said this in a March, 2020 slide presentation that was posted to Facebook's internal message board that was reviewed by the wall street journal quote comparisons on Instagram can change how young women view and describe themselves. [01:04:38] Apparently for the past three years, Facebook has been conducting studies into how Instagram is affecting its millions of young users. Now, for those of you who don't know what Instagram is, it allows these users to create little stories, to have. Pictures videos of things that they're doing, and it it's a lifestyle type thing you might've heard of course, of how this, this, uh, I don't know what it is. [01:05:09] Kidnapping murder plot. These, this young couple and the body I think was found up in Wyoming. Uh, I'm trying to remember, but, uh, of her and it's yeah, there it is. It wasn't my OMI. And I'm looking up right now, Gabby potato. That's who it is. She was what they called a micro influence. And I know a lot of people who can loom, that's what they want to be. [01:05:37] There's a, a young lady that stayed with us for a few months. She had no other place to live. And so we invited her in here and, uh, we got some interesting stories to tell about that experience. And it's, you know, a little, a little sad, but anyhow, she got back up on her feet and then she decided she was going to become an influence. [01:06:01] And what an influencer is, is someone that has a lot of followers. And of course, a lot means different numbers. You get these massive influencers that have tens of millions of people that quote, follow unquote them. And of course, just think of the Kardashians they're famous for. Being famous, nothing else. [01:06:23] Right. Uh, they have subsequently done some pretty amazing things. At least a few of them have. And we've got one of those daughters who now was the first earliest billionaire, I think it was ever youngest. So they have accomplished some amazing things after the fact, but they got started. By just becoming famous by posting on these social media sites. [01:06:48] So you get a micro influencer, like Gabby Petito, who is out there posting things and pictures. And you look at all of these pictures and, oh my gosh, they're up at this national park. Oh, isn't she so cute. Oh, look at her boyfriend. They'll look so good together. And people. Fall for that image, right? It's just like Photoshopping these pictures of models, changing them. [01:07:16] There've been some real complaints about those over the years. So Instagram sets these kids up with these pictures of people that are just totally unrealistic. One of the slides from a 2019 presentation says, quote, we make body. Excuse me. We make body image issues worse for one in three teenage girls teams, blame Instagram for increases in the rate of anxiety. [01:07:49] And depression said another slide. This reaction was unprompted and consistent across. Groups among teens is this according to the wall street journal who reported suicidal thoughts, 13% of British users, and 6% of American users trace the desire to kill themselves to Instagram. Again, according to one of these presentations, isn't this just absolutely amazing. [01:08:18] And you might've heard it discussed a little bit. I saw some articles about it, obviously in the news wall street journal had it, but this is a $100 billion company, Instagram. That's what their annual revenues. More than 40% of Instagram users are 22 years old and younger. And about 22 million teens log into Instagram in the U S each day, compared with 5 million that log into Facebook, the younger users have been declining. [01:08:57] Facebook it's getting, uh, the population there is getting older and older on Facebook. In average teens in the us spend 50% more time on Instagram than they do on Facebook. Uh, and also tick-tock, by the way I took talk has now surpassed YouTube in some of these metrics, quote, Instagram is well-positioned to resonate. [01:09:20] And when with young people said a researcher's slide posted internally. Inside Facebook and post said there is a path to growth. If Instagram can continue their trajectory. Amazing. So Facebook's public phase has really tried to downplay all of these negative effects that the Instagram app has on teens, particularly girls, and hasn't made its research public or available to academics or lawmakers who have asked for it. [01:09:54] Quote, the research that we've seen is that using social apps to connect with other people. Positive mental health benefits said mark Zuckerberg. He's the CEO of course of Facebook. Now this was 2020. In March one at a congressional hearing, he was asked about children and mental health. So you see how he really lawyered the words that they can have, can have positive mental health benefits, but Facebook's own internal research seems to show that they know it has a profound negative effect on a large percentage of their users. [01:10:36] Instagram had Adam Moseri told reporters in may of this year, that research he had seen suggest the app's effect on team's wellbeing is likely quote quite small. So what the wall street journal seems to be pointing out here is that Facebook is not giving us the truth on any of this stuff. It's really sad. [01:10:58] We've got to be careful. No, apparently Mr. Moseri also said that he's been pushing very hard for Facebook to really take their responsibilities more broadly. Uh, he says they're proud of this research. I'm just kind of summarizing this before we run out of time here, but it shows the document. Uh, internal documents on Facebook show that they are having a major impact on teen, mental health, political discourse, and even human trafficking. [01:11:36] These, this internal research offers an unparalleled picture. Uh, Courtney told the wall street journal of how Facebook is acutely aware that the products and systems central to its business success routine. Fail great article. I've got it in this week's newsletter. You can just open it up and click through on the link to the wall street journal. [01:12:01] They have a pay wall and I kind of hate to use payroll articles, but this one, this one's well worth it. And they do give you some free articles every month. So if you're not on that newsletter, you can sign up right now. Craig peterson.com. You'll get the next one. If you miss a link today, if you want some, you know, the special report on passwords, et cetera, just email me directly. [01:12:29] Give me a few days to respond. Uh, but me M e@craigpeterson.com. That's me M e@craigpeterson.com. [01:12:41] We've all worked from home from time to time. At least if we're somehow in the information it industry, I want to talk right now about why you need a personal laptop. Even if the business is providing you with a laptop. [01:12:57] Laptops are something that was designed to be personal, but many of us are using them as our main computer. [01:13:06] I know I often am using my laptop, a couple of my kids and my wife. It's really their main computer, even though they all have other computers that they could potentially be using, laptops are just handy and you have them with, you can take them with you. We've got workstation set up that are kind of. [01:13:27] Workstations, if you will, where there are three screens set up and they're all hooked up into one central screen controller that then has a USBC connection that goes right into the, your laptop. So you can be sitting there with four screens on your Mac laptop on your Mac pro if you needed four screens, it's really handy. [01:13:53] No question. Many of us have a laptop for home and a laptop for business. And many of us also look at it and say, oh wow, this is a great laptop I got from work. It's much better than my home laptop. And you start to use the business laptop for work. At home. Okay. That's what it's for. Right. But then we start to use that business laptop for personal stuff. [01:14:25] That's where the problems start. We've seen surveys out there that are shown. Then half of workers are using work issue devices for personal tasks that might be doing it at home. They might be doing it at the office. Things like personal messages, shopping, online, social media, reading the news. So the prospect of using your work laptop as your only laptop, not just for work, but also for maybe watching some movies, group chat and messaging, reading, fan fiction, paying bills, emailing to family or friend. [01:15:06] It just seems not. It's so tempting. It's just natural. I'm on it. I'm on it all day long. Why wouldn't I just use it? And this is particularly true for people who are working from home, but we have to be careful with that. It's really something that you shouldn't be doing for a couple of reasons. One that. [01:15:30] Top that's a business. Laptop is the property of the business. It's just like walking home with boxes, full of pencils and paper back in the old days, it is not yours to use for personal use. We also have to assume, assume since it is the company's laptop that hopefully it's been secure. Hopefully they haven't set up. [01:15:57] So it's going through a special VPN at the office and it's going through special filters, maybe snort filters or something else. That's doing some deeper inspection on what's coming through your laptop. Well, there are also likely on that laptop. Tools that are monitoring your device. Things like key loggers, biometric tracking, Jill location, software that tracks your web browser and social media behavior, screenshot, snapshot software, maybe even your cam. [01:16:34] Is being used to keep track of you. I know a number of the websites that I've used in the past to hire temporary workers. Those workers have to agree to have you monitor what they're doing. These hourly workers, subtle take screenshots of their screen, unbeknownst to them. Yeah. Pictures from the cameras at random intervals. [01:16:58] Again, unbeknownst to them, it'll track what they're doing. And so I can now go in and say, okay, well he billed me five hours for doing this. And I look at his screen and guess what? He wasn't doing that for all of those five hours that he just billed me. Well, the same thing could be true for your company, even if you're not paid by the hour. [01:17:23] Right now, we're looking at stats that show over half of the businesses that are providing laptops for the employees to use more than half of them are using monitoring software. And through this whole lockdown, the usage of these different types of monitoring systems has grown. Now there's some of the programs you're using. [01:17:50] You might be VPN in, you might be using slack or G suite enterprise, all good little pieces of software. They can monitor that obviously, but it goes all the way through to the business. And using your slack access as paid for, by the businesses also idiotic to do things like send messages to your buddies, set up drinks after work, complain to other people about someone else in the business, your boss, or otherwise your it, people at the business can see all of that. [01:18:31] They can see what you're doing with slack. Even if you have a separate personal account. It's still more likely that you'll end up mixing them up if you're logged into both on the same computer. So the bottom line is if you are on a work computer, whether it's a laptop or something else, you can reasonably assume that I T can see everything. [01:18:56] That's not. They own it. Okay. And they have to do some of this stuff to protect themselves. We put software on laptops for companies not to spy on employees. That's none of our business, but we put software on computers for employees. To make sure they stay safe. Think of what happens when your computer, your laptop, whatever it might be connects to the company's network. [01:19:25] Now that can be through a VPN. It can be because you take your laptop home or on the road when you're traveling and you bring it back into the office. If that computer is infected, somehow now you've brought that infection into the office. And that's how a lot of the malware works. It goes from computer to computer. [01

The CultCast
iMac Pro, resurrected! Plus our favorite new gadgets! (CultCast #520)

The CultCast

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 26, 2021 57:23


This week: Apple's next-generation iMac Pro could feature an “M1 Max Duo” chip with 20 cores for processing and up to 64 graphics cores! Plus: we reveal our favorite new gadgets, movies, and shows in an all-new What We're Into. This episode supported by Easily create a beautiful website all by yourself, at Squarespace.com/cultcast. Use offer code CultCast at checkout to get 10% off your first purchase of a website or domain. Cult of Mac's watch store is full of beautiful straps that cost way less than Apple's. See the full curated collection at Store.Cultofmac.com CultCloth will keep your iPhone 12, Apple Watch, iPad, glasses and lenses sparkling clean, and for a limited time use code CULTCAST at checkout to score a free CarryCloth with any order at CultCloth.co. Join us in the CultClub! discord.gg/BrKdnSK 16" M1 Max MacBook Pro vs $15,000 Mac Pro: Embarrassing Apple aims to build self-driving car with no steering wheel. New iMac Pro could pack insane ‘M1 Max Duo' chip with up to 20 CPU cores Apple's next-generation iMac Pro could feature an “M1 Max Duo” chip with 20 cores for processing and up to 64 for graphics, according to a new report. For those who think the M1 Pro and M1 Max in the MacBook Pro are impressive, the new Mac Pro desktop is expected to come in at least two variations For those who think the M1 Pro and M1 Max in the MacBook Pro are impressive, the new Mac Pro desktop is expected to come in at least two variations: 2X and 4X the number of CPU and GPU cores as the M1 Max. That's up to 40 CPU cores and 128 GPU cores on the high-end. Choetech is giving away MagSafe charging stands and a 40% discount code [Cult of Mac Giveaway] Is it a Black Friday sale or a giveaway? This week it's both! Choetech is giving away three MagSafe wireless 2 in 1 charging stands. These minimalist magnetic chargers are perfect for anybody who pairs a MagSafe-compatible iPhone with wirelessly charging AirPods. The best Black Friday deals on Apple's hottest devices It's that time of the year again. Thanksgiving is right around the corner, and the Black Friday discounts are coming in thick and fast. It's the perfect time to do some holiday shopping — especially if you're on the lookout for Apple devices.

PCMR Podcast
Episode 98: CPU & GPU 101 - Part 1 - PC go bee boop

PCMR Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 22, 2021 100:31


Today we learn all about CPUs what they are, what they do and what you should know when making a purchase! This is focused on PC gaming being the main purpose for buying a new CPU. Intro - 00:00:17 Main Topic - 00:02:30 Contact us here: Patreon Website Twitter Email Discord Music used: Intro: Almost Evil (Cyberpunk) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UeAK6P7Gl7w https://inaudio.org/track/almost-evil/ Outro: FORCE GHOSTED ヲちご Star Wars "Force Theme" Remix https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qanlzXvpHDc https://soundcloud.com/f-u-s-i-o-n-4-2

Cybersecurity 101 with Joe and Larry
Episode 20 - The 25th Anniversary of DDoS with Pankaj Gupta from Citrix

Cybersecurity 101 with Joe and Larry

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 22, 2021 38:26


In this episode we discuss the 25th anniversary of the first DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) and why this cybersecurity threat is a tricky one to solve.  00:00 to 2:00 Intro to Pankaj Gupta (@PankajOnCloud,CITRIX) Pankaj leads product and solutions marketing and go to market strategy for cloud, application delivery and security solutions at Citrix. He advises CIOs and business leaders for technology and business model transitions. In prior roles at Cisco, he led networking, cybersecurity and software solution marketing. 2:20 The 25th anniversary of the first Denial of Service attack against Panix, an Internet Service Provider (1996) (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denial-of-service_attack#Distributed_attack) 25 years later, the largest DDoS attack ever recorded targeted  Russian ISP Yandex (https://www.cpomagazine.com/cyber-security/russian-internet-giant-yandex-wards-off-the-largest-botnet-ddos-attack-in-history/). Pankaj notes how this was exactly 25 years later to the month. 3:15 What is a DDoS Attack? 1) Connection overload 2) Volumetric like ICMP flood 3) Application Layer  5:20 Coinminer as an example of Denial of Service when CPU is exhausted 6:00 Why are we still talking about DDoS 25 years later? Pankaj states that they are now easier than ever to perform.  7:00 Larry asks about the connection between ransomware and DDoS 9:00 Pankaj describes how the motivation for DDoS has shifted from hacktivism to financial motivation  9:30 Joe asks how much it costs for an attacker to operate  10:00 Pankaj explains that unskilled attackers with access to the Dark web can orchestrate attacks 11:45 Joe discusses how many attackers target healthcare despite how this hurts people 12:45 Pankaj discusses that while federal laws exist, very few are prosecuted for DDoS attacks. 13:50 Larry asks whether businesses are paying the ransom  14:15 Pankaj says paying the ransom is never recommended. Instead, Pankaj recommends investing in DDoS protection solutions 15:25 Joe asks whether tools exist to quantify costs for downtime to justify the expense of DDoS prevention solutions.  16:30 Pankaj explains how it is not just the economic impact of downtime that is to be factored into the equation but also the damage to reputation by losing customer's trust.  17:30 Pankaj describes three trends that will cause DDoS attacks to increase in the future (things will get worse rather than better). This is due to increased bandwidth for 5G, exponential growth of IoT devices, and the improved computation power.  18:30 What is IoT? (Internet of Things). This is any device that has an internet connection such as a Nanny Camera, home router, or NEST Thermostat. Bad actors exploits vulnerabilities to transform these devices into a “BOT Network” that the attackers can then use in mass quantity against a single target. This forms the source for the DDoS attacks. All of these devices combined will send packets to the victim website.  20:50 What solutions exist for DDoS? Joe explains how he has solved DDoS historically using services from CloudFlare.  22:00 Joe explains how he configured DDoS protection by configuring DNS, and the weakness when attackers discover the direct IP using OSINT 23:15 Joe asks Pankaj how does Citrix compare with competitors  23:35 Pankaj describes four key criteria when selecting a DDoS solution. 1) The solution should protect against a variety of types of DDoS attacks 2) Can the solution scale? As DDoS attacks increase in size 20% Year over Year (it's expected to be 3 terabits). 3) The advantage of a cloud-based solution is that it can auto-scale in bandwidth whereas an on-premises DDoS solution cannot guard against bandwidth saturation.  25:50 Joe asks Pankaj if Citrix uses its own data centers (does it have exposures if data centers like Google, Amazon or Microsoft). Pankaj describes the Citrix solution as having the scale to handle 12 terabits of scrubbing across multiple points of presence (pop).  29:00 Pankaj describes two types of DDoS solutions, Always-ON, or On-Demand.  If you are an e-commerce website then Always-on may make more sense even though it costs more than on-demand because every minute that you cannot sell your products will lose money.  31:00 DDoS attacks can be a diversion tactic to distract IT and SECOPS teams so that the attackers can perform other types of attacks such as financial fraud (Wire Fraud, SWIFT, etc) 32:40 Larry asks: What is the difference between a buffer overflow and DDoS? Pankaj explains that a buffer overflow could be used as a type of DDoS since it could impact the availability of the service. 34:00 Joe describes how DDoS strikes at the heart of one of the three components of the CIA Triad “Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability.”  35:00 For businesses interested in learning more about Citrix solutions, Pankaj recommends using this contact form on the Citrix website: https://www.citrix.com/contact/form/inquiry/ 36:30 Joe asks what market is Citrix chasing: Small Business, Mid-Market or Enterprise? Pankaj responds that all businesses need DDoS protection, and how cloud-based solutions are easier to implement.   

Záznamy z klubovny
Hardware Club #74

Záznamy z klubovny

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 19, 2021 81:00


Už v minulém roce ukázal nový čip M1 z dílny Apple, že s ARMem jako platformou pro osobní PC je třeba počítat. Přitom dosud panovala představa, že nízkonapěťové ARMy mají své místo především v mobilních zařízeních nebo serverech, zatímco v počítačích dominují CPU x86. Letošní evoluce v podobě čipu M1 Pro a M1 Max ale naznačují, že by to v budoucnu mohlo být jinak. Co stojí za úspěchem nového procesoru a jak to Apple dokázal?

WIRED Security: News, Advice, and More
Another Intel Chip Flaw Puts a Slew of Gadgets at Risk

WIRED Security: News, Advice, and More

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 19, 2021 7:39


The vulnerability allows an attacker with physical access to the CPU to bypass the security measures protecting some of its most sensitive data.

Screaming in the Cloud
Cutting Cloud Costs at Cloudflare with Matthew Prince

Screaming in the Cloud

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 16, 2021 48:08


About MatthewMatthew Prince is co-founder and CEO of Cloudflare. Cloudflare's mission is to help build a better Internet. Today the company runs one of the world's largest networks, which spans more than 200 cities in over 100 countries. Matthew is a World Economic Forum Technology Pioneer, a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, winner of the 2011 Tech Fellow Award, and serves on the Board of Advisors for the Center for Information Technology and Privacy Law. Matthew holds an MBA from Harvard Business School where he was a George F. Baker Scholar and awarded the Dubilier Prize for Entrepreneurship. He is a member of the Illinois Bar, and earned his J.D. from the University of Chicago and B.A. in English Literature and Computer Science from Trinity College. He's also the co-creator of Project Honey Pot, the largest community of webmasters tracking online fraud and abuse.Links: Cloudflare: https://www.cloudflare.com Blog post: https://blog.cloudflare.com/aws-egregious-egress/ Bandwidth Alliance: https://www.cloudflare.com/bandwidth-alliance/ Announcement of R2: https://blog.cloudflare.com/introducing-r2-object-storage/ Blog.cloudflare.com: https://blog.cloudflare.com Duckbillgroup.com: https://duckbillgroup.com TranscriptAnnouncer: Hello, and welcome to Screaming in the Cloud with your host, Chief Cloud Economist at The Duckbill Group, Corey Quinn. This weekly show features conversations with people doing interesting work in the world of cloud, thoughtful commentary on the state of the technical world, and ridiculous titles for which Corey refuses to apologize. This is Screaming in the Cloud.Corey: Writing ad copy to fit into a 30 second slot is hard, but if anyone can do it the folks at Quali can. Just like their Torque infrastructure automation platform can deliver complex application environments anytime, anywhere, in just seconds instead of hours, days or weeks. Visit Qtorque.io today and learn how you can spin up application environments in about the same amount of time it took you to listen to this ad.Corey: This episode is sponsored in part by Honeycomb. When production is running slow, it's hard to know where problems originate: is it your application code, users, or the underlying systems? I've got five bucks on DNS, personally. Why scroll through endless dashboards, while dealing with alert floods, going from tool to tool to tool that you employ, guessing at which puzzle pieces matter? Context switching and tool sprawl are slowly killing both your team and your business. You should care more about one of those than the other, which one is up to you. Drop the separate pillars and enter a world of getting one unified understanding of the one thing driving your business: production. With Honeycomb, you guess less and know more. Try it for free at Honeycomb.io/screaminginthecloud. Observability, it's more than just hipster monitoring.Corey: Welcome to Screaming in the Cloud, I'm Corey Quinn. Today, my guest is someone I feel a certain kinship with, if for no other reason than I spend the bulk of my time antagonizing AWS incredibly publicly. And my guest periodically descends into the gutter with me to do the same sort of things. The difference is that I'm a loudmouth with a Twitter account and Matthew Prince is the co-founder and CEO of Cloudflare, which is, of course, publicly traded. Matthew, thank you for deigning to speak with me today. I really appreciate it.Matthew: Corey, it's my pleasure, and appreciate you having me on.Corey: So, I'm mostly being facetious here, but not entirely, in that you have very publicly and repeatedly called out some of the same things I love calling out, which is AWS's frankly egregious egress pricing. In fact, that was a title of a blog post that you folks put out, and it was so well done I'm ashamed I didn't come up with it myself years ago. But it's something that is resonating with a large number of people in very specific circumstances as far as what their company does. Talk to me a little bit about that. Cloudflare is a CDN company and increasingly looking like something beyond that. Where do you stand on this? What got you on this path?Matthew: I was actually searching through really old emails to find something the other day, and I found a message from all the way back in 2009, so actually even before Michelle and I had come up with a name for Cloudflare. We were really just trying to understand the pricing on public clouds and breaking it all down. How much does the compute cost? How much does storage cost? How much does bandwidth cost?And we kept running the numbers over and over and over again, and the storage and compute costs actually seemed relatively reasonable and you could understand it, but the economics behind the bandwidth just made no sense. It was clear that as bandwidth usage grew and you got scale that your costs eventually effectively went to zero. And I think it was that insight that led to us starting Cloudflare. And the self-service plans at Cloudflare have always been unlimited bandwidth, and from the beginning, we didn't charge for bandwidth. People told us at the time we were crazy to not do that, but I think that that realization, that over time and at scale, bandwidth costs do go to zero is really core to who Cloudflare is.Cloudflare launched a little over 11 years ago now, and as we've watched the various public clouds and AWS in particular just really over that same 11 years not only not follow the natural price of bandwidth down, but really hold their costs steady. At some point, we've got a lot of mutual customers and it's a complaint that we hear from our mutual customers all the time, and we decided that we should do something about it. And so that started four years ago, when we launched the Bandwidth Alliance, and worked with almost all the major public clouds with the exception of Amazon, to say that if someone is sending traffic from a public cloud network to Cloudflare's network, we're not going to charge them for the bandwidth. It's going across a piece of fiber optic cable that yeah, there's some cost to put it in place and maybe there's some maintenance costs associated with it, but there's not—Corey: And the equipment at the end costs money, but it's not cloud cost; it just cost on a per second, every hour of your lifetime basis. It's a capital expense that is amortized across a number of years et cetera, et cetera.Matthew: And it's a fixed cost. It's not a variable cost. You put that fiber optic cable and you use a port on a router on each side. There's cost associated with that, but it's relatively de minimis. And so we said, “If it's not costing us anything and it's not costing a cloud provider anything, why are we charging customers for that?”And I think it's an argument that resonated with almost every other provider that was out there. And so Google discounts traffic when it's sent to us, Microsoft discounts traffic when it's sent to us, and we just announced that Oracle has joined this discounting their traffic, which was already some of the most cost-effective bandwidth from any cloud provider.Corey: Oh, yeah. Oracle's fantastic. As you were announced, I believe today, the fact that they're joining the Bandwidth Alliance is both fascinating and also, on some level, “Okay. It doesn't matter as much because their retail starting cost is 10% of Amazon's.” You have to start pushing an awful lot of traffic relative to what you would do AWS before it starts to show up. It's great to see.Matthew: And the fact that they're taking that down to effectively zero if you're using us is even better, right? And I think it again just illustrates how Amazon's really alone in this at being so egregious in how they do that. And it's, when we've done the math to calculate what their markups are, it's almost 80 times what reasonable assumptions on what their wholesale costs are. And so we really do believe in fighting for our customers and being customer-centric, and this seems like a place where—again, Amazon provides an incredible service and so many things, but the data transfer costs are just completely outrageous. And I'm glad that you're calling them out on it, and I'm glad we're calling them out on it and I think increasingly they look isolated and very anti-customer.Corey: What's interesting to me is that ingress to AWS at all the large public tier-one cloud providers is free. Which has led, I think, to the assumption—real or not—that bandwidth doesn't actually cost anything, whereas going outbound, all I can assume is that one day, some Amazon VP was watching a rerun of Meet the Parents and they got to the line where Ben Stiller says, “Oh, you can milk anything with nipples,” and said, “Holy crap. Our customers all have nipples; we can milk them with egress charges.” And here we are. As much as I think the cloud empowers some amazing stuff, the egress charges are very much an Achilles heel to a point where it starts to look like people won't even consider public cloud for certain workloads based upon that.People talk about how Netflix is a great representation of the ideal AWS customers. Yeah, but they don't stream a single byte to customers from AWS. They have their own CDN called Open Connect that they put all around the internet, specifically for that use case because it would bankrupt them otherwise.Matthew: If you're a small customer, bandwidth does cost something because you have to pay someone to do the work of interconnecting with all of the various networks that are out there. If you start to be, though, a large customer—like a Cloudflare, like an AWS, like an Azure—that is sending serious traffic to the internet, then it starts to actually be in the interest of ISPs to directly interconnect with you, and the costs of your bandwidth over time will approach zero. And that's the just economic reality of how bandwidth pricing works. I think that the confusion, to some extent, comes from all of us having bought our own home internet connection. And I think that the fact that you get more bandwidth up in most internet connections, and you get down, people think that there's some physics, which is associated with that.And there are; that turns out just to be the legacy of the cable system that was really designed to send pictures down to your—Corey: It wasn't really a listening post. Yeah.Matthew: Right. And so they have dedicated less capacity for up and again, in-home network connections, that makes a ton of sense, but that's not how internet connections work globally. In fact, you pay—you get a symmetric connection. And so if they can demonstrate that it's free to take the traffic in, we can't figure out any reason that's not simply about customer lock-in; why you would charge to take data out, but you wouldn't charge to put it in. Because actually cost more from writing data to a disk, it costs more than reading it from a disk.And so by all reasonable accounts, if they were actually charging based on what their costs were, they would charge for ingress but they want to charge for egress. But the approach that we've taken is to say, “For standard bandwidth, we just aren't going to charge for it.” And we do charge for if you use our premium routing services, which is something called Argo, but even then it's relatively cheap compared with what is just standard kind of internet connectivity that's out there. And as we see more of the clouds like Microsoft and Google and Oracle show that this is a place where they can be much more customer-centric and customer-friendly, over time I'm hopeful that will put pressure on Amazon and they will eliminate their egress fees.Corey: People also tend to assume that when I talk about this, that I'm somehow complaining about the level of discounting or whatnot, and they yell at me and say, “Oh, well, you should know by now, Corey, that no one at significant scale pays retail pricing.” “Thanks, professor. I appreciate that, but four years ago, or so I sat down with a startup founder who was sketching out the idea for a live video streaming service and said, ‘There's something wrong with my math because if I built this on AWS—which he knew very well, incidentally—it looks like it would cost me at our scale of where we're hoping to hit $65,000 a minute.'” And I checked and yep, sure enough, his math was not wrong, so he obviously did not build his proof of concept on top of AWS. And the last time I checked, they had raised several 100 million dollars in a bunch of different funding rounds.That is a company now that will not be on AWS because it was never an option. I want to talk as well about your announcement of R2, which is just spectacular. It is—please correct me if I get any of this wrong—it's an object store that lives in your existing distributed-points-of-presence-slash-data-centers-slash-colo-slash-a-bunch-of-computers-in-fancy-warehouse-rooms-with-the-lights-are-always-on-And-it's-always-cold-and-noisy. And people can store data there—Matthew: [crosstalk 00:10:23] aisles it's cold; in the other aisles, it's hot. But yes.Corey: Exactly. But it turns out when you lurk around to the hot aisle, that's not where all the buttons are and the things you're able to plug into, so it's freeze or sweat, and there's never a good answer. But it's an object store that costs a fair bit less than retail pricing for Amazon S3, or most other object stores out there. Which, okay, great. That's always good to see competition in the storage space, but specifically, you're not charging any data transfer costs whatsoever for doing this. First, where did this come from?Matthew: So, we needed it ourselves. I think all of the great products at Cloudflare start with an internal need. If you look at why do we build our zero-trust solutions? It's because we said we needed a security solution that was fast and reliable and secure to protect our employees as they were going out and using the internet.Why did we build Cloudflare Workers? Because we needed a very flexible compute platform where we could build systems ourselves. And that's not unique to us. I mean, why did Amazon build AWS? They built it because they needed those tools in order to continue to grow and expand as quickly as possible.And in fact, I think if you look at the products that Google makes that are really great, it ends up being the ones that Google's employees use themselves. Gmail started as Caribou once upon a time, which was their internal email system. And so we needed an object store and the sometimes belligerent CEO of Cloudflare insisted that our team couldn't use any of the public cloud object stores. And so we had to build it.That was the start of it and we've been using it internally for products over time. It powers, for example, Cloudflare Images, it powers a lot of our streaming video services, and it works great. And at some point, we said, “Can we take this and make it available to everyone?” The question that you've asked on Twitter, and I think a lot of people reasonably ask us, “What's the catch?”Corey: Well, in my defense, I think it's fair. There was an example that I gave of, “Okay, I'm going to go ahead and keep—because it's new, I don't trust new object stores. Great. I'm going to do the same experiment twice, keep one the pure AWS story and the other, I'm just going to add Cloudflare R2 to the mix so that I have to transfer out of AWS once.” For a one gigabyte file that gets shared out for a petabyte's worth of bandwidth, on AWS it costs roughly $52,000 to do that. If I go with the R2 solution, it cost me 13 cents, all of which except for a penny-and-a-half are AWS charges. And that just feels—when you're looking at that big of a gap, it's easy to look at that and think, “Okay, someone is trying to swindle me somewhere. And when you can't spot the sucker, it's probably me. What's the catch?”Matthew: I guess it's not really a catch; it's an explanation. We have been able to drive our bandwidth costs down low enough that in that particular use case, we have to store the file, and that, again, that—there's a hard disk in there and we replicate it to make sure that it's available so it's not just one hard disk, but it's multiple hard disks in various places, but that amortized over time, isn't that big a cost. And then bandwidth is effectively zero. And so if we can do that, then that's great.Maybe a different way of framing the question is like, “Why would we do that?” And I think what we see is that there is an opportunity for customers to be able to use the best of various cloud providers and hook the different parts together. So, people talk about multi-cloud all the time, and for a while, the way that I think people thought about that was you take the exact same workload and you run it in Azure and AWS. That turns out not to be—I mean, maybe some people do that, but it's super rare and it's incredibly hard.Corey: It has been a recurring theme of most things I say where, by default, that is one of the dumbest things I can imagine.Matthew: Yeah, that isn't good. But what people do want to do is they want to say, “Listen, there's some really great services that Amazon provides; we want to use those. And there's some really great services that Azure provides, and we want to use those. And Google's got some great machine learning, and so does IBM. And I want to sort of mix and match the various pieces together.”And the challenge in doing that is the egress fees. If everyone just had a detente and said there's going to be no egress fees for us to be able to hook these various [pits 00:14:48] together, then you would be able to take advantage of a lot of the different technologies and we would actually get stronger applications. And so the vision of what we're trying to build is how can we be the fabric that can stitch the various cloud providers together so that you can do that. And when we looked at that, and we said, “Okay, what's the path to getting there?” The big place where there's the just meatiest cost on egress fees is object stores.And so if you could have a centralized object store, and you can say then from that object go use whatever the best service is at Amazon, go use whatever the best service is at Google, go use whatever the best service is at Azure, that then allows, I think, actually people to take advantage of the cloud in a way which is what people really should mean when they talk about multi-cloud. Which is, there should be competition on the various features themselves, and you should be able to pick and choose the best of all of the different bits. And I think we as consumers then benefit from that. And so when we're looking at how we can strategically enable that future, building an object store was a real key part of that, and that's part of what we're doing. Now, how do we make money off of that? Well, there's a little bit off the storage, and again, even [laugh]—Corey: Well, that is the Amazonian answer there. It's like, “Your margin is my opportunity,” is a famous Bezos quote, and I figure you're sitting there saying, “Ah, it would cost $52,000 to do that in Amazon. Ah, we can make a penny-and-a-half.” That's very Amazonian, you could probably get hired over there with that philosophy.Matthew: Yeah. And this is a commodity service, just [laugh] storing data. If you look across the history of what Cloudflare has done, in 2014, we made encryption free because it's absurd to pay for math, right? I mean, it's just crazy right?Corey: Or to pay for security as a value-add. No, that should be baked into whatever you're doing, in an ideal world.Matthew: Domain registration. Like, it's writing something down in a ledger. It's a commodity; of course it should go to whatever the absolute cost is. On the other hand, there are things that we do that aren't commodities where we are able to better protect people because we see so much traffic, and we've built the machine learning models, and we've done those things, and so we charge for those things. So commodities, we think over time, go to effectively, whatever their cost is, and then the value is in the actual intelligent services that are on top of it.But an object store is a commodity and so we should be trying to drive that pricing down. And in the case of bandwidth, it's effectively free for us. And so if we can be that fabric that connects the different class together, I think that makes sense is a strategy for us and that's why R2 made a ton of sense for us to build and to launch.Corey: There seems to be a lack of ability for lots of folks, at least on the internet to imagine a use case other than theirs. I cheated by being a consultant, I get to borrow other people's use cases at a high degree of turnover. But the question I saw raised was, “Well, how many workloads really do that much egress from static objects that don't change? Doesn't sound like there'd be a whole lot of them.” And it's, “Oh, my sweet summer child. Sure, your app doesn't do a lot of that, but let me introduce it to my friends who are hosting videos on their website, for example, or large images that get accessed a whole bunch of times; things that are written once and then read forever by the internet.”Matthew: And we sit in a position where because of the role that Cloudflare plays where we sit in front of a number of these different cloud providers, we could actually look at the use cases and the data, and then build products in order to solve that. And that's why we started with Workers; that's why we then built the KV store that was on top of that; we built object-store next. And so you can see as we're sort of marching through these things, it is very much being informed by the data that we actually see from real customers. And one of the things that I really like about R2 is in exactly the example that you gave where you can keep everything in S3; you can set R2 in front of it and put it in slurp mode, and effectively it just—as those objects get pulled out, it starts storing them there. And so the migration path is super easy; you don't have to actually change anything about your application and will cut your bills substantially.And so I think that's the right thing to enable a multi-cloud world where, again, it's not you're running the exact same workload in different places, but you get to take advantage of the really great tack that all of these companies are building and use that. And then the companies will compete on building that tech well. So, it's not just about how do I get the data in and then kind of underinvest in all of the different services that I provide. It's how can we make sure that on a service-by-service basis, you actually are having real competition over time. And again, I think that's the right thing for customers, and absolutely R2 might not be the right thing for every use case that's out there, but I think that it wi—enabling more competition is going to make the cloud better for everyone.Corey: Oh, yeah. It's always fun hearing it from Amazonians. It's, “You have a service that talks to satellites in orbit. You really think that's a general-purpose thing that every company out there has to deal with?” No. Well, not yet, anyway.It also just feels to me like their transfer approach is antithetical to almost every other aspect of how they have built their cloud. Amazonians have told me repeatedly—I believe them—that their network is effectively magic. The fact that you can get near line rate between any two points without melting various [unintelligible 00:20:14], which shows that there was significant thought, work, effort, planning, technology, et cetera, put into the network. And I don't dispute that. But if I'm trying to build a workload and put it inside of AWS, I can control how it performs tied to budget; I can have a lot of RAM for things that are memory intensive, or I can have a little RAM; I can have great CPU performance or terrible CPU performance.The challenge with data transfer is it is uniformly great. “I want to get that data over there super quickly.” Yeah, awesome. I'm fine paying a premium for that. But I have this pile of data right here. I want to get it over there, ideally by Tuesday. There's no good way to do that, even with their Snowball—or Snow Family devices—when you fill them with data and send them into AWS, yeah, that's great. Then you just pay for the use of the device.Use them to send data out of AWS, they tack on an additional per-gigabyte fee for getting the data out. You're training as a lawyer, you went to the same law school that my wife did, the University of Chicago, which, oh, interesting stories down that path. But if we look at this, my argument is that the way to do an end-run around this is to sue Amazon for something, and then demand access to the data you have living in their environment during discovery. Make them give it to you for free, though, they'd probably find a way to charge it there, too. It's just a complete lack of vision and lack of awareness because it feels like they're milking a cash cow until it dies.Matthew: Yeah, they probably would charge for it and you'd also have to pay a lot of lawyers. So, I'm not sure that's the cost [crosstalk 00:21:44]—Corey: Its only works above certain volumes, I figure.Matthew: I do think that if your pricing strategy is designed to lock people in to prevent competition, then that does create other challenges. And there are certainly some University of Chicago law professors out there that have spent their careers arguing why antitrust laws don't make any sense, but I think that this is definitely one of those areas where you can see very clearly that customers are actually being harmed by the pricing strategy that's there. And the pricing strategy is not tied in any way to the underlying costs which are associated with that. And so I do think that, especially as you see other providers in the space—like Oracle—taking their bandwidth costs to effectively zero, that's the sort of thing that I think will have regulators start to scratch their heads. If tomorrow, AWS took egress costs to zero, and as a result, R2 was not as advantaged as it is today against them, you know, I think there are a lot of people who would say, “Oh, they showed Cloudflare.” I would do a happy dance because that's the best thing [thing they can do 00:22:52] for our customers.Corey: Our long-term goals, it sounds like, are relatively aligned. People think that I want to see AWS reign ascendant; people also say I want to see them burning and crashing into the sea, and neither one of those are true. What I want is, I want someone in a few years from now to be doing a startup and trying to figure out which cloud provider they should pick, and I want that to be a hard decision. Ideally, if you wind up reducing data transfer fees enough, it doesn't even have to be only one. There are stories that starts to turn into an actual realistic multi-cloud story that isn't, at its face, ridiculous. But right now, you have to pick a horse and ride it, for a variety of reasons. And I don't like that.Matthew: It's entirely egress-based. And again, I think that customers are better off if they are able to pick who is the best service at any time. And that is what encourages innovation. And over time, that's even what's good for the various cloud providers because it's what keeps them being valuable and keeps their customers thinking that they're building something which is magical and that they aren't trapped in the decision that they made, which is when we talk to a lot of the customers today, they feel that way. And it's I think part of why something like R2 and something like the Bandwidth Alliance has gotten so much attention because it really touches a nerve on what's frustrating customers today. And if tomorrow Amazon announced that they were eliminating egress fees and going head-to-head with R2, again, I think that's a wonderful outcome. And one that I think is unlikely, but I would celebrate it if it happened.Corey: This episode is sponsored by our friends at Oracle Cloud. Counting the pennies, but still dreaming of deploying apps instead of "Hello, World" demos? Allow me to introduce you to Oracle's Always Free tier. It provides over 20 free services and infrastructure, networking databases, observability, management, and security.And - let me be clear here - it's actually free. There's no surprise billing until you intentionally and proactively upgrade your account. This means you can provision a virtual machine instance or spin up an autonomous database that manages itself all while gaining the networking load, balancing and storage resources that somehow never quite make it into most free tiers needed to support the application that you want to build.With Always Free you can do things like run small scale applications, or do proof of concept testing without spending a dime. You know that I always like to put asterisks next to the word free. This is actually free. No asterisk. Start now. Visit https://snark.cloud/oci-free that's https://snark.cloud/oci-free.Corey: My favorite is people who don't do research on this stuff. They wind up saying, “Oh, yeah. Cloudflare is saying that bandwidth is a fixed cost. Of course not. They must be losing their shirt on this.”You are a publicly-traded company. Your gross margins are 76% or 77%, depending upon whether we're talking about GAAP or non-GAAP. Point being, you are clearly not selling this at a loss and hoping to make it up in volume. That's what a VC-backed company does. Is something that is real and as accurate.I want to, on some level, I guess, low-key apologize because I keep viewing Cloudflare through a lens that is increasingly inaccurate, which is as a CDN. But you've had Cloudflare Workers for a while, effectively Functions as a Service that run at the edge, which has this magic aura around it, that do various things, which is fascinating to me. You're launching R2; it feels like you are in some ways aiming at becoming a cloud provider, but instead of taking the traditional approach of building it from the region's outward, you're building it from the outward in. Is that a fair characterization?Matthew: I think that's right. I think fundamentally what Cloudflare is, is a network. And I remember early on in the pandemic, we did a series of fireside chats with people we thought we could learn from. And so was everyone from Andre Iguodala, the basketball player, to Mark Cuban, the entrepreneur, to we had a [unintelligible 00:25:56] governor and all kinds of things. And we these were just internal on off the record.And I got to do one with Eric Schmidt, the former CEO of Google. And I said, “You know, Eric, one of the things that we struggle with is describing what is Cloudflare.” And without hesitation, he said, “Oh, that's easy. You're the network I plug into and don't have to worry about anything else.” And I think that's better than I could say it, myself, and I think that's what it is that we fundamentally are: we're the network that fits together.Now, it turns out that in the process of being that network and enabling that network, we are going to build things like R2, which start to be an object store and starts to sort of step into some of the cloud provider space. And Workers is really just a way of programming that network in order to do that, but it turns out that there are a bunch of workloads that if you move them into the network itself, make sense—not going to be every workload, but a lot of workloads that makes sense there. And again, I think that you can actually be very bullish on all of the big public cloud providers and bullish on Cloudflare at the same time because what we want to do is enable the ability for people to mix and match, and change, and be the fabric that connects all of those things together. And so over time, if Amazon says, “We're going to drop egress fees,” it may be that R2 isn't a product that exists—I don't think they're going to do that, so I think it's something that is going to be successful for us and get a lot of new users to us—but fundamentally, I think that where the traditional public clouds think of themselves as the place you put data and you process data, I think we think of ourselves as the place you move data. And that's somewhat different.That then translates into it as we're building out the different pieces, where it does feel like we're building from the outside in. And it may be that over time, that put versus move distinction becomes narrower and narrower as we build more and more services like R2, and durable objects, and KV, and we're working on a database, and all those things. And it could be that we converge in a similar place.Corey: One thing I really appreciate about your vision because it is so atypical these days, is that you aren't trying to build the multifunction printer of companies. You are not trying to be all things to all people in every scenario. Which is impossible to do, but companies are still trying their level best to do it. You are staking out the bounds of where you were willing to start and where you're willing to stop, in a variety of different ways. I would be—how do I put it?—surprised if you at some point in the next five years come out with, “And this is our own database that we have built out that directly competes with the following open-source project that we basically have implemented their API and gone down that particular path.” It does not sound like it is in your core wheelhouse at that point. You don't need—to my understanding—to write your own database engine in order to do what you do.Matthew: Maybe. I mean, we actually are kind of working on a database because—Corey: Oh, no, here we go again.Matthew: [laugh]—and yeah—in a couple of different ways. So, the first way is, we want to make sure that if you're using Workers, you can connect to whatever database you want to use anywhere in the world. And that's something that's coming and we'll be there. At the same time, the challenge of distributed computing turns out not to be the computing, it turns out to be the data and figuring out how to—CAP theorem is real, right? Consistency, Availability, and Partition tolerance; you can pick any two out of the three, but you can't get all three.And so you there's always going to be some trade-off that's there. And so we don't see a lot of good examples. There's some really cool companies that are working on things in the space, but we don't see a lot of really good examples of who has built a database that can be run on a distributed workload system, like Cloudflare to it do well. And so our team internally needs that, and so we're trying to figure out how to build it for ourselves, and I would imagine that after we build it for ourselves—if it works the way we expect it will—that that will then be something that we open up.Our motivation and the way we think about products is we need to build the tools for our own team. Our team itself is customer zero, and then some of those things are very specific to us, but every once in a while, when there are functions that makes sense for others, then we'll build them as well. And that does maybe risk being the multifunction printer, but again, I think that because the customer for that starts with ourselves, that's how we think about it. And if there's someone else's making a great tool, we'll use that. But in this case, we don't see anyone that's built a multi-tenant, globally-distributed, ACID-compliant relational database.Corey: I can't let it pass on challenge. Sure they have, and you're running it yourself. DNS: the finest database in the world. You stuff whatever you want to text records, and now you have taken a finely crafted wrench and turned it into a barely acceptable hammer, which is what I love about doing that terrible approach. Yeah, relational is not going to quite work that way. But—Matthew: Yes. That's a fancy key-value store, right? So—and we've had that for a long time. As we're trying to build those things up, the good news is that, again, we've run data at scale for quite some time and proven that we can do it efficiently and reliably.Corey: There's a lot that can be said about building the things you need to deliver your product to customers. And maybe a database is a poor example here, but I don't see that your motivation in this space is to step into something completely outside your areas of expertise solely because there's money to be made over there. Well, yeah, fortune passes everywhere. The question is, which are you best positioned to wind up delivering an actual transformative solution to that space, and what parts of it are just rent-seeking where it's okay, we're going to go and wherever the money is, we're chasing that down.Matthew: Yeah, we're still a for-profit business, and we've been able to grow revenue well, but I think it is that what motivates us and what drives us comes back to our mission, which is how do you help build a better internet? And you can look at every single thing that we've done, and we try to be very long-term-oriented. So, for instance, when we in 2014 made encryption free, the number one reason at the time, when people upgraded for the free version of our service, the paid version of our service is they got encryption for that. And so it was super scary to say, “Hey, we're going to take the biggest feature and give it away for free,” but it was clearly the direction of history and we wanted to be on the right side of history. And we considered it a bug that the internet wasn't built in an encrypted way from the beginning.So, of course, that was going to head that direction. And so I think that we and then subsequently Let's Encrypt, and a bunch of others have said, it's absurd that you're charging for math. And again, I think that's a good example of how we think about products. And we want to continue to disrupt ourselves and take the things that once upon a time were reserved for our customers that spend $10 million-plus with us, and we want to keep pushing those things down because, over time, the real opportunity is if you do right by customers, there will be plenty of ways that you can earn some of their budget. And again, we think that is the long-term winning strategy.Corey: I would agree with this. You're not out there making sneakers and selling them because you see people spend a lot of money on that; you're delivering value for customers. I say this as one of your paying customers. I have zero problem paying you every month like clockwork, and it is the least cloud-like experience because I know exactly what the bill is going to be in advance, which is apparently not how things should be done in this industry, yadda, yadda, yadda. It is a refreshingly delightful experience every time.The few times I've had challenges with the service, it has almost always been a—I'll call it a documentation gap, where the way it was explained in the formal documentation was not how I conceptualize things, which, again, explaining what these complex things are to folks who are not steeped in certain areas of them is always going to be a challenge. But I cannot think back to a single customer service failure I've had with you folks. I can't look back at any point where you have failed me as a customer, which is a strange thing to say, given how incredibly efficient I am at stumbling over weird bugs.Matthew: Terrific to have you as a customer. We are hardly perfect and we make mistakes, but one of the things I think that we try to do and one of the core values of Cloudflare is transparency. If I think about, like, the original sins of tech, a lot of it is this bizarre secrecy which pervades the entire industry. When we make mistakes, we talk about them, and we explain them. When there's an error, we don't throw up a white page; we put up a page that has our logo on it because we want to own it.And that sometimes gets blowback because you're in front of it, but again, I think it's the right thing to do for customers. And it's and I think it's incredibly important. One of the things that's interesting is you mentioned that you know what your bill is going to be. If you go back and look at the history of hosting on the internet, in the early days of internet hosting, it looks a lot like AWS.Corey: Oh, 95th percentile transit billing; go for one five minutes segment over and boom, your bill explodes. Oh, I remember those days. Unkindly.Matthew: And it was super complicated. And then what happened is the hosting world switched from this incredibly complicated billing to much more simplified, predictable, unlimited bandwidth with maybe some asterisks, but largely that was in place. And then it's strange that Amazon came along and then has brought us back to the more complicated world that's out there. I would have predicted that that's a sine wave—Corey: It has to be. I mean—Matthew: —and it's going to go back and forth over time. But I would have predicted that we would be more in the direction of coming back toward simplify, everything included. And again, I think that's how we've priced our things from the beginning. I'm surprised that it has held on as long as it has, but I do think that there's going to be an opportunity for—and I don't think Amazon will be the leader here, but I think there will be an opportunity for one of the big clouds.And again, I think Oracle is probably doing this the best of any of them right now—to say, “How can we go away from that complexity? How can we make bills predictable? How can we not nickel and dime everything, but allow you to actually forecast and budget?” And it just seems like that's the natural arc of history, and we will head back toward that. And, again, I think we've done our part to push that along. And I'm excited that other cloud providers seem to be thinking about that now as well.Corey: Oh, yeah. What I do with fixing AWS bills is the same thing folks were doing in the 70s and 80s with long-distance bills for companies. We're definitely hitting that sine wave. I know that if I were at AWS in a leadership role, I would be actively embarrassed that the company that is delivering a better customer experience around financial things is Oracle of all companies, given their history of audits and surprising people and the rest. It is ridiculous to me.One last topic that I want to cover with you before we call it an episode is, back in college, you had a thesis that you have done an excellent job of effectively eliminating from the internet. And the theme of this, to my understanding, was that the internet is a fad. And I am so aligned with that because I'm someone who has said for years that emerging technologies are fads. I've said it about cloud, about virtualization, about containers. And I just skipped Kubernetes. And now I'm all-in on serverless, which means, of course it's going to fail because I'm always wrong on these things. But tell me about that.Matthew: When I was seven years old in 1980, my grandmother gave me an Apple ][+ computer for Christmas. And I took to it like a just absolute duck to water and did things that made me very popular in junior high school, like going to computer camp. And my mom used to sign up for continuing education classes at the local university in computer science, and basically sneak me in, and I'd do all the homework and all that. And I remember when I got to college, there was a small group of students that would come around and help other students set their computer up, and I had it all set up and was involved. And so, got pretty deeply involved in the computer science program at college.And then I remember there was a group of three other students—so they were four of us—and they wanted to start an online digital magazine. And at the time, this was pre-web, or right in the early days of the web; it was sort of nineteen… ninety-three. And we built it originally on old Apple technology called HyperCard. And we used to email out the old HyperCard stacks. And the HyperCard stacks kept getting bigger and bigger and bigger, and we'd send them out to the school so [laugh] that we—so we kept crashing the mail servers.But the college loved this, so they kept buying bigger and bigger mail servers. But they were—at some point, they said, “This won't scale. You got to switch technologies.” And they introduced us to two different groups. One was a printer company based out in San Francisco that had this technology called PDF. And I was a really big fan of PDF. I thought PDF was the future, it was definitely going to be how everything got published.And then the other was this group of dorky graduate students at the University of Illinois that had this thing called a browser, which was super flaky, and crashed all the time, and didn't work. And so of the four of us, I was the one who voted for PDF and the other three were like, “Actually, I think this HTML thing is going to be a hit.” And we built this. We won an award from Wired—which was only a print magazine at the time—that called us the first online-only weekly publication. And it was such a struggle to get anyone to write for it because browsers sucked and, you know, trying to get students on campus, but no one on campus cared.We would get these emails from the other side of the world, where I remember really clearly is this—in broken English—email from Japan saying, “I love the magazine. Please keep writing more for the magazine.” And I remember thinking at the time, “Why do I care if someone in Japan is reading this if the girl down the hall who I have a crush on isn't?” Which is obviously what motivates dorky college students like myself. And at that same time, you saw all of this internet explosion.I remember the moment when Netscape went public and just blew through all the expectations. And it was right around the time I was getting ready to graduate for college, and I was kind of just burned out on the entire thing. And I thought, “If I can't even get anyone to write for this dopey magazine and yet we're winning awards, like, this stuff has to all just be complete garbage.” And so wrote a thesis on—ehh, it was not a very good [laugh] thesis. It's—but one of the things I said was that largely the internet was a fad, and that if it wasn't, that it had some real risks because if you enabled everyone to connect with whatever their weird interests and hobbies were, that you would very quickly fall to the lowest common denominator. And predicted some things that haven't come true. I thought for sure that you would have both a liberal and conservative search engine. And it's a miracle to this day, I think that doesn't exist.Corey: Now, that you said it, of course, it's going to.Matthew: Well, I don't know I've… [sigh] we'll see. But it is pretty amazing that Google has been able to, again, thread that line and stay largely apolitical. I'm surprised there aren't more national search engines; the fact that it only Russia and China have national search engines and France and Germany don't is just strange to me. It seems like if you're controlling the source of truth and how people find it, that seems like something that governments would try and take over. There are some things that in retrospect, look pretty wise, but there were a lot more things that looked really, really stupid. And so I think at some level, I had to build Cloudflare to atone for that stupidity all those years ago.Corey: There's something to be said for looking back and saying, “Yeah, I had an opinion, and with the light of new information, I am changing my opinion.” For some reason, in some circles, it feels like that gets interpreted as a sign of weakness, but I couldn't disagree more, it's, “Well, I had an opinion based upon what I saw at the time. Turns out, I was wrong, and here we are.” I really wish more people were capable of doing that.Matthew: It's one of the things we test for in hiring. And I think the characteristic that describes people who can do that well is really empathy. The understanding that the experiences that you have lead you to have a unique set of insights, but they also create a unique set of blind spots. And it's rare that you find people that are able to do that. And whenever you do—whenever we do we hire them.Corey: To that end, as far as hiring and similar topics go, if people want to learn more about how you view things, and how you see the world, and what you're releasing—maybe even potentially work with you—where can they find you?Matthew: [laugh]. So, the joke, sometimes, internal at Cloudflare is that Cloudflare is a blogging company that runs this global network just to have something to write about. So, I think we're unlike most corporate blogs, which are—if our corporate blog were typical, we'd have articles on, like, “Here are the top six reasons you need a fast website,” which would just be, you know, shoot me. But instead, I think we write about the things that are going on online and our unique view into them. And we have a core value of transparency, so we talk about that. So, if you're interested in Cloudflare, I'd encourage you to—especially if you're of the sort of geekier variety—to check out blog.cloudflare.com, and I think that's a good place to learn about us. And I still write for that occasionally.Corey: You're one of the only non-AWS corporate blogs that I pay attention to, for that exact reason. It is not, “Oh, yay. More content marketing by folks who just feel the need to hit a quota as opposed to talking about something valuable and interesting.” So, it's appreciated.Matthew: The secret to it was we realized at some point that the purpose of the blog wasn't to attract customers, it was to attract potential employees. And it turns out, if you sort of change that focus, then you talk to people like their peers, and it turns out then that the content that you create is much more authentic. And that turns out to be a great way to attract customers as well.Corey: I want to thank you for taking so much time out of your day to speak with me. I really appreciate it.Matthew: Thanks for all you're doing. And we're very aligned, and keep fighting the good fight. And someday, again, we'll eliminate cloud egress fees, and we can share a beer when we do.Corey: I will absolutely be there for it. Matthew, Prince, CEO, and co-founder of Cloudflare. I'm Cloud Economist Corey Quinn, and this is Screaming in the Cloud. If you've enjoyed this podcast, please leave a five-star review on your podcast platform of choice, whereas if you've hated this podcast, please leave a five-star review on your podcast platform of choice along with a rambling comment explaining that while data packets into a cloud provider are cheap and crappy, the ones being sent to the internet are beautiful, bespoke, unicorn snowflakes, so of course they cost money.Corey: If your AWS bill keeps rising and your blood pressure is doing the same, then you need The Duckbill Group. We help companies fix their AWS bill by making it smaller and less horrifying. The Duckbill Group works for you, not AWS. We tailor recommendations to your business and we get to the point. Visit duckbillgroup.com to get started.Announcer: This has been a HumblePod production. Stay humble.

The History of Computing
The Von Neumann Architecture

The History of Computing

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 12, 2021 12:24


John Von Neumann was born in Hungary at the tail end of the Astro-Hungarian Empire. The family was made a part of the nobility and as a young prodigy in Budapest, He learned languages and by 8 years old was doing calculus. By 17 he was writing papers on polynomials. He wrote his dissertation in 1925 he added to set theory with the axiom of foundation and the notion of class, or properties shared by members of a set. He worked on the minimax theorem in 1928, the proof of which established zero-sum games and started another discipline within math, game theory. By 1929 he published the axiom system that led to Von Neumann–Bernays–Gödel set theory. And by 1932 he'd developed foundational work on ergodic theory which would evolve into a branch of math that looks at the states of dynamical systems, where functions can describe a points time dependence in space. And so he of course penned a book on quantum mechanics the same year. Did we mention he was smart and given the way his brain worked it made sense that he would eventually gravitate into computing. He went to the best schools with other brilliant scholars who would go on to be called the Martians. They were all researching new areas that required more and more computing - then still done by hand or a combination of hand and mechanical calculators. The Martians included De Hevesy, who won a Nobel prize for Chemistry. Von Kármán got the National Medal of Science and a Franklin Award. Polanyl developed the theory of knowledge and the philosophy of science. Paul Erdős was a brilliant mathematician who published over 1,500 articles. Edward Teller is known as the father of the hydrogen bomb, working on nuclear energy throughout his life and lobbying for the Strategic Defense Initiative, or Star Wars. Dennis Gabor wrote Inventing the Future and won a Nobel Prize in Physics. Eugene Wigner also took home a Nobel Prize in Physics and a National Medal of Science. Leo Szilard took home an Albert Einstein award for his work on nuclear chain reactions and joined in the Manhattan Project as a patent holder for a nuclear reactor. Physicists and brilliant scientists. And here's a key component to the explosion in science following World War II: many of them fled to the United States and other western powers because they were Jewish, to get away from the Nazis, or to avoid communists controlling science. And then there was Harsanyl, Halmos, Goldmark, Franz Alexander, Orowan, and John Kemeny who gave us BASIC. They all contributed to the world we live in today - but von Neumann sometimes hid how smart he was, preferring to not show just how much arithmetic computed through his head. He was married twice and loved fast cars, fine food, bad jokes, and was an engaging and enigmatic figure. He studied measure theory and broke dimension theory into algebraic operators. He studied topological groups, operator algebra, spectral theory, functional analysis and abstract Hilbert space. Geometry and Lattice theory. As with other great thinkers, some of his work has stood the test of time and some has had gaps filled with other theories. And then came the Manhattan project. Here, he helped develop explosive lenses - a key component to the nuclear bomb. Along the way he worked on economics and fluid mechanics. And of course, he theorized and worked out the engineering principals for really big explosions. He was a commissioner of the Atomic Energy Commission and at the height of the Cold War after working out game theory, developed the concept of mutually assured destruction - giving the world hydrogen bombs and ICBMs and reducing the missile gap. Hard to imagine but at the times the Soviets actually had a technical lead over the US, which was proven true when they launched Sputnik. As with the other Martians, he fought Communism and Fasciscm until his death - which won him a Medal of Freedom from then president Eisenhower. His friend Stanislaw Ulam developed the modern Markov Chain Monte Carlo method and Von Neumann got involved in computing to work out those calculations. This combined with where his research lay landed him as an early power user of ENIAC. He actually heard about the machine at a station while waiting for a train. He'd just gotten home from England and while we will never know if he knew of the work Turing was doing on Colossus at Bletchley Park, we do know that he offered Turing a job at the Institute for Advanced Study that he was running in Princeton before World War II and had read Turing's papers, including “On Computable Numbers” and understood the basic concepts of stored programs - and breaking down the logic into zeros and ones. He discussed using ENIAC to compute over 333 calculations per second. He could do a lot in his head, but he wasn't that good of a computer. His input was taken and when Eckert and Mauchly went from ENIAC to EDVAC, or the Electronic Discrete Variable Calculator, the findings were published in a paper called “First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC” - a foundational paper in computing for a number of reasons. One is that Mauchly and Eckert had an entrepreneurial spirit and felt that not only should their names have been on the paper but that it was probably premature and so they quickly filed a patent in 1945, even though some of what they told him that went into the paper helped to invalidate the patent later. They considered these trade secrets and didn't share in von Neumann's idea that information must be set free. In the paper lies an important contribution, Von Neumann broke down the parts of a modern computer. He set the information for how these would work free. He broke down the logical blocks of how a computer works into the modern era. How once we strip away the electromechanical computers that a fully digital machine works. Inputs go into a Central Processing Unit, which has an instruction register, a clock to keep operations and data flow in sync, and a counter - it does the math. It then uses quick-access memory, which we'd call Random Access Memory, or RAM today, to make processing data instructions faster. And it would use long-term memory for operations that didn't need to be as highly available to the CPU. This should sound like a pretty familiar way to architect devices at this point. The result would be sent to an output device. Think of a modern Swift app for an iPhone - the whole of what the computer did could be moved into a single wafer once humanity worked out how first transistors and then multiple transistors on a single chip worked. Yet another outcome of the paper was to inspire Turing and others to work on computers after the war. Turing named his ACE or Automatic Computing Engine out of respect to Charles Babbage. That led to the addition of storage to computers. After all, punched tape was used for Colossus during the war and and punched cards and tape had been around for awhile. It's ironic that we think of memory as ephemeral data storage and storage as more long-term storage. But that's likely more to do with the order these scientific papers came out than anything - and homage to the impact each had. He'd write The Computer and the Brain, Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, Continuous Geometry, and other books. He also studied DNA and cognition and weather systems, inferring we could predict the results of climate change and possibly even turn back global warming - which by 1950 when he was working on it was already acknowledged by scientists. As with many of the early researchers in nuclear physics, he died of cancer - invoking Pascal's wager on his deathbed. He died in 1957 - just a few years too early to get a Nobel Prize in one of any number of fields. One of my favorite aspects of Von Neumann was that he was a lifelong lover of history. He was a hacker - bouncing around between subjects. And he believed in human freedom. So much so that this wealthy and charismatic pseudo-aristocrat would dedicate his life to the study of knowledge and public service. So thank you for the Von Neumann Architecture and breaking computing down into ways that it couldn't be wholesale patented too early to gain wide adoption. And thank you for helping keep the mutually assured destruction from happening and for inspiring generations of scientists in so many fields. I'm stoked to be alive and not some pile of nuclear dust. And to be gainfully employed in computing. He had a considerable impact in both.

2.5 Admins
2.5 Admins 64: Augmented Dystopia

2.5 Admins

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 11, 2021 29:44


Why the metaverse sounds terrible, Alder Lake benchmarks, revoking SSH keys, remote management of Windows machines, and more.   Plugs Looking towards the future: FreeBSD on RISC-V Support us on patreon   News Welcome to Meta Intel's Alder Lake big.little CPU design, tested: It's a barn burner OpenZFS Developer Summit   Free Consulting We were […]

BSD Now
428: Cult of BSD

BSD Now

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 11, 2021 54:21


OpenBSD Part 1: How it all started, Explaining top(1) on FreeBSD, Measuring power efficiency of a CPU frequency scheduler on OpenBSD, CultBSD, a whole lot of BSD bits, and more. NOTES This episode of BSDNow is brought to you by Tarsnap (https://www.tarsnap.com/bsdnow) and the BSDNow Patreon (https://www.patreon.com/bsdnow) Headlines What every IT person needs to know about OpenBSD Part 1: How it all started (https://blog.apnic.net/2021/10/28/openbsd-part-1-how-it-all-started/) Explaining top(1) on FreeBSD (https://klarasystems.com/articles/explaining-top1-on-freebsd/) News Roundup Measuring power efficiency of a CPU frequency scheduler on OpenBSD (https://dataswamp.org/~solene/2021-09-26-openbsd-power-usage.html) CultBSD (https://sourceforge.net/projects/cult-bsd/) Beastie Bits • [OpenBSD on the HiFive Unmatched](https://kernelpanic.life/hardware/hifive-unmatched.html) • [Advanced Documentation Retrieval on FreeBSD](https://adventurist.me/posts/00306) • [OpenBSD Webzine Issue 3 is out](https://webzine.puffy.cafe/issue-3.html) • [How to connect and use Bluetooth headphones on FreeBSD](https://forums.freebsd.org/threads/bluetooth-audio-how-to-connect-and-use-bluetooth-headphones-on-freebsd.82671/) • [How To: Execute Firefox in a jail using iocage and ssh/jailme](https://forums.freebsd.org/threads/how-to-execute-firefox-in-a-jail-using-iocage-and-ssh-jailme.53362/) • [Understanding AWK](https://earthly.dev/blog/awk-examples/) • [“Domesticate Your Badgers” Kickstarter Opens](https://mwl.io/archives/13297) • [Bootstrap an OPNsense development environment in Vagrant](https://github.com/punktDe/vagrant-opnsense) • [VLANs Bridges and LAG Interface best practice questions](https://www.truenas.com/community/threads/vlans-bridges-and-lag-interface-best-practice-questions.93275/) • [A Console Desktop](https://pspodcasting.net/dan/blog/2018/console_desktop.html) • [CharmBUG Casual BSD Meetup and Games (Online)](https://www.meetup.com/CharmBUG/events/281822524) Tarsnap This weeks episode of BSDNow was sponsored by our friends at Tarsnap, the only secure online backup you can trust your data to. Even paranoids need backups. Feedback/Questions Dan - ZFS question (https://github.com/BSDNow/bsdnow.tv/blob/master/episodes/428/feedback/Dan%20-%20ZFS%20question.md) Lars - Thanks for the interview (https://github.com/BSDNow/bsdnow.tv/blob/master/episodes/428/feedback/Lars%20-%20Thanks%20for%20the%20interview.md) jesse - migrating data from old laptop (https://github.com/BSDNow/bsdnow.tv/blob/master/episodes/428/feedback/jesse%20-%20migrating%20data%20from%20old%20laptop.md) *** Send questions, comments, show ideas/topics, or stories you want mentioned on the show to feedback@bsdnow.tv (mailto:feedback@bsdnow.tv) ***

On The Brink with Castle Island
Brannin McBee (Core Weave) on moving from GPU mining to specialized compute (EP.258)

On The Brink with Castle Island

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 10, 2021 53:04


Core Weave cofounder and CSO Brannin McBee joins the show to talk GPU mining and high performance computation. In this episode:  Details on the Core Weave's latest fundraise Core Weave's hybrid data center model which combines Ethereum mining and generalized computation Transitioning from just crypto mining to the specialized compute market Why the hyperscale cloud providers aren't always suitable for firms with specialized computation needs The nature and size of Core Weave's GPU and CPU fleet How Core Weave services clients in VFX and rendering, machine learning, and blockchain Why Core Weave was able to build a generalizable computational fleet Why the demand for VFX/rendering-based compute is accelerating How film studios are going from capital intensive on-prem computation to outsourcing it to cloud providers How Core Weave is able to achieve a high utilization rate for their GPUs How Core Weave is working on open sourcing GPT-3 Why you can't access scale compute at conventional providers How Core Weave is managing Ethereum's transition to Proof of Stake When Brannin expects the final merge to occur How the market for GPU mining will change over time How NFTs are a new source of demand for large-scale compute Core Weave's attitude to Ethereum development Did Ethereum move away from some of its original principles? How proof of work was a strong distributive force during the early days of Ethereum Are miners less positively inclined towards the network now that their business model has an expiration date? Brannin's attitude towards MEV today Brannin's thoughts on Ethereum's security model as it moves towards PoS Does the abundance of capital make PoS more vulnerable than PoW? Why diseconomies of scale for electricity procurement protected PoW networks Why rendering PoW 'synthetic' in PoS makes it easier to pull off an attack How Core Weave pursues sustainability in their operations Sponsor notes:  This episode supported by Public.com. Start investing with as little as $1 and get a free slice of stock up to $50 when you join Public.com today. Visit public.com/onthebrink to download the app and sign up. This episode is brought to you by Withum, a top 25 accounting firm with a cutting-edge Digital Currency and Blockchain Technology practice. To learn more, visit  withum.com/crypto.

B2B Tech Talk with Ingram Micro
How Intel Is Investing in Cloud Architecture

B2B Tech Talk with Ingram Micro

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 9, 2021 21:48


Although you may think of Intel as just a CPU company, the truth is that they have made major investments into cloud computing and have many technologies that you can take advantage of via the cloud. As more and more data center workloads shift to cloud-based solutions, Intel continues to play a significant role in that industry. Shelby Skrhak speaks with Peter Tea, Data Center Platform Specialist, and Christopher Creech, Sr. Technical Account Manager, both of Intel, about: What Intel is doing with data centers today How Intel is data center agnostic for cloud, on-prem and hybrid The strategy of Intel's cloud architecture How Intel is uniquely suited for the data center market  For more information, contact Christopher (christopher.creech@ingrammicro.com) or visit Intel Cloud Computing. To join the discussion, follow us on Twitter @IngramTechSol #B2BTechTalk Listen to this episode and more like it by subscribing to B2B Tech Talk on Spotify, Apple Podcasts, or Stitcher. Or, tune in on our website.

TechLinked
EPYC 128-core, 3nm Apple Silicon, Pixel 6 charging + more!

TechLinked

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 9, 2021 6:38


0:00 help 0:06 EPYC Bergamo 128-core CPU 1:03 Apple Silicon 3nm 2:04 Pixel 3 charging sucks 2:54 Vessi Footwear 3:28 QUICK BITS 3:35 Nintendo Switch 2 coming...eventually 4:18 Win7, 8.1 OneDrive support ending 4:46 Wind and solar energy r good? 5:18 Walmart driverless deliveries 5:43 McDonald's uses IBM AI News Sources: https://lmg.gg/HDtD5

Packet Pushers - Fat Pipe
Network Break 358: Unpacking Juniper's Strategic Objectives; Intel Details New Infrastructure Chip

Packet Pushers - Fat Pipe

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 8, 2021 52:52


This weeks' Network Break discusses Juniper's Analyst & Influencer day plus a new Wi-Fi 6E announcement. Intel is teaming up with Google to develop a chip for offloading network, security, and storage jobs from the CPU (but Intel won't call it a DPU). And the FCC revokes authorization for China Telecom to operate in the United States. The post Network Break 358: Unpacking Juniper's Strategic Objectives; Intel Details New Infrastructure Chip appeared first on Packet Pushers.

Packet Pushers - Network Break
Network Break 358: Unpacking Juniper's Strategic Objectives; Intel Details New Infrastructure Chip

Packet Pushers - Network Break

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 8, 2021 52:52


This weeks' Network Break discusses Juniper's Analyst & Influencer day plus a new Wi-Fi 6E announcement. Intel is teaming up with Google to develop a chip for offloading network, security, and storage jobs from the CPU (but Intel won't call it a DPU). And the FCC revokes authorization for China Telecom to operate in the United States. The post Network Break 358: Unpacking Juniper's Strategic Objectives; Intel Details New Infrastructure Chip appeared first on Packet Pushers.

Packet Pushers - Full Podcast Feed
Network Break 358: Unpacking Juniper's Strategic Objectives; Intel Details New Infrastructure Chip

Packet Pushers - Full Podcast Feed

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 8, 2021 52:52


This weeks' Network Break discusses Juniper's Analyst & Influencer day plus a new Wi-Fi 6E announcement. Intel is teaming up with Google to develop a chip for offloading network, security, and storage jobs from the CPU (but Intel won't call it a DPU). And the FCC revokes authorization for China Telecom to operate in the United States. The post Network Break 358: Unpacking Juniper's Strategic Objectives; Intel Details New Infrastructure Chip appeared first on Packet Pushers.

Loop Infinito (by Applesfera)
Probando el MacBook Pro 14"

Loop Infinito (by Applesfera)

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 8, 2021 15:49


Un vistazo al MacBook Pro de 14" tras unos días con él. Concretamente, al modelo base, con el chip M1 Pro con 8 núcleos de CPU y 14 de GPU. *** Loop Infinito es un podcast de Applesfera, presentado por Javier Lacort y editado por Santi Araújo. Contacta con el autor en Twitter (@jlacort) o por correo (lacort@xataka.com). Gracias por escuchar este podcast.

TechTimeRadio
This week Black Friday deals. Netflix launching games to the public while Nintendo warns of chip shortage. Why are companies delaying 5G? Facebook shuts down facial recognition feature, and drones attack electrical substations. Air Date: 11/6 - 11/12/21

TechTimeRadio

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 8, 2021 112:22


Join us on TechTime with Nathan Mumm this week on the show; we also talk about why Facebook Shuts Down Facial Recognition Feature, and consumer drones attack US electrical substations. Do you NFT's are coming to video games? Non-Fundgable Tokens keep getting more traction, and this growing trend is not about to stop. Finally, we have a fan's question regarding saving money on video games this holiday season, and we have some suggestions."Welcome to TechTime Radio with Nathan Mumm, the show that makes you go "Hummmm" Technology news of the week for November 6th through the 12th, 2021.Episode 73: Hour 1--- [Now on Today's Show]: Starts at 6:05--- [Top Stories in 5 Minutes]: Starts at 8:47US mobile carriers Verizon and AT&T have agreed to temporarily postpone their rollout of C-band 5G -  https://tinyurl.com/4wra8v6eNetflix is launching its first games worldwide as it seeks to break into the game subscription market. - https://tinyurl.com/fr6cah9cDon't Break that iPhone 13's screen as it cannot be replaced without special software controlled by Apple. - https://tinyurl.com/vpajaht6 Nintendo warns chip shortage will hit Switch sales - https://tinyurl.com/3rr78vu6 'Squid Game' cryptocurrency scams $2 million after creators vanish--- [Pick of the Day - Whiskey Tasting Review]: Starts at Glenmorangie The Nectar D'Or | 92 Proof | $75.00 --- [Technology Insider]: Starts at Christian Espinosa talks about his book  "The Smartest Person in the Room"  --- [Steals and Deals]: Starts at 30:30 The best Black Friday gadget deals 2021: How, when, and where to find them.Get your baskets at the ready, the countdown to Black Friday has begun. If tech deals are top of your shopping list this year, we've got all you need to know about the best Black Friday gadget deals so you can nab yourself a bargain.--- [Mike's Mesmerizing Moment brought to us by StoriCoffee®]: Starts at 52:32--- [Pick of the Day]: Starts at 54:55Glenmorangie The Nectar D'Or | 92 Proof | $75.00  Nathan: Thumbs Up Mike: Thumbs UpEpisode 73: Hour 2 --- [Now on Today's Show]: Starts at 1:05:24--- [Letters]: Starts at 1:08:16Mike and Nathan share this week's informative emails that I have received during the week. This includes scams, phishing emails, and all-out mistruths disguised as legitimate emails--- [Protect Yourself Today]: Starts at 1:27:14A modified consumer drone was used in an attack on an electrical substation in the US last year, according to a report from the FBI, Department of Homeland Security, and National Counterterrorism Center. Facebook Shuts Down Facial Recognition Feature - https://tinyurl.com/2mkmsedn --- [Gamer Time]: Starts at 1:38:57 Game publisher Electronic Arts (EA) has told investors that collectible NFTs (Non-Fungible Tokens) are "an important part of the future of our industry". - https://tinyurl.com/33h6s7w6 What Happens if your new PC cannot play some top titles? Intel has posted a release that the hybrid CPU core architecture on Alder Lake can be incompatible with certain games. -https://tinyurl.com/ukjy34pf Fan's Email: -  --- [This Week in Technology]: Starts at 1:49:32

After
El de Alder Lake

After

Play Episode Listen Later Nov 6, 2021 27:51


It's dangerous to go alone! Take this: Shownotes 42 | ↗ Wikipedia Alder Lake Intel 12th Gen “Alder Lake” | ↗ Intel The Intel 12th Gen Core i9-12900K Review | ↗ AnandTech Lakefield, el primer CPU heterogéneo de Intel | ↗ Intel • ↗ AnandTech ¿Qué es Power Nap? | ↗ Apple Support Recomendaciones N → Pyramid Song 800% slower | ↗ YouTube F → Eduardo Vaisman en GMN | ↗ Game Maker's Notebook Créditos Recuerden que pueden seguirnos en ↗ Instagram para enterarse de las últimas novedades antes que nadie. Además pueden encontrar al Sr. 

mixxio — podcast diario de tecnología

Intel despierta, AMD ruge / Cárcel contra las filtraciones de datos personales / Más expansión de coches autónomos / Exposición de cohete en Madrid / Nómina en Bitcoin para alcalde de NYC / Fotos del Ever Given Patrocinador: Kärcher presenta su nueva colección de hardware de limpieza para tu hogar. En su web https://www.kaercher.com/es/ encontrarás una potente fregona eléctrica sin cables https://www.kaercher.com/es/home-garden/fregonas-electricas/fc-7-sin-cable-10557300.html, una limpiadora de vapor https://www.kaercher.com/es/home-garden/limpiadoras-de-vapor/sc-4-easyfix-15124500.html para eliminar el 99,999% de bacterias, o sus aspiradoras multi-uso https://www.kaercher.com/es/home-garden/aspiradores-multifuncionales/aspiradores-multiuso/wd-6-p-premium-13482710.html para limpiar garajes, sótanos y mucho más. — Si los compras antes del 15 de noviembre te llevas gratis su escoba eléctrica KB-5 https://www.kaercher.com/es/home-garden/escoba-electrica/kb-5-12580000.html. Intel despierta, AMD ruge / Cárcel contra las filtraciones de datos personales / Más expansión de coches autónomos / Exposición de cohete en Madrid / Nómina en Bitcoin para alcalde de NYC / Fotos del Ever Given

The Bobby Blackwolf Show
779 - 10/24/21 Bobby Blackwolf Show - CPU/GPU Shortages, More PS Games On PC

The Bobby Blackwolf Show

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 31, 2021 58:38


I have been selected to be a host/donation reader at Awesome Games Done Quick 2022 in January! Intel has stated that there will be a CPU/GPU shortage until 2023. CD Projekt Red stated that there will be a Cyberpunk 2077 next-gen shortage until 2022. God of War is heading to PC, signaling the start of PlayStation Studios titles getting bigger audiences. During the open talk segment after the break, we talk about Orange Lounge Radio host LOKI's NES game Pixel Poops: Number Two, and some thoughts on the new movie Dune.

Weekly Tech Facts
Pre Black Friday Deep Dive

Weekly Tech Facts

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 31, 2021 27:36


Quick News Rundown - Dropbox and lack of no M1 support - Battery drain and CPU usage is higher bc it's still Intel based translation in the hardware/software - Microsoft is now the most valuable company and not Apple - Apple earned 1B in revenue every day this past fiscal year - USB-C hubs not working on MacOS Monterrey - Rebooting freezing during updates - SharePlay available on all devices with 15.1 - What's coming in iOS 15.2 & iPadOS 15.2 - Extended Emergency toggle is now 8 secs vs. 3 secs - Privacy reports - Security researching will find what's being said about what is actually being done vs what is being said - Black Friday preparation (Deep Dive) * What to buy and not to buy * Supply constraints * Pre-holiday shopping * In store rewards are going to be huge this year

The Full Nerd
Episode 195: Intel 12th-Gen Parts/Pricing Revealed, XMP 3.0, MacBook Pro Reviews, Q&A

The Full Nerd

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 28, 2021 113:17


Join The Full Nerd gang as they talk about the latest PC hardware topics. In today's episode we cover all the details surrounding Intel's upcoming 12th-Gen Alder Lake desktop CPU's, how XMP 3.0 is going to shake performance up, the internet's reaction to MacBook Pro reviews, and of course we answer your questions live! *This episode of The Full Nerd is sponsored by Avast. Avast One gives you everything you need to take control of your safety and privacy online, and it's accessible through a single, easy-to-use interface. A free version includes essential features such as Free Antivirus, Free VPN and Free Firewall Protection, while the premium version has even more advanced protection. Learn more about Avast One at Avast.com. Buy The Full Nerd merch: https://crowdmade.com/collections/pcworld Join the PC related discussions and ask us questions on Discord: https://discord.gg/SGPRSy7 Follow the crew on Twitter: @GordonUng @BradChacos @MorphingBall @KeithPlaysPC @AdamPMurray Follow PCWorld for all things PC! ------------------------------­---- SUBSCRIBE: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=PCWorldVideos TWITCH: https://www.twitch.tv/PCWorldUS TWITTER: https://www.twitter.com/pcworld

Couch Potatoes Unite!
The Crown, Season 4 (MAJOR SPOILERS)

Couch Potatoes Unite!

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 28, 2021


A new podcast episode of Couch Potatoes Unite!, which is based on a blog of the same name hosted at our website: couchpotatoesunite.wordpress.com.  In this episode, recorded in August and September 2021, our panel of regal CPU! faithful – moderator Krista, Spencer, Samantha, Kristin (T),... Read More

Radiogeek
#Radiogeek - Samsung lanza su plataforma Tizen para juegos online - Nro 2006

Radiogeek

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 28, 2021 27:20


Los temas del día: #Argentina – El importador Etercor disponibiliza la tablet Xiaomi Pad 5 en el país https://infosertecla.com/2021/10/27/argentina-el-importador-etercor-disponibiliza-la-tablet-xiaomi-pad-5-en-el-pais/ #Argentina – LG presenta su línea de aires acondicionados 2021 inteligentes en el país https://infosertecla.com/2021/10/27/argentina-lg-presenta-su-linea-de-aires-acondicionados-2021-inteligentes-en-el-pais/ Instagram ahora permite que todos agreguen enlaces a sus historias https://infosertecla.com/2021/10/27/instagram-ahora-permite-que-todos-agreguen-enlaces-a-sus-historias/ Samsung abre el sistema operativo Tizen a otras marcas de televisores https://infosertecla.com/2021/10/27/samsung-abre-el-sistema-operativo-tizen-a-otras-marcas-de-televisores/ Google Stadia ya permite probar juegos gratis antes de comprarlos Otra razón para no tener que actualizar a Windows 11: la nueva Microsoft Store ya está disponible para los Insiders de Windows 10 https://www.genbeta.com/windows/otra-razon-para-no-tener-que-actualizar-a-windows-11-nueva-microsoft-store-esta-disponible-para-insiders-windows-10? Los anuncios llegan a Telegram https://t.me/durov/153 Apple Music se lanza en PlayStation 5 a nivel mundial https://blog.playstation.com/2021/10/27/apple-music-launches-on-ps5-today/ Intel anuncia CPU de escritorio de 12a generación Core en un evento de innovación https://www.intel.ca/content/www/ca/en/homepage.html APOYANOS DESDE PAYPAL https://www.paypal.me/arielmcorg APOYANOS DESDE PATREON https://www.patreon.com/radiogeek APOYANOS DESDE CAFECITO https://cafecito.app/radiogeek Podes seguirme desde Twitter @arielmcorg (www.twitter.com/arielmcorg) También desde Instagram @arielmcorg (www.instagram.com/arielmcorg) Sumate al canal de Telegram #Radiogeekpodcast (http://telegram.me/Radiogeekpodcast)

Reversim Podcast
424 Melio's payment processor

Reversim Podcast

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 25, 2021


[קישור לקובץ mp3] שלום וברוכים הבאים לפודקאסט מספר 424 של רברס עם פלטפורמה - יצא מספר פלידנרומי, איזה מגניב! . . . - (אורי) 424?! . . . - (רן) 424 . . . התאריך היום הוא 17 באוקטובר, השעה היא 21:30 עוד מעט והשנה היא 2021 - (אורי) והטמפרטורות התחילו לרדת היום, גם היה גשם . . . - (רן) היה גשם היום, נכון, סוף סוף . . . היום אנחנו מתכבדים לארח את אילן ואת אור מחברת Melio - זה Mi-lio או Me-lio? . . .(אילן) האמת שזו שאלה מאוד טובה, כי כשהקמנו את החברה אז קראנו לה באמת Me-lio, אבל כשהתחלנו לדבר עם אנשים מארה”ב, אמרו לנו שיש משהו שנקרא Long e ו- Short e, שזה משהו שלא הכרנו . . . אז חלקם הוגים “Mi-lio” וחלקם הוגים “Me-lio” . . . מבחינתנו זה “Mi-lio”.(אורי) זה בטח ה-Domain שהיה פנוי . . . (אילן) האמת שה-Domain שהיה פנוי היה Mi-lio(paymnets.com), אבל ככל שהצלחנו לגדול והחלטנו שהשם זה ממש משהו שאנחנו שלמים איתו - כי היה גם שם תהליך, אבל זה סיפור לפודקאסט אחר - אז קנינו את melio.com, שהיה קצת יקר אבל הצלחנו להשיג, ארבע אותיות וגם com., אירוע קצת . . . (אורי) טוב, אז זה היה אילן . . .(רן) כן, אנחנו נעשה היום פודקאסט הפוך - נתחיל מהסוף . . . .כן - אז אנחנו שמחים ומתכבדים לארח פה את אילן ואור מחברת Melio - אנחנו נדבר על Melio ועל פלטפורמת התשלומים והטכנלוגיה שפיתחתם כדי באמת לממש את כל הסיפור הזה.אבל לפני זה - בואו נכיר אתכם: אילן - בבקשה:(אילן) תודה רבה שאתם מארחים אותנו - כבוד גדול.אני מכיר את אורי ורן עוד מלפני מספר שנים, כבוד הוא לנו לבוא לפודקאסט אני אילן, אחד ה-Co-Founders וה-CTO של Melio - הקמנו את החברה לפני כשלוש-וחצי שנים רשמית - קצת לפני עבדנו עוד בגראז', להבין מה אנחנו רוצים לעשותאני אספר על זה קצת עוד מעטשנים יחסית אינטנסטיביות בשנים האחרונותלפני כן הייתי ה-VP Engineering בחברה בשם Winward, ולפני זה עבדתי ב-Outbrain כשנתיים + . . .איתי פה נמצא אור . . .(רן) אור - ברוך הבא!(אור) תודה רבה - אני היום ב-Melio ה-Principal Engineer, הצטרפתי יחסית ממש בהתחלה. זה היה . . .לפני כן הייתי Co-Founder בסטארטאפ אחר, ולפני כן הייתי יועץ באיזושהי חברת נקרא לזה “בוטיק-DevOps” קטן שנקרא FewBytes ואחרי שעזבתי את ה-Startup שלי בתור Co-Founder - הייתי Co-Founder ממש לא טוב - מישהו שידך ביני לבין אילן והאמת שממש בשיחות הראשונות עם הפאונדרים של Melio זה פשוט . . . אני יכול להגיד באופן אישי שזה היה מעיין “אהבה ממבט ראשון”, ממש “עפתי עליהם” עד הסוף ואמרתי “אני רוצה לעבוד פה” וכל השאר פחות או יותר היסטוריה . . .(רן) אז Melio - אני מניח שיש כאלה שכבר שמעו את השם, אבל למי שעוד לא שמע: מה עושה Melio?(אילן) אנחנו פיתחנו ומפתחים פלטפורמה לעסקים קטנים, להעברות תשלומים.ככל שזה יהיה אולי מופלא ואולי לא לחלק מהמאזינים או למי שמקשיב, תשלומים, בארה”ב בעיקר, עדיין רובם ככולם מועברים על גבי פיסות נייר - שהם שיקים . . .סדר גודל של 18 טריליון דולר נעים בארה”ב בין עסקים קטנים בכל שנהסדר גודל של כחמישה מיליארד שיקים נכתבים בין עסקיםכשאנחנו . . . זה סדר גודל שראינו לפני ארבע שנים, ואמרנו “רגע - זה לא הגיוני”בעולם שה-Digital Payments קורים בין חברים, כלומר - היום להעביר כסף בין Friends & Family קורה בצורה מאוד פשוטה, יש הרבה מאוד אפליקציות שאתה יכול באמצעותן להעביר כסף בצורה סופר-קלה.אם אתה עכשיו בתור Consumer שרוצה לעשות Check-out ב-Online, התהליך הוא מאוד מאוד מתקדם, כל עולם ה-eCommerce.אתה יכול לעשות Check Out עם Stripe או עם כרטיסי אשראי או Affirm או עם Klarna או עם כל שיטת Check out אחרת.עדיין, תשלומים לספקים, רובם ככולם, מועברים בעצם על פני פיסות נייר - שיקים, העברות בנקאיות - דרך כלים שהם מחוץ . . . בעצם כלי מערכת, שהם בעיקר כלים של הבנקים.(רן) אפילו בקרנות הון סיכון אומרים “I'll write you a check” . . . (אילן) I'll write you a check”, Yes” . . . וגם אנחנו היום, כ-Melio - אנחנו כותבים שיקים . . .בעצם, יש לנו ספקים שרוצים לקבל רק שיקים . . .והבעיה הזו נראתה לנו די מעניינת ומאוד מאתגרת - אמרנו “איך זה יכול להיות, בעולם ש-Payments עוברים ו-Shifting ל-Digital בצורה מאוד מאסיבית, עדיין עולם ה-Supplier Payments נמצא על גבי פיסות נייר” . . .(רן) על אילו סוגי עסקים אנחנו מדברים? מספרות, וטרינרים, . . . ?(אילן) אז אנחנו מדברים כמעט על כל סוגי העסקים - זה יכול להיות כמו שאמרת - מספרות וטרינרים, מסעדות, Doctor Offices למינהם, Professional Services, צלמים . . . (אורי) גולדמן-סאקס?(אילן) גולדמן-סאקס . . . גם כאלה, הגדולים . . . ובאמת לחברות כמו Nike או Fortune-500's יש כלים, היום, לעשות גם Procurement וגם Paymentsאבל כשאתה הולך לעסק הקטן - מה שנקרא Owner-Operated Business - לבעל העסק כיום אין כלי מתאים כדי לנהל את תשלומי הספקים שלו.ומה שמאפיין בעצם את אותם עסקים זה שאין להם היום איזה Bookkeeper או איזשהו Accounts-Payables Expert שעושה עבורם את ה-Paymentsאנחנו היום ב-Melio, או אצלכם ב-Outbrain - יש בעצם Finance Department, שמתעסקים ב-Accounts-Payablesאבל אם אני עסק קטן, אם אני עכשיו בעל מסעדה ויש לי חמישה-עשרה עובדים - בדרך כלל מי שמטפלים בזה זה או אני או מישהו שהוא Trusted Employee.והיום עסק קטן ממוצע - העסקים שאנחנו מטרגטים (Targeting), של 5-10 עובדים, סדר גודל של 1-2 מיליון דולר Revenue בשנה - מוציאים סדר גודל של 50-60 Payments בחודש.וה”אירוע” הזה הוא בדרך כלל Heavy . . . בדרך כלל נעשה ידנית . . .(רן) אנחנו תיכף נצלול לסיפור הטכנולוגי שם, אבל קצת בכל אופן כדי להבין את הרקע - פתאום קם אדם בבוקר ומרגיש שהוא חייב לעשות מערכת Payments? זאת אומרת - איך קורה שילד-טוב-ירושלים, אילן, אחד מהפאונדרים של החברה, מחליט שבא לו להרים מערכת Payments לעסקים בארה”ב?(אילן) אז מה שבעיקר משך אותנו זה גודל ההזדמנות - באנו ואמרנו רגע, עסקים קטנים - סליחה על הקלישאה אבל זה The Backbone of the economy . . . בסופו של יום, הדרך שהם מתנהלים - גם ברמת האופרציה של להוציא את התשלומים וגם האופרציה גם גוררת . . . אופרציה לא יעילה גורמת לניהול תזרימים מאוד לא טוב עבור העסק.עסקים קטנים - אם אתה מסתכל על הסיבות שעסקים נסגרים לרוב - אז חלק נותנים שירות לא טוב או מוצר לא טוב, אבל בהרבה מאוד פעמים זה נובע מכך שהם לא יודעים לנהל נכון את “האירוע התזרימי”, אתה-Cash Flow.והרבה פעמים זה קורה בגלל היעדר יכולת אופרטיבית והבנה של מה בעצם צריך להוציא היום ומה אפשר להוציא מחר ומה אפשר לנהל בצורה יותר חכמה.באמת, מה שהדליק אותנו, מה שבעצם גרם לנו להגיד זה איך אנחנו יכולים לעזור לעסקים קטנים? - על ידי זה שנוכל בעצם לקחת את עולם ה-Payments שלהם לעולם ה-Digital, ולנהל בעיקר את ה-Cash Flow.(רן) אוקיי, אז אני לא מבין גדול בעולם ה-Finance, אבל אני כן יודע שיש כמה חברות וכמה ספקי תשלומים גדולים - הזכרתם אני חושב את Stripe ויש עוד כל מיני גדולים אחרים . . . (אורי) . . . האם בין ה-CRM לניהול הכספי - CRM זה יותר לצד הלקוחות . . . (רן) . . . כן, נשים לרגע את הסיפור העסקי בצד - אני מניח שיש סיבה למה Stripe לא מתאים להם, אבל אתם גם החלטתם לייצר מערכת תשלומים פנימית, זאת אומרת - לנהל את הכל אצלכם. למה לעשות את זה ולמה לא להשתמש באיזשהו צד שלישי - איזשהו בנק, ב-Stripe או כל דבר אחר כזה?(אילן) לפני שאני אענה על השאלה הזאת, אני אקח לרגע צעד אחורה - הסיבה בעצם כיום לכך שעסקים בעיקר מתנהלים - לתשלומי ספקים - בעיקר עם שיקים, זה בגלל חוסר ההסכמה, לרוב, הבסיסי בין איך שצד אחד רוצה לשלם לאיך שהצד השני בעצם רוצה לקבל את הכסף.היום, כשאני הולך ועושה Check out online, ויש שם איזשהו Check out עם Stripe - אז אני יכול לשלם בכרטיס אשראי, והצד השני יקבל את זה לחשבון הבנק שלו, בעצם.יש איזשהו “נדל”ן”, שזה ה-Point-of-Sale, שיכול לסלוק את כרטיס האשראי שלי - והצד השני יקבל את הכסף.בעולם ה-B2B, לרוב הטרנזקציות (Transactions), החלק הארי של הטרנזקציות קורה OTC - Over the Counter.אין בעצם היום איזשהו Point of Sale - לא לרכישה ולא לתשלום - וה-Point of Sale שבעצם קיים זה ה-Invoice.כשאני מזמין, לדוגמא, מהספק דגים שלי עשרה ק”ג סלמון למסעדה - יחד עם הדגים אני מקבל בעצם Invoice, ושם אני אמור לשלם את התשלום עבור הדגים באיזה Net Terms.עכשיו - אני ספק דגים שכבר קיים בשוק 20 שנה, ואני עכשיו מקבל ממאות לקוחות כסף - ובאיזשהו מקום אני לא בהכרח רוצה לתמוך בעוד שיטת תשלוםכי כל תהליך ה-Finance שבניתי או כל תהליך ה-Reconciliation שבניתי בעצם בנוי מעל שיקים, שמגיעים אליאני יודע איך הכסף מגיע ואיך לקשור אותו לחשבונית המתאימה.אבל אותה מסעדה שנפתחה עכשיו, מסעדה חדשה שלא בהכרח רוצה לשלם בשיקים - רוצה לשלם בכרטיס אשראי, רוצה לשלם בהעברה בנקאית . . . .שני הצדדים לא מסכימים על אמצעי התשלום.(אורי) . . . ואז יורדים למכנה המשותף הכי נמוך - שזה השיקים . . .(אילן) בול . . . ולכן מגיעים בדיוק למכנה המשותף הנמוך ביותר שזה השיקים - שיק - ברור שהוא מתקבל בכל מקום, ברור שהוא “ג'וקר”, ואתה יכול בעצם לתת אותו, ובעצם זה סוג של סטנדרט . . . (אורי) זה נייר - אפשר לעטוף איתו דגים . . .(רן) יש יותר נמוך - יש Cash . . . אבל לשם עוד לא ירדנו . . . יש מטבעות זהב . . .(אורי) נייר . . .(רן) אז בעצם אתם החלטתם שאתם בונים איזשהו Transpiler - משהו שמתרגם דיגיטלי לנייר, נייר לדיגיטלי או כל מיני תרגומים אחרים שקיימים . . . (אילן) בדיוק, ולשאלתך של למה בעצם בנינו Payment Infrastructure - כדי להגיע למצב שאנחנו בעצם נוכל לבוא ולשרת את אותם עסקים, הרי היינו צריכים לייצר איזושהי “חוסר תלות” בין הצדדים - Decupling בין המשלם למקבלובנינו בעצם Payments Infrastructure חדש, היום כבר מעל שלושה בנקים - Evolve Bank & Trust ו-Silicon Valley Bank ו-JPMorgan Chaseבעצם בנינו יכולת לבוא ולסלוק כסף מהמשלם בכל דרך שנרצה - זה יכול להיות כרטיס אשראי, זה יכול להיות Debit Card, זה יכול להיות בנק, זה יכול להיות PayPal, זה יכול להיות Apple Pay . . . אנחנו יכולים לסלוק כסף בכל דרך אפשרית - ולהוציא אותו מהצד השני בכל דרך שהצד השני יחפוץ בהבעצם יצרנו ניתוק בין שני הצדדים - מה שנותן לנו היום המון כוח לבוא לעסק - לבוא למסעדה או לאיזשהו צלם או מספרה או כל מקום אחר - ולהגיד “אוקיי, לא משנה עכשיו, אתה לא צריך לשכנע את הצד השני איך לקבל את הכסף, תן להם באיזו דרך שהם יחפצו, ואתה תשלם איך שאתה רוצה”.(אורי) יש גם, כאילו את “הדרך של Melio”, את ה . . . לא יודע, כרטיס או סוג של bit כזה . . . אפליקציה שהיא אפליקציית-סליקה, שאם היא מתאימה לשני הצדדים אז מה טוב, אבל אתה יכול גם דרכה לקבל ול . . .?(אילן) אז הדרך שאנחנו היום . . . בדוגמא שנתתי, נניח שאני מסעדה, אז אני יכול לסלוק, אני יכול עכשיו לבחור לשלם באשראי, יכול לבחור לשלם בבנק - ב-Bank Transfer - ואתה תקבל איך שתחפוץ, נניח שיקים או העברה בנקאית או כל דרך אחרת.אנחנו כן מייצרים . . . אנחנו נייצר בעצם סוג של . . . אם אני מבין נכון את השאלה שלך, מעיין Wallet, כך שאפשר בעצם, ברגע ששני הצדדים ב-Network, אז בעצם נוכל להעביר כסף - שהוא בעצם Wallet, שכל אחד יוכל להשתמש בו ב-Network עצמו.עכשיו, אחד הדברים הנוספים שיצרנו ב-Payments Infrastructure הזה זה בעצם, שלהבדיל ממערכות כמו bit או Pepper, או בארה”ב Venmo או PayPal, ששני הצדדים צריכים להיות ב-Network על מנת שצד אחד יוכל לשלם לצד השני - אנחנו בעצם יצרנו יכולת של מה שאנחנו קוראים לו Open Network - רק צד אחד צריך להיות ברשת על מנת שהצד השני יקבל את הכסף.על ידי כך, בעצם הורדנו את העומס ממי שכרגע משתמש בנו, כדי לשכנע שהצד השני יכנס.(רן) כן, אז החלטתם והבנתם שאתם רוצים להציע מערכת תשלומים נורא גמישה שהיא Open ואתה יכול לשלם איך שאתה רוצה ואתה יכול לקבל את הכסף איך שאתה רוצה - אתה בא לאור, “המתכנת המסכן”, אומר לו: “אור, בוא תבנה לי כזה!” . . . איך מתחילים? מה האתגרים פה? איך בכלל מתחילים לבנות מערכת Payments כזו מאפס?(אורי) אז אור מוציא לו חשבונית . . . (אור) אז באמת, Melio זה קצת יותר ממערכת תשלומים, מן הסתם - חלק גדול מאוד מהמערכת מבוסס על Interface ממש נוח - בגלל שזה Small Business, בגלל שאין להם כל הרבה זמן להתעסק עכשיו עם איזושהי מערכת Business-ית מורכבת, שבדרך כלל פונה לעסקים, אז בגדול, מה שאני הצעתי לאילן כשהתחלנו היה שאמרתי “אילן, תשמע - אנחנו נמצאים עכשיו On the verge of Serverless”, יש לנו הזדמנות לא לתחזק שרתים! יש לנו הזדמנות להינות מהיתרונות . . . “(רן) . . . ואומר את זה אחד שתחזק כבר הרבה שרתים, אמרת ב-Intro . . . (אור) בדיוק - מה שאצלי בראש היה זה שאני לא רוצה להגדיר יותר NTP בחיים, לעולם . . . אז אמרתי לאילן “בוא נעשה Serverless! בוא נלך על זה ובוא נראה אם זה עובד לנו”.[משלנו!]ואילן זרם איתי . . . עשה לי בהתחלה פרצוף של “אתה חושב? אתה בטוח?”, אבל אמרנו “יאללה, בוא נלך על זה” . . .(רן) “זה לא Hype, זה לא כמו GraphQL שיעבור עוד מעט? . . . .”(אור) בדיוק . . . באמת, היו לו ספקות קצת בהתחלה, ואמרתי לו “שמע - עלי! מה שלא יעבוד, אנחנו נסדר”.ואז באמת בנינו את המערכת - ה-Payments Processing שלנו בעצם רץ Serverless.האמת שחלק גדול מאוד מתשתית של Melio רץ רק על Serverless, רק על Lambda, ספציפית על Lambda.(רן) והמוטיבציה היא באמת “אני לא רוצה את כאב הראש הזה של NTP”, או שיש גם סיבות ארכיטקטוניות אחרות?(אור) זה מאוד . . . .(אורי) . . . זה מאוד Stream-oriented, נכון? זה Processing של Streams של Data, וזה נשמע מתאים . . . (אילן) אז זו נקודה מאוד חשובה, מה שאמרת עכשיו - בסופו של יום, תשלומים - רובם יוצאים או בהעברות בנקאיות מצד אחד, או בשיקים . . . עדיין אנחנו מוציאים שיקים - Melio מוציאה היום סדר גודל של מאות אלפי שיקים כל חודש, כי עדיין הספקים רוצים לקבל שיקים . . .תהליך גביית התשלום הוא באמת Stream-oriented, כלומר - אני יכול להיכנס למערכת ולקבוע תשלום.אני יכול לקבוע אותו לעכשיו, אני יוכל לקבוע אותו להיום או למחר לעוד חודש - אבל בסופו של יום, כל או רוב התשלומים מתמקדים בעצם בנקודת זמן אחת.בסופו של יום, כדי להעביר כסף בהעברה בנקאית או בשיק - זה דווקא Batch-oriented, כלומר הכל מתרכז בנקודה אחת, כי הבנקים בסוף עובדים ב-Cut-off-ים . . .זאת אומרת שכשאני רוצה להעביר כסף מנקודה A ל-B, בעצם יש Cut-off של הבנקה-Cut-off של הבנק הוא ב-2300 או 2400 Central Time בארה”ב, ואז בעצם בנקודה הזאת אנחנו לוקחים את כל השלבים שנקבעו להיום, או שנקבעו למועד שאנחנו רוצים - ובעצם מוציאים אותם.מה שאומר שהמערכת מקבלת Event-ים, מקבלת פקודות, ב-Stream - אבל בסופו של יום, היא מתנקזת לנקודה אחת, שבה צריכים להעלות את אותו קובץ, אותו Ledger, לבנק, כדי לבצע את התשלומים השונים - או להוציא שיקים או . . .(אורי) הבנתי שאופי הטרנזקציות האלה זה אופי שלא מצריך State, כמעט . . . (אור) נכון - אז באמת, אני מוכרח להודות שבהתחלה המוטיבציה הייתה מאוד “לנהל כמה שפחות” ולאט לאט, עם הזמן - האמת שדי מהר - ראינו שזה משחק לטובתינו בעוד מקרים, כי יש לנו את הצד . . .צריך להבין שהשוק הזה הוא נורא נוח, כי . . . במובנים מסויימים הוא מאוד נוח ונקרא לזה “פריוויבלגי” לנו, כ-Business - כי מדובר בעסקים, אז הם עובדים 0900-1700, זה רוב העומס שיש לנו במערכתהם לא עובדים בשבת, הם לא עובדים בראשוןהבנקים לא עובדים בשבת ולא עובדים בראשון - אז אנחנו לא עושים Processing בימים האלו.יש לנו פריווילגיה מאוד גדולה להפעיל את המערכת רק בזמנים מסויימים,וגם בתוך אותם ימים - רק בשעות מסויימות(רן) אילו זה רק היה בשעון ישראל אז זה היה אידיאלי . . . (אור) כן, זה היה מושלם . . . אז במובן הזה, Serverless מאוד עזר לנו, כי אם ניקח לרגע רק את ה-Payments Processing -אז 90% מהיום זה 0, לא קורה שום דבר . . .אולי יש כל מיני Management ו-Logistic tasks וכאלו שרצים ברקע, אבל חוץ מזה - כלום.ואז, ב-Trigger מסויים ביום, במערכת מתחילה לעבוד, עושה את כל ה-Processing שהיא צריכה לעשות - וחוזרת לישון.(אורי) זה מזכיר לי קצת ב”רמזור” כשהוא מלמד ריקוד במשרד רואה חשבון - “מה קורה כל החודש? כלום-כלום-כלום . . . 15 לחודש?! אוו . . . .”.(רן) אז אתה אומר שהיכולת היפה של פונקציות Lambda לעשות Scale-up באופן מיייד ואחר כך לכבות לכמעט אפס - זה יתרון ארכיטקטוני אחד . . . דרך אגב, לגבי ה-State שהזכרתם פה, אז לפחות בדרך שבה אני מדמיין, דווקא ב-Payments אני מדמיין שקיים הרבה מאוד State, רק שהוא תמיד צריך להיות Persistent, את אומרת - הוא אף פעם לא In-Memory, כי אסור לאבד אותו . . . אז אולי זה לא נכון להגיד ש”לא קיים State”, אבל ה-State תמיד חייב להיות Persistent . . . .(אור) נכון - ה-State, במקרה שלנו, בוא נגיד . . . . אנחנו לא “Serverless קלאסי”, נקרא לזהה-State שלנו יושב על Database טרנזקציוני (Transactional), הטרנזקציות שלנו הן בתוך ה-Lambda, מן הסתם גם חלק מה-Processing של מה שה-Lambda עושהחלק ממה שאנחנו עושים בעבודה מול הבנקים זה בעצם חלק מהטרנזקציה שקוראת מול ה-Database, זאת אומרת - אנחנו מתייחסים ל-Lambda כאל Volatile לחלוטין - שאם היא תיפול, לא יקרה כלום מבחינת “לא יזוז כסף לשום מקום”.וה-State עצמו באמת נשאר ב-Database.(רן) איך נראים ה-API-ים מול אותם בנקים? אני זוכר מהפעם האחרונה שעשיתי איזשהו Payment, זה היה איזשהו CORBA זוועתי עם Perl וכאלה דברים . . . .מה המצב היום?(אור) אז באמת, תשלומים מול בנקים זה סיפור שלם לגמרי, שאפשר לספר עליו . . . אני אתן לרגע את הראשי תיבות ACH - זה Automated Clearing House, שזה בעצם אוטומציה למשהו ענתיקה שנקרא Clearing House . . .(רן) . . . ושום דבר שם לא אוטומטי . . . .(אור) . . . והאוטומציה . . . אני אתן שתי אנקדוטות, אבל בגדול זה קובץ עם המון Records בפניםאתה שם אותו באיזשהו Server בצד השני של העולם - וזה “חור שחור” . . . .אין שום דבר - לא מודל של Request Response . . . יש Response מסויים, אבל זה לא בדיוק אומר לך “אה, כן - אנחנו בדיוק העברנו את הכל!” - אתה יודע רק אחרי כמה ימים אילו מה-Records נכשלו.מה שלא נכשל - הצליח . . . זה בערך המודל לפרוטוקול של הדבר הזה.(רן) כנראה . . . (אור) “כנראה” . . . בדיוק.עכשיו, תוך כדי שאנחנו עובדים אתה אומר לעצמך אוקיי, זה מודל ש . . . יש שם איזשהו מחשב שעובר על הרשומות אחת-אחת, ה-Processing מעביר אותן הלאה ומחזיר אלינו מה שנכשל ומה שלא נכשל.ואז גילינו שאחת הטרנזקציות שחזרה ונכשלה - אנחנו ראינו איזשהו Meta-data בפנים שאנחנו שומרים כדי למפות את זה אחר כך לטרנזקציות פנימיות שלנו וכו' - ואצלנו זה התחיל נגיד עם “t” קטנה ומספר מאוד ארוךוחזרה אלינו טרזקציה שאנחנו לא מזהים - זיהינו אותה, כי שהסתכלנו בעין זה היה “T” גדולה ומספר מאוד ארוך . . . .ואז הבנו שאיפשהו ב-Chain של הבנקים, יש פשוט איזשהו בנאדם שפשוט הקליד “T” . . . . המחשב לא טועה בין “t” ל-”T”, זה שני דברים שונים לגמרי, אבל בנאדם שמקליד T באיזשהו אקסל או email או משהו - כנראה התחלף לו פעם אחת ל-T גדולה ומשם זה נשאר גדול וחזר אלינו בחזרה עם אות גדולה . . .(רן) זה היום שנשפך לו הקפה על ה-Shift . . . .(אור) משהו כזה, בדיוק . . . אז המערכת הזאת היא כאילו סמי-אוטומטית, כי הדברים הם Triggered בצורה אוטומטית - אבל יש שם הרבה מאוד עבודה אנושיתוגם השגיאות שחוזרות הרבה פעמים זו עבודה אנושית, כל מיני מיפויים שמסתכלים על ה-Owner של החשבון בנק - הרבה פעמים זה שם . . . .הם אשכרה ממפים את זה לשם, והרבה פעמים הם לא מוצאים את המספר . . . יש ממש הרבה מאוד תהליכים, ואני רוצה להגיד אולי - אם המערכת היא סוג של . . . ה-Input-ים שהיא מקבלת מהמכונה - אנחנו מתייחסים אליהם גם כאל Input-ים אנושיים, כדי לוודא שבאמת לא נפלנו גם במקרה הזה.(אורי) אבל רגע - קודם, אילן דיבר על זה שאתם מוציאים המון שיקים. זה כאילו . . . אשכרה יש מדפסות שמדפיסות נייר? Serverless מפה ועד להודעה חדשה, אבל מדפסות . . .(אילן) חבל על הזמן . . . (רן) בטח יש שירות של אמאזון שמדפיס שיקים, לא? . . . .(אילן) א - נכון, יש שירות של Amazon שמדפיס שיקים [?], אבל אנחנו משתמשים בשירותים של הבנקים שמדפיסים שיקיםאור דיבר בעצם על קובץ ACH, שזה קובץ מקודד, ששולחים אותו כדי לבצע העברות בנקאיותיש קובץ עם פורמט אחר, קצת יותר מתקדם, ב-JSON, שמעלים לבנקים והם מוציאים שיקים.בעצם, אנחנו נותנים פקודה לבנק - אתה צריך להעביר את זה עד שעה מסויימת, את הקובץ עצמוכשאתה אומר להם “הנה הפרטים” - ומהצד השני יש מדפסות, ומוציאים בעצם שיקים . . . עכשיו, הם עוברים, נכנסים למעטפות, עוברים ל-USPS - ומגיעים ליעד שלהם . . .(אורי) אני חייב להגיד שכאילו . . . נגיד ב-Outbrain, כשאנחנו עושים תשלומים לספקים - וזה הרבה מאוד ספקים, פעמיים בחודש - אנחנו עובדים עם איזושהי מערכת נוראית שנקראית מס”ב, מכירים? (אילן) [מהנהן ביאוש כנראה](רן) ישראלית?(אורי) כן, “מרכז סליקה בנקאי” או משהו כזה . . . (אור) זה די מזכיר את המבנה של ה-ACH, באיזשהו מקום - מאנקדוטות ששמעתי . . . (אורי) אני, אישית, מעדיף לחזור לשיקים, אחרי החווייה עם המס”ב הזה . . . כאילו, מעלים שם איזשהו קובץ Excel, זה אותו דבר כנראה . . . נורא.(רן) יותר בטוח מלשלם ביטוח לעובדים, שגם זה בדרך כלל לא מגיע, אבל לא משנה . . . .(אורי) נכון . . . .אבל יש שם גם . . . לפעמים מתחלפות להם . . . השמות מתחלפים בצדדים כי הכל בעברית, ואתה צריך לקרוא ביוונית, וזה . . .(רן) אז היום אתה מומחה ל-Payments, אור? את היום והלילה שלך אתה מבלה בפיענוח של קבצים כאלה?(אור) אז אני, בוא נגיד במרכאות “למזלי”, יש צוות הרבה יותר גדול שמתעסק בזה.אני עשיתי את זה תקופה יחסית ארוכה, אני . . . זה כמו במטריקס, שהוא רואה את הקוד ויודע מה מופיע מאחורי זה בלי להסתכל על התמונות? אז זה אותו דבר - אני מסתכל על הקובץ ACH ואני יודע - זה המספר של הזה, המבנה הזה זה שם . . .(רן) זה “T” גדולה אז היום Rachel עבדה, זה “t” אז . . .(אור) כן . . . גם בשיקים, אגב, זה מאוד . . . שוב, שיקים זה תהליך אנושי - זה נשלח בדואר אז זה הולך לאיבודיש גם דברים . . . לדוגמא, כשהתחלנו שלחנו מעטפות בצבע הלא נכון . . . שלחנו מעטפות סגולות של שיקים, של Melio, סגול . . . וגילינו שיש אנשים שפשוט מניחים את השיק בצד ולא עושים איתו כלום, כי הם חושבים שזה פרסומות . . . אז שינינו את זה ללבן - ופתאום אנשים כן הפקידו את השיקים . . . .יש כל מיני דברים . . . זה באמת, הערבוב הזה של תהליך אנושי ותהליך שאנחנו מייצרים דברים אוטומטית, שמים ב-API באיזשהו מקום איזו JSON או לא JSON - אנשים בצד השני בסוף צריכים לעשות פעולה, וזה הופך את הכל להרבה יותר מורכב.(אורי) יש לי משהו שמעניין אותי - דיברת על זה שבאים ועושים תשלום, ומקבלים מצד אחד ומשלמים מצד שני - ואתה רגיל שהטרנזקציה נסגרת, נכון?עכשיו, “נסגרת” זה אומר “הכסף עבר”, אני יודע, אבל זה לא בדיוק ככה - אתה . . . הכסף לא עבר, אתה רק העברת את הקובץ ל-Processing של מישהו אחר או שהשיק בדואר, זה . . . ואין היזון-חוזר.(אילן) אין היזון חוזר, זה נכון, וגם במקרים מסויימים, כמו שאור אמר - ב-Bank Transfer, ב-ACH, הפרוטוקול עובד בזה שהוא אומר “כל עוד לא חזרתי אליך אז הכל בסדר”, ואם חזרתי אליך עם שגיאה אז הנה הדברים שנכשלו”אבל כן בנינו מערכת - בנינו מערכת, בסופו של דבר אנחנו מעבירים היום בקצבים של עשרות מיליארדים של דולרים בשנה, יש לנו עשרות אלפי לקוחות ואנחנו חייבים שהכל יהיה מאוזן.ה-SLA הוא מאוד מאוד חשוב - בסופו של יום, אנחנו חייבים . . . לא יכולים להפסיד שדולר לא יגיע לצד אחד או תשלום או שניים יפלו, כי בסופו של דבר מדובר על עסקים שהכסף שלהם לא הגיע לספקים, וזה המון המון Relations שבין העסק לספק.ולכן בנינו מערכות שיושבות בעצם מחוץ ל-Payment Processing, שבעצם בודקות שהספרים מאוזניםנכנסות לבנקים, לוקחות קבצים שאנחנו . . . שמחוץ ל-Transactions, שהם קבצים שמגיעים אלינו - כדי לאזן את הספריםכדי לראות בעצם שכל מה שאנחנו ייצאנו - אנחנו אחרי זה מתשאלים את הבנק, אז אנחנו מבינים . . .כל מה שאנחנו שלחנו לבנק כהוראה, כשאנחנו אחרי זה מתשאלים את הבנק, אנחנו מוודאים שהבנק באמת הוציא את זה.כל המערכות של ה-FinOps שאנחנו . . . .(רן) אני מניח אגב, שזה ערך מוסף משמעותי, מעבר ליכולת הטכנית להעביר תשלום - לוודא שזה מאוזן, לוודא שהדברים עברו, אני מנחש שזה ערך מוסף . . . אני יכול להגיד, שוב - אם נחזור לאנקדוטה של החברת ביטוח - אני זוכר פגישה עם סוכן ביטוח שהבטיח לי ש”פה יש מחשב שבודק!”, אז שאלתי אותו “מה, לפעמים אין מחשב שבודק?”, אז הוא אמר לי “לא . . . בחברות זה אנשים, אצלי זה מחשב!”. אז ברוך הבא למאה העשרים . . . (אורי) אבל אתה אומר “אני מבצע את הטרנזקציות, ואחרי זה יש לי Sweeper כזה שעובר ובודק שבאמת כל הטרנזקציות - "באמת הבנק שילם את זה”, זה מה שתכל'ס סוגר את הטרנזקציה.(אילן) זה יוצא אצלנו כדוח במערכתאנחנו עושים בדיקות אצלנו, עוד במהלך העלאת הקבצים - גם שם יכולות להיות נפילות שלנויש הרבה Lambda-ות שרצות, יש הרבה קבצים, אנחנו עושים תהליך של MapReduce, שעוברים בעצם שורה-שורה בקבצים ופותחים אותם ב-Lambda-ות שיש לנובסופו של דבר אנחנו צריכים להבין שכל מה שקראנו מה-Database עולה לתוך הבנקים - עוד לפני בכלל שיכולים לסגור את הטרנזקציה.אז גם שם פיתחנו יכולת שבאנו ואמרנו שאנחנו לא מחכים - בגלל שאין שגיאות ואין היזון חוזר . . .(אורי) זה לא שאין שגיאות - אין הודעות שגיאה . . . (אילן) אין הודעות שגיאה, בדיוק - אז אנחנו, בתהליך העלאת הקבצים, אנחנו כל הזמן בודקים מה העלינו לעומת מה שהיה כתוב ב-Database - כי התהליך בעצם חיצוני ונפרד - כדי להקפיד שהדברים מאוזנים.רק בשלב שלאחר מכן, יש תהליך שבעצם מתשאל את הבנקים ובודק מה בעצם אנחנו העלינו, ואז רואה שהכל מאוזן.(אורי) עד כדי “t” קטנה ו-”T” גדולה . . . .(אילן) . . .שרק אור תופס, כן . . . (אור) יש פה באמת . . .אפשר להגיד שאנחנו עושים Reconciliation בכמה רמות שונות, מכמה Check-Points שונים בתוך התהליךגם מיד אחרי שאנחנו מעבירים את הכסף, גם כמה ימים אחר כך, גם כשמהבנק מודיעים לנו, בדיעבד, מה הצליח ומה לא הצליח, גם אחר כך במאזן של של הבנק, הסופי, שאנחנו רואים . . . .אנחנו מנסים באמת לקבל את התמונה השלמה, כי שוב, כמו שאילן אמר - אנחנו לא יכולים להרשות שבגללנו ה-Customer שלנו לא ישלם חשבון אחר, כי אז הוא, שוב, בבעיה מול הספק שלויש לו עכשיו Cash-flow problems . . . בשבילו זה 100% - תשלום אחד בשבילו . . .אצלנו תשלום אחד זה פרומיל-של-הפרומיל - אצלו זה 100% מהדברים שהוא מתעסק בהם.(אורי) זה גם פוגע לו לפעמים בדירוגי אשראי או כאילו . . . Credit Score.(אור) יכול . . .(אילן) זה יחס עם הספק . . . זה יחס עם הספק, שהוא אומר לו “The Cheque is on its way” - והוא לא באמת on its way, ואז היחסים ביניהם עשויים להיפגע.(רן) איך עוד נראה הסיפור הטכנולוגי? זאת אומרת - האם עצם זה שאתם עוסקים ב-Domain הזה, של פיננסים, יש לזה השלכות טכנולוגיות, לצורך העניין - באילו שפות אתם כותבים? איזה Security זה אומר מבחינתכם? השלכות אחרות, טכנולוגיות שקיימות?(אור) מבחינת שפות, אנחנו די “סטנדרטיים”, נקרא לזה ככה, לפחות בתעשייה היום.אנחנו עובדים ב-JavaScript, גם קצת Python בכל מיני מקומות בתוך המערכת - אבל בגדול רוב המערכת כתובה ב-Node.זה מאפשר לנו, פשוט בגלל ש-Lambda ו-Node זה מאוד . . . נקרא לזה “Native” ב- Runtime.לא ניסינו יותר מדי להתחכם שם - אנחנו בודקים את עצמנו כמה שיותר.מבחינת Security, גם - Lambda משחק יחסית לידיים שלנו במקרה הזה: אין Server . . . אין Port לפרוץ אליו אפילוזה לא קיים, כקונספט . . . גם ל-Compliance, אגב - גם מאוד עזר לנו, כל מה שקשור ל-Serverless.כשעברנו Compliance - עברנו כבר שני תהליכים - ופשוט, יש חברות . . .(אורי) מי הגוף שמבקש מכם את ה-Compliance? זה Compliance עם מי?(אור) Compliance ISO 27001 . . . (אורי) שהוא יותר פיננסי או . . .(אור) זה של אירופה יותר, אם אני לא טועה . . . (אילן) האירופאי זה בעיקר Security, ועכשיו אנחנו בעצם בתהליך, מסיימים אותו, של SOC 2 Type 2מי שדורש מאיתנו את הרגולציות האלה זה (א) השותפים שלנו, זה הבנקים שאיתם אנחנו עובדים - זה ה-Rails שאיתם אנחנו מעבירים את הכסף ושותפים - Melio בסוף . . . עוד לא נגענו בזה, אבל נחזור רגע לחלק הטכנולוגי - ל-Melio יש שני קווי מוצר עיקריים - הקו הראשון זה Stand-alone Experienceהקו השני בעצם זה ה-Platform - “היכולת לאמבד (To Embed) את ה-Experience בנדל”ן של מישהו אחר”השותף הכי גדול שלנו היום זה Intuit, ב-QuickBooks - בעצם שמו את היכולות שלנו בתוך QuickBooksושותף שמקבל שירות פיננסי רוצה לדעת שאנחנו Well-Secured.(רן) אז אמרת . . . למה אתה מוריד את ה-Attack-Surface? . . .(אור) דילגנו על זה . . . גם בתוך ה-Compliance יש סעיפים שלמים של Port management וכל מיני דברים כאלו, ברמת המכונות וה-Server-ים, שזה פשוט לדלג עליהם . . . לקצר מאוד את הזמן של ה-Compliance, באופן מפתיע . . . זה מפתיע את הצד השני, שעושה לנו את ה-Review - כמה חתכנו.זה היה מאוד נוח בהקשר הזה.(רן) למרות שאתה יודע - אני מניח שה-Compliance הזה יזוז עם הזמן ויתרגל, ויגלה שגם לצורך העניין, ב-Serverless צריך פשוט לבדוק דברים אחרים . . . אין יותר Port-ים פתוחים, אוקיי . . . אין יותר File Descriptors, אבל כן יש דברים אחרים . . .(אור) יש Dependencies, יש Static code analysis . . . עדיין יש הרבה API-ים שחשופים החוצה לעולם, מן הסתם . . .(רן) אני מבין שה-Compliance עוד לא הגיע לשם . . . .(אור) אנחנו מנסים כמה שיותר לדאוג בעצמנו, כי שוב - ה-Compliance חשוב לנו בגלל שזה חשוב לפרטנרים שלנו, זה חשוב לנראותחשוב לנו שלא יקרה לנו שום דבר, לשמור בעצם על כל הלקוחות שלנו, אז יש כאן את האספקט של האם אנחנו מרגישים מספיק אחריות בשביל לעשות את זה.כן . . . .אז בהקשר הזה, השימוש ב-Lambda ובאופן כללי ב-Serverless - אני רוצה רגע להגיד מילה על Serverless - אני תמיד שומע “Serverless, Serverless” . . . כשהתחלנו להתעסק עם זה, אני פחות התעניינתי בזה שזה Serverless, אפילו קראתי לזה הרבה פעמים Management-less . . . .יש Server, הוא קיים - יש Lambda, זה Server, יש Instance, יש לנו Connection ל-Database שאנחנו עושים לו Re-use, יש RAM ואנחנו מחזיקים שם כל מיני דברים, יש CPU . . . . יש הכל.זה מבחינתינו כאילו מתנהג קצת כמו Server שמריץ קוד ב-Check-point-ים - רק שאנחנו כאילו לא מנהלים אותו.אז במדרג, אנחנו כן מסתכלים על זה כי Lambda זה ה-Holy Grail מהבחינה הזו של Management-lessמתחת לזה יש לנו FarGate, יש לנו זה . . . אז אנחנו לא Pure-Serverless - אנחנו משתמשים במה שמתאים לנו באותה נקודת זמן.(רן) איך זה משפיע על חווית הפיתוח? זאת אומרת - אם אני עכשיו בא ומתקן איזשהו Bug ב-Service, שהוא כנראה חלק מ-70 רכיבים אחרים - איך אני מפתח אותו? איך אני בודק אותו?(אור) יפה, אז זה אחד הדברים הראשונים שגם אני חשבתי עליהם כשאמרנו “בואו נעשה Serverless” . . .אז יש לנו כרגע שתי גישות - אחת שהיא קצת יותר Legacy בתוך החברה ואחת שהיא יותר חדשה, שאנחנו ככה מתחילים לעשות לה סוג של Imploy מבפניםהגישה הראשונה, שהיא עדיין עובדת בחלק גדול מה-Service-ים - מה שעשינו איתה בעצם . . . ה-Service-ים עצמם, היה להם מבנה פנימי מאוד ספציפי, הם היו נראים כמו איזשהו Web Application, והייתה איזושהי מעטפת קטנה שסידרה בעצם את כל התשתית מסביב, שהיא כאילו תיקרא ל-Routing בתוך ה-Web Applicationאם זה Event מ-SQS אז הוא מול איזשהו Route עם Fake payload, שזה בעצם ה-Payload מ-SQS, ועוד כל מיני דברים בסגנון הזהאם יש S3 אז הוא מול איזשהו Payload מ-S3ואז זה מאפשר לנו בעצם להריץ את הדבר הזה בתוך Lambda כרגיל, עם Event-ים ו-Listeners והכל . . . (רן) וב-Commit אתה מייצר איזשהו Container שעוטף את זה . . .(אור) אפילו לא Container - הלכנו ממש npm-start . . . פשוט, מה שהיה . . . היו פשוט, בכל פרויקט, היו שני סקריפטיםאחד שמתאים ל-Lambda והשני שהוא Server עם איזושהי מעטפת.כשמפתחים עבדו לוקאלית, אז בעצם הם . . . ה-Service שלהם דיבר ישירות עם ה-Cloud, לא עבדנו עם RabbitMQ לוקאלית ו-SQS ב-Cloud, עם DynamoDB ב-Cloud ועם Redis לוקאליתפשוט הכל - לכל Developer יש תשתית שלמה - “שלד” כזה של התשתית - בלי ה-Computeהוא פשוט בוחר איזשהו Service שהוא רוצה, npm-start - וזה מתחיל “לנגן” מול התשתית, מול ה-SQS הרלוונטי, מול ה-DynamoDB הרלוונטיה-RDS, במקרה הזה MySQL, עדיין לוקאליתזאת הייתה הגישה הראשונה - זה עבד יחסית טוב, רצנו עם זה יחסית הרבה זמן.עכשיו אנחנו נהיינו קצת יותר Powerhouse של -Lambda, ואנחנו עובדים לגישה שהיא קצת שונה - אנחנו עובדים עם SAM היום - SAM זה המתחרה-Serverlss, זה “ה-Serverless.com של AWS“. . . הרעיון זה שהוא מייצר לנו CloudFormation templates, אנחנו עושים לזה Deployments כחבילה שלמה, כ-Stack שלםואז, ברגע שיש לך Stack כזה, של . . . בגדול, לכל מפתחת אצלנו נגיד יש חשבון AWS פרטי, זה כרגע . . . עדיין אנחנו בסוג של נקרא-לזה-POC כדי לבדוק שזה . . . שההתיכנות של זה היא ממש בסדר.לכל מפתחת יש חשבון AWS - בפנים יש בעצם את המיני-Production של Melio - איזה שירות שהיא רוצה להריץ שם, את ה-email Service שלה, גם את ה-Payments Processing, הכל . . . ואז, אם היא רוצה לפתח Lambda מסויימת, אז כתבנו איזשהו כלי משלנו, שבעצם משתלט על ה-Lambda הזאת, ומעביר את ה-Compute אליה למחשבואז היא יכולה לעשות Break-points, לוקאלית - זה רץ ממש על המחשב . . .(רן) כמו Telepresence בעולם של Kubernetes . . . .(אור) בדיוק - רק עם פחות משחקיםפחות משחקים עם Port-ים, פחות משחקים עם Networking - רק לקחת את ה-Message, לשלוח אותו למחשב, לעשות את ה-Compute . . .כי ה-Resources של AWS בכל מקרה זמינים - SQS זמין ב-API Call ו-SNS זמין ב-API Call, אז ה-Compute שרץ לוקאלית על המחשב “מדבר עם ה-Cloud כאילו הוא ב-Cloud”אז ה-Telepresence במובן הזה זה רק להעביר את ה-Messaging למקום הנכון ב . . . נקרא לזה “ב-Network הגלובאלי העולמי”, למחשב הספציפי שבו זה נמצא כרגע.(רן) אז מפתח חדש שמצטרף אליכם - אנחנו כבר לקראת סיום, וזו שאלה אחרונה אולי - מפתח חדש שמצטרף אליכם, שמעולם לא חווה Serverless ולא חווה את ה-Concept - עד כמה, להערכתם, קל או קשה לו להכנס ל-Mindset הנכון, של Serverless, של Stateless, וכו'?(אור) אז אני מודה שזה אתגר . . . אנחנו, ככה, מנסים בתקופת ה-Onboarding של המפתחים והמפתחות, אנחנו מנסים להכניס את זה מעיין ל-Mindset של “אנחנו חיים על Lambda”, עם האתגרים - מה שיבוא, אנחנו נתמודד איתו.בגדול, הגענו למצב שיש כבר הרבה מאוד Engineers שכבר עובדים עם זה, אז ברגע שמישהו מצטרף, יש את ה . . . נקרא לזה תמיכה, ה-Ecosystem הפנימי של החברה שיודע לעזור.אני יכול להגיד שהחבר'ה של ה-Payments Processing מדהימים בקטע הזה - ממש אימצו את זה לגמרי והם הולכים עם זה עד הסוף.גם עם ה-Pitfalls ועם ה-Challenges שיש לזה - הם הולכים עם זה ורצים עם זה קדימה ממש יפה.רציתי לגעת דווקא בנקודה, בהקשר של Serverless, אם יש לנו זמן - בהקשר של Pricing . . .יש איזושהי מנטרה כזאת, ש-”Serverless הרבה יותר יקר” [תלוי . . . 412 Serverless at Via], בגלל שזה בעצם שירות Premium כדי להריץ פונקציה אחת בודדתאנחנו, מה שנקרא, מוצאים - בהשאלה מאנגלית [we find it] - אנחנו מוצאים את זה יחסית - אם לא יותר זול אז מקביל לדברים אחרים.יש לזה כמה סיבות - מן הסתם, אחת הסיבות העיקריות זה שאם לא הרצנו אז אנחנו לא משלמים, אבל באיזשהו מקום . . .(אורי) אין דבר כזה “להשאיר Instance באוויר” . . .(אור) בדיוק - אין Instance באוויר . . . כשהוא כן באוויר זה יקר יותר, אבל רוב הזמן אצלנו הוא לא באוויר.בוא נגיד לא “רוב הזמן”, אני מגזים - אבל חלק גדול מהחודש הוא לא באוויר.ויש פיצ'ר מאוד נחמד, בהקשר הזה, שיחסית מאוד קל לנו לעשות לו מה שנקרא Unit economicsכי בעצם כל Processing אצלנו - אנחנו יודעים כמה הוא עולה, אנחנו יכולים לעשות איזשהו חישוב גס ולדעת כמה בעצם לתרגם- ממש לחשבונית AWS - לתרגם כמה עולה הפעילות העסקית, ואפילו לתת תחזיות על סמך זה.וזה יתרון מאוד גדול בשבילנו.(אורי) זה מחזיר אותי לשאלה שמחכה מההתחלה . . . מה המודל העסקי? זאת אומרת - אתם פר-טרנזקציה? אתם . . .(רן) עושים פרסומות! מה בעיה? . . . (אילן) Recommendations, כן . . .במערכת שלנו, בסופו של דבר, יש שני סוגים של Transactions - יש את מה שאנחנו קוראים לו Basic Transactions, ה-Fundamental - להעביר ACH ל-ACH או ACH לשיק - התשלומים האלה הם חינם, בעצם Engagement Flywheel עבור העסק ועבורנו בעצם - שהעסק ישתמש בנו.הסוג השני של התשלומים זה בעצם Premium Payments - אם עכשיו עסק רוצה להשתמש בכרטיס אשראי - אז לא מתאפשר לו כרטיס אשראי, כי רוב הספקים לא מקבלים אשראי בעולמות ה-B2Bאנחנו, בזכות ה-Decupling, מאפשרים לעסק בעצם לשלם בכרטיס אשראי - והצד השני יקבל שיק.וע”י כך, בעצם לעזור לעסק ולדחות תשלום בעוד 30 או 45 יום ל-Billing cycle הבא שלך, של כרטיסי האשראיהדבר הזה יעלה למשלם 2.9% . . . (רן) “אשראי ישראלי” - שוטף פלוס . . .(אורי) “השיק בדואר” . . . .(אילן) ותשלומים אחרים שהם Premium Services זה אם אני עכשיו בתור . . . אם אני רוצה . . . ACH, לוקח לו שלושה ימים להגיע בין צד אחד לצד אחר, זו המערכת הבנקאית בארה”ב [גם בארץ…]אם עכשיו רוצים שהתשלום יגיע באותו יום, או Instant - אז בעצם זו עלות שאחד הצדדים יכול לספוג בינתיים - מי שרוצה להאיץ את התשלום או לקבל יותר מהר את התשלום.(רן) דרך אגב, גם במערכת הבנקאית - אני מניח שאתה מכיר את זה - יש גם אפשרות לזרז את התשלום תמורת “תשלום סמלי” . . .(אילן) בדיוק - International payouts -אנחנו היום נכנסים לתשלומים בינלאומיים - ותשלומים כאלה עולים כסף, Domestic wire.אז אנחנו נותנים את התשלומים, את ה-Fundamental payments, בחינם - אבל התשלומים היותר Premium הם בעצם עולים, לאחד הצדדים, תלוי למי אתה מוכר אותו.משם מגיעים ה-Unit Economics שלנו.(אורי) אבל יש, נקרא לזה “הלימה”, בין כמות הטרנזקציות שאתם תבצעו - תכל'ס תשמשו ב-Lambda-ות, נכון? - לבין כמה כסף שתרוויחו, זאת אומרת - זה יחס ישר, מסויים, אבל . . .(אילן) זה לגמרי ככה . . . בסופו של יום, כשאנחנו בעצם מודדים, אנחנו מסתכלים בעצם על סך כל ה-Volume ש-Melio הוציאה באותו יום או באותו חודש - וכמה מה-Volume הזה הוא בעצם volume ש-Melio קיבלה עליו Revenueויש לנו איזשהו יעד שאנחנו באים ואומרים - “רגע, מה היחס?”אם מסתכלים, נגיד, על Check out באונליין, בוא נניח על Check out ב-Stripe - בסופו של יום, כש-Stripe מסתכלת על 100% מהטרנזקציות, הם מרוויחים רווח כזה או אחר, 2.5% או Whatever.אז ב-Melio זה עובד קצת אחרת, בגלל שיש Blend - יש Blend של תשלומים שהם בחינם ותשלומים שהם עולים, ש-Melio בעצם מקבלת עליהם Revenue.כשמסתכלים על הכל, אז יש לנו איזשהו יעד של כמה “Bips-ים” בעצם מסך כל ה-TPV הוא בעצם רווח או Revenue ל-Melio(רן) תרגם שנייה . . . Bips זה?(אילן) זה בעצם האחוזים שבעצם עליהם אנחנו . . .(אורי) זה רווח . . .(אילן) זה הרווח . . . זה ה-Revenue[בערך . . Basis points (BPS) refers to a common unit of measure for interest rates and other percentages in finance. One basis point is equal to 1/100th of 1%]וזה בעצם יעד שאנחנו מסתכלים עליו כל הזמןויש הלימה, בדיוק כמו שאמרת, אורי - בעצם, זה שאנחנו רואים שעסק משתמש בנו יותר, או מבצע יותר תשלומים, אז כמות ה-Premium Payments היחסית שקוראת שם בעצם עולה.ולכן אנחנו באים, וזה עדיין כלכלי עבורנו לבוא ולהגיע למצב שאנחנו רוצים שה-Engegement יעלה - כי אנחנו יודעים שאפשר אחרי זה To derive more revenue.(רן) הנושא הזה, של Unit Economy, אני לגמרי מזדהה איתו - אני נמצא גם במקום שמאוד קשה להבין כמה דברים עולים ואני יודע שזה משמעותי - אבל אני תוהה עד כמה זה בכלל זה משמעותי, עלות מרכיב הענן אצלכם היום - זה בכלל משהו משמעותי? אתם בכלל שמים לב אליו בשלב הזה של הגדילה?(אורי) . . . כאחוז מה-Revenue, ה-Cost of Sales . . .(אילן) בוא נגיד ככה, אם אני יכול ככה “לשתף ולא לשתף”, מה שנקרא . . .(רן) אם המשקיעים לא מקשיבים . . . [אבל אולי קוראים?](אילן) יש לנו עלויות עסקיות, שהן לא עלויות של הענן, בעצם - העלויות מול הבנקים, מול השותפים “הטבעיים”, נקרא לזהוכשמסתכלים על התמונה הכוללת, כשכוללים בפנים את העלות של הענן - אז זה לא כל כך מפחיד.(רן) זה בסדר, ואני חושב שהרבה חברות נמצאות במקום כזה, בעיקר בשלב של גדילה, שבו יש עלויות הרבה הרבה יותר משמעותיות - והן במכוון “שופכות כסף” על הענן, נקרא לזה.הבעיה שהן אחר כך מגיעות לנקודה שממנה מאוד קשה לחזור, של “אוקיי, עכשיו אני רוצה לצמצם את עלויות הענן - אבל עכשיו זה כבר ממש ממש קשה”.[השלמות למיטבי שמע - 421 The Cost of Cloud, a Trillion Dollar Paradox with Martin Casado ו - 418 Carboretor 31 Cost of cloud paradox](אילן) אז אני אהיה איתך כנה - זה שיקול מאוד . . . זה שיקול שעובר לנו גם.בסופו של יום, כשאמרנו שאנחנו רוצים להיות Management-less, אנחנו מעדיפים להתרכז ב-Core Businessכי Melio זו חברה שגדלה - גדלה וגדלה מאוד מהר - בשנה האחרונה הגדלנו את נפח הפעילות ב-5000% אחוז . . . ה-Covid, הקורונה, נתנה Boost מאוד גדול לעסקים להיפטר ממשהו פיזי או לפגוש אחד את השני כדי לבצע תשלומים ולעבור לתשלומים Online.דרך אגב - ה-Serverless או ה-Lambda-ות עזרו לנו To scale out בצורה מאוד טובה - מראש בנינו את המערכת שנוכל To Scale out בצורה טובה, וזה עזר לנו בגדילה הבאמת מאוד מהירה שקרתה לנו.אבל לנקודה שלך - כן, אנחנו הרבה יותר מפוקסים ביכולת שלנו להגדיל את ה-Business מאשר ללכת ולהבין איך אנחנו נחסוך בעלויות עיבוד.(רן) אבל עושים הכנה למזגן? זאת אומרת - מתישהו תתקינו את המזגן הזה . . . .(אילן) לגמרי . . . בחברות Payments זה נהוג להבין בעצם “כמה עולה תשלום”כשאני מסתכל שנייה רגע על . . . Melio בעצם ביצעה מיליונים של טרנזקציות - מה העלות הכוללת שלי, מתהליך העיבוד, עלויות שותפים - Per-Transactionהיכולת לחשב את זה היא יכולת מאוד חשובה כדי להביא את ה-Business to Scale(רן) אז הזכרנו שאתם גדלים - לא אמרתם איפה אתם גרים . . . איפה המשרד?(אילן) המשרד שלנו נמצא בתל אביב, ברחוב הארבעה, מגדלי הארבעהמאוד נגיש מבחינת “קרוב לרכבת” - מאוד נגיש למי שנמצא מחוץ לתל אביב, מאוד נגיש למי שבתוך תל אביבמשרדים יפים, חדשים, שתי קומות - וגדלים . . . (רן) מה אתם מחפשים היום?(אילן) היום ה-Engineering ב-Melio הוא כ-80 אנשים, שנמצאים בארבע קבוצות - אנחנו רוצים להכפיל את גודל הקבוצה, את קבוצת ה-Engineering בשנה הקרובה . . .מחפשים קצת “הכל מהכל” - מחפשים Full-Stack Engineers, יותר לצוותים שהם Product-facing, שמתעסקים בחווייה - לא דיברנו על זה הרבה היום, אבל יש חווייה - אחד הדברים, ואור הזכיר את זה קצת, דיברנו בעיקר על ה-Payments Processing, אבל בסופו של יום אנחנו מוכרים חווייה - חווייה שתיהיה מאוד מאוד נוחה ופשוטה לבעל עסק קטן כדי לנהל את התשלומים שלואז יש צוותים שהם Product-facing שהם בעיקר Full-Stack Engineers.מחפשים Data Science - כי -Melio עושה את כל ה-Risk של ה-Payments, כי Risk “לא קיים” בכל עולמות ה-B2B כמשהו שהוא off the shelf, אז היינו צריכים לפתח את כל המודלים בעצמנואז גם Big Data Engineers וגם Data Science לקבוצות של ה-Risk וה-Data.ו-Backend engineers ל-Payment Processing, שדיברנו עליו עכשיו . . . (רן) יופי - אז שיהיה בהצלחה, תודה רבה על הביקור, השיק בדואר, להתראות! האזנה נעימה ותודה רבה לעופר פורר על התמלול!

The History of Computing
All About Amdahl

The History of Computing

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 24, 2021 8:47


Gene Amdahl grew up in South Dakota and as with many during the early days of computing went into the Navy during World War II. He got his degree from South Dakota State in 1948 and went on to the University of Wisconsin-Madison for his PhD, where he got the bug for computers in 1952, joining the ranks of IBM that year. At IBM he worked on the iconic 704 and then the 7030 but found it too bureaucratic. And yet he came back to become the Chief Architect of the IBM S/360 project. They pushed the boundaries of what was possible with transistorized computing and along the way, Amdahl gave us Amdahl's Law, which is an important aspect of parallel computing - how much latency tasks take when split across different CPUs. Think of it like the law of diminishing returns applied to processing. Contrast this with Fred Brook's Brook's Law - which says that adding incremental engineers don't make projects happen faster by the same increment, or that it can cause a project to take even more time. As with Seymour Cray, Amdahl had ideas for supercomputers and left IBM again in 1970 when they didn't want to pursue them - ironically just a few years after Thomas Watson Jr admitted that just 34 people at CDC had kicked IBM out of their leadership position in the market. First he needed to be able to build a computer, then move into supercomputers. Fully transistorized computing had somewhat cleared the playing field. So he developed the Amdahl 470V/6 - more reliable, more pluggable, and so cheaper than the IBM S/370. He also used virtual machine technology so customers could simulate a 370 and so run existing workloads cheaper. The first went to NASA and the second to the University of Michigan. During the rise of transistorized computing they just kept selling more and more machines. The company grew fast, taking nearly a quart of the market share. As we saw in the CDC episode, the IBM antitrust case was again giving a boon to other companies. Amdahl was able to leverage the fact that IBM software was getting unbundled with the hardware as a big growth hack. As with Cray at the time, Amdahl wanted to keep to one CPU per workload and developed chips and electronics with Fujitsu to enable doing so. By the end of the 70s they had grown to 6,000 employees on the back of a billion dollars in sales. And having built a bureaucratic organization like the one he just left, he left his namesake company much as Seymour Cray had left CDC after helping build it (and would later leave Cray to start yet another Cray). That would be Trilogy systems, which failed shortly after an IPO. I guess we can't always bet on the name. Then Andor International. Then Commercial Data Servers, now a part of Xbridge systems. Meanwhile the 1980s weren't kind to the company with his name on the masthead. The rise of Unix and first minicomputers then standard servers meant people were building all kinds of new devices. Amdahl started selling servers, given the new smaller and pluggable form factors. They sold storage. They sold software to make software, like IDEs. The rapid proliferation of networking and open standards let them sell networking products. Fujitsu ended up growing faster and when Gene Amdahl was gone, in the face of mounting competition with IBM, Amdahl tried to merge with Storage Technology Corporation, or StorageTek as it might be considered today. CDC had pushed some of its technology to StorageTek during their demise and StorageTek in the face of this new competition ended up filing Chapter 11 and getting picked up by Sun for just over $4 billion. But Amdahl was hemorrhaging money as we moved into the 90s. They sold off half the shares to Fujitsu, laid off over a third of their now 10,000 plus workforce, and by the year 2000 had been lapped by IBM on the high end market. They sold off their software division, and Fujitsu acquired the rest of the shares. Many of the customers then moved to the then-new IBM Z series servers that were coming out with 64 bit G3 and G4 chips. As opposed to the 31-bit chips Amdahl, now Fujitsu under the GlobalServer mainframe brand, sells. Amdahl came out of the blue, or Big Blue. On the back of Gene Amdahl's name and a good strategy to attack that S/360 market, they took 8% of the mainframe market from IBM at one point. But they sold to big customers and eventually disappeared as the market shifted to smaller machines and a more standardized lineup of chips. They were able to last for awhile on the revenues they'd put together but ultimately without someone at the top with a vision for the future of the industry, they just couldn't make it as a standalone company. The High Performance Computing server revenues steadily continue to rise at Fujitsu though - hitting $1.3 billion in 2020. In fact, in a sign of the times, the 20 million Euro PRIMEHPC FX700 that's going to the Minho Advanced Computing Centre in Portugal is a petascale computer built on an ARM plus x86 architecture. My how the times have changed. But as components get smaller, more precise, faster, and more mass producible we see the same types of issues with companies being too large to pivot quickly from the PC to the post-PC era. Although at this point, it's doubtful they'll have a generations worth of runway from a patron like Fujitsu to be able to continue in business. Or maybe a patron who sees the benefits downmarket from the new technology that emerges from projects like this and takes on what amounts to nation-building to pivot a company like that. Only time will tell.

Adafruit Industries
Deep Dive w/Scott: CircuitPython on Raspberry Pi 4

Adafruit Industries

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 22, 2021 129:59


Join Scott as he shows all of the CircuitPython on Raspberry Pi 4 progress! After, we dive deep into enabling caches to speed things up. Questions are welcome. Next week is on Friday. Support Adafruit, and by extension me, by purchasing hardware from https://adafruit.com Chat with me and a lot of others on the Adafruit Discord at https://adafru.it/discord. Deep Dive happens every week. Normally Fridays at 2pm Pacific but occasionally shifted to Thursday at 2pm. Thanks to David for notes. 0:00 Hellos 0:01:30 a little behind :-) 0:04:12 housekeeping 0:09:25 review progress from last week 0:10:06 broadcom peripherals on github 0:11:00 CMSIS 0:12:00 backtrace / openocd / gdb target external 0:13:00 broadcom-peripherals cortex-a-gdb.py 0:15:00 ExceptionUnwinder / add_saved_register / match boot.S 0:16:40 Micropython vs. circuitpython object representations (mpconfig.h) lines 73... 0:18:30 MICROPY_OBJ_REPR_D was for 64 bit pointers on a 32 bit system 0:19:11 use MICROPY_OBJ_REPR_A ( line 64) 0:20:00 next task - add HDMI - see rpi4-osdev part5-framebuffer 0:21:15 getting the GPU framebuffer / mailbox call 0:23:22 Cortex A programmer's guide pdf DEN0024A_v8_architecthure_PG.pdf 0:27:46 Raspberry Pi 4 - 2GB HDMI display with HDMI to USB adapter 0:31:33 program image into rpi 0:32:18 CP display ( and REPL ) on rpi HDMI - scroll appears slow - probably due to no caches activated 0:35:57 import board to get GPIO18-21 0:37:44 Question: Pi Pico / trying to make a MIDI sequencer but I can't get a precise ppqn (Pulses Per Quarter Note) clock using time.monotonic_ns. I heard we can't use timer interrupts with circuitpython. What should I do? 0:39:00 back to scrolling 0:43:35 Tak (sp) got USB working - 0:44:20 CP talking over USB! 0:46:33 tiny USB branch 0:48:32 committing ports/broadcom 0:49:00 oops - git reset hard :-( 0:50:12 EMMC2 mapping 0:52:00 needed more USB endpoints ( zero not adequate ) 0:53:18 ARM Cortex A cache chapter in DEN0024A_v8_architecture_PG.pdf 0:57:20 Other sharing of cache ( CPU, GPU, USB, frame buffer, etc ) 1:00:40 time.monotonic / No long integer support 1:02:00 def t() to test cpu performance based on time monotonic 1:03:20 storage not working yet - need to copy/paste from terminal 1:04:10 Instruction vs. Data caching, Flash / RAM 1:04:55 Need to split up RAM into a ‘flash' area of RAM and a separate ‘RAM area 1:05:57 link.ld memory SECTIONS map 1:07:00 copy stuff from common.template.ld READONLY 1.5M, NORMAL 1022M 1:22:11 recompile and test … 1:26:46 it still works 1:28:00 set up the MAIR register ( and mmu.h ) 1:32:00 see page 3563 ( of 8696 ) of DDIO487G_b_armv8_arm.pdf 1:34:10 mmu.c setup_mmu_flat_map() 1:45:00 add MM_DESCRIPTOR_OUTER_SHAREABLE and INNER to mmu.h and mmu.c 1:48:30 look at all those bits in SCTLR_EL2 1:51:00 set “I” bit 12, and “C” bit 1:52:00 summarizing current status 1:54:50 Is the plan to have the raspberry pi show up as a mass storage device like other cp boards? 1:56:30 recompile, and try “something” out 1:57:00 As I understand it, that's the reason for using the P4 (or Pi Zero), as they support setting a USB port to a mode...the USB-C port on the Pi4, the 2nd port on the Zero 1:57:40 Interesting I'm excited to see what Circuit python can do on a pi board. I was curious how well they would behave as a mass storage drive since they're much closer to being a full fledged pc than other cp devices. 1:57:50 Doesn't look like it worked - ( getting the rainbow test pattern ) 1:59:06 try just the instruction cache? 2:01:40 obviously we have some more optimizations to do, including the TLB 2:02:20 How is the storage etc working now? do you have an emmc model and use the usbboot thing to copy it over? Or? 2:02:40 ​Is it still recommended for beginners to start with CircuitPython6? I've been finding some of the sensor examples provided don't work with CircuitPython7, as the calls/functions/etc have changed. 2:03:40 So big question...if I submit a PR that allows booty.py as code.py alternative if in Pirate language mode, will it be accepted? 2:04:10 eMMC and SDcard would behave the same, nothing to do there technically 2:05:00 Related question, is it possible for the community to offer pull requests to update those examples? Would that be best done on the particular sensors Github page? Which then would filter to learn.ada 2:05:59 Sooo running CP from a MultiGB SD Card will just work on the RPI? 2:06:50 Wrap-up - remember the US daylight time zone change happening soon - still at 2PM local Follow along at https://github.com/tannewt/circuitpython/tree/rpi 2:09:30 pet the cat Visit the Adafruit shop online - http://www.adafruit.com ----------------------------------------- LIVE CHAT IS HERE! http://adafru.it/discord Adafruit on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/adafruit Subscribe to Adafruit on YouTube: http://adafru.it/subscribe New tutorials on the Adafruit Learning System: http://learn.adafruit.com/ -----------------------------------------

Couch Potatoes Unite!
The Legacy of M*A*S*H: Goodbye, Farewell, and Amen – The Retrospective Bonus Episode! (MAJOR SPOILERS)

Couch Potatoes Unite!

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 21, 2021


A new podcast episode of Couch Potatoes Unite!, which is based on a blog of the same name hosted at our website: couchpotatoesunite.wordpress.com. In this episode, our bonus panel of generationally appropriate CPU! MASHed Potatoes and fans of wartime dramedies – including co-moderators Nick and... Read More

mixxio — podcast diario de tecnología

Apple vuelve a los portátiles Profesionales / M1 Pro y M1 Max / Lucha por el futuro del roaming / DNI obligatorio para redes sociales / Steam prohíbe cripto en su tienda / Amsterdam vs Airbnb Patrocinador: A diferencia de las soluciones antivirus tradicionales que todos conocíamos de los 90 y principios de siglo, que sólo actúan cuando un proceso es malicioso, los antivirus de nueva generación de Panda Security, un Brand Watchguard https://www.pandasecurity.com/es/, tienen tecnología que detecta los ataques incluso antes de que se produzcan. Apple vuelve a los portátiles Profesionales / M1 Pro y M1 Max / Lucha por el futuro del roaming / DNI obligatorio para redes sociales / Steam prohíbe cripto en su tienda / Amsterdam vs Airbnb

Screaming in the Cloud
Keeping the Cloudwatch with Ewere Diagboya

Screaming in the Cloud

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 14, 2021 32:21


About EwereCloud, DevOps Engineer, Blogger and AuthorLinks: Infrastructure Monitoring with Amazon CloudWatch: https://www.amazon.com/Infrastructure-Monitoring-Amazon-CloudWatch-infrastructure-ebook/dp/B08YS2PYKJ LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/ewere/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/nimboya Medium: https://medium.com/@nimboya My Cloud Series: https://mycloudseries.com TranscriptAnnouncer: Hello, and welcome to Screaming in the Cloud with your host, Chief Cloud Economist at The Duckbill Group, Corey Quinn. This weekly show features conversations with people doing interesting work in the world of cloud, thoughtful commentary on the state of the technical world, and ridiculous titles for which Corey refuses to apologize. This is Screaming in the Cloud.Corey: This episode is sponsored in part by Honeycomb. When production is running slow, it's hard to know where problems originate: is it your application code, users, or the underlying systems? I've got five bucks on DNS, personally. Why scroll through endless dashboards, while dealing with alert floods, going from tool to tool to tool that you employ, guessing at which puzzle pieces matter? Context switching and tool sprawl are slowly killing both your team and your business. You should care more about one of those than the other, which one is up to you. Drop the separate pillars and enter a world of getting one unified understanding of the one thing driving your business: production. With Honeycomb, you guess less and know more. Try it for free at Honeycomb.io/screaminginthecloud. Observability, it's more than just hipster monitoring.Corey: This episode is sponsored in part by Liquibase. If you're anything like me, you've screwed up the database part of a deployment so severely that you've been banned from touching every anything that remotely sounds like SQL, at at least three different companies. We've mostly got code deployments solved for, but when it comes to databases we basically rely on desperate hope, with a roll back plan of keeping our resumes up to date. It doesn't have to be that way. Meet Liquibase. It is both an open source project and a commercial offering. Liquibase lets you track, modify, and automate database schema changes across almost any database, with guardrails to ensure you'll still have a company left after you deploy the change. No matter where your database lives, Liquibase can help you solve your database deployment issues. Check them out today at liquibase.com. Offer does not apply to Route 53.Corey: Welcome to Screaming in the Cloud. I'm Corey Quinn. I periodically make observations that monitoring cloud resources has changed somewhat since I first got started in the world of monitoring. My experience goes back to the original Call of Duty. That's right: Nagios.When you set instances up, it would theoretically tell you when they were unreachable or certain thresholds didn't work. It was janky but it kind of worked, and that was sort of the best we have. The world has progressed as cloud has become more complicated, as technologies have become more sophisticated, and here today to talk about this is the first AWS Hero from Africa and author of a brand new book, Ewere Diagboya. Thank you for joining me.Ewere: Thanks for the opportunity.Corey: So, you recently published a book on CloudWatch. To my understanding, it is the first such book that goes in-depth with not just how to wind up using it, but how to contextualize it as well. How did it come to be, I guess is my first question?Ewere: Yes, thanks a lot, Corey. The name of the book is Infrastructure Monitoring with Amazon CloudWatch, and the book came to be from the concept of looking at the ecosystem of AWS cloud computing and we saw that a lot of the things around cloud—I mostly talked about—most of this is [unintelligible 00:01:49] compute part of AWS, which is EC2, the containers, and all that, you find books on all those topics. They are all proliferated all over the internet, you know, and videos and all that.But there is a core behind each of these services that no one actually talks about and amplifies, which is the monitoring part, which helps you to understand what is going on with the system. I mean, knowing what is going on with the system helps you to understand failures, helps you to predict issues, helps you to also envisage when a failure is going to happen so that you can remedy it and also [unintelligible 00:02:19], and in some cases, even give you a historical view of the system to help you understand how a system has behaved over a period of time.Corey: One of the articles that I put out that first really put me on AWS's radar, for better or worse, was something that I was commissioned to write for Linux Journal, back when that was a print publication. And I accidentally wound up getting the cover of it with my article, “CloudWatch is of the devil, but I must use it.” And it was a painful problem that people generally found resonated with them because no one felt they really understood CloudWatch; it was incredibly expensive; it didn't really seem like it was at all intuitive, or that there was any good way to opt out of it, it was just simply there, and if you were going to be monitoring your system in a cloud environment—which of course you should be—it was just sort of the cost of doing business that you then have to pay for a third-party tool to wind up using the CloudWatch metrics that it was gathering, and it was just expensive and unpleasant all around. Now, a lot of the criticisms I put about CloudWatch's limitations in those days, about four years ago, have largely been resolved or at least mitigated in different ways. But is CloudWatch still crappy, I guess, is my question?Ewere: Um, yeah. So, at the moment, I think, like you said, CloudWatch has really evolved over time. I personally also had that issue with CloudWatch when I started using CloudWatch; I had the challenge of usability, I had the challenge of proper integration, and I will talk about my first experience with CloudWatch here. So, when I started my infrastructure work, one of the things I was doing a lot was EC2, basically. I mean, everyone always starts with EC2 at the first time.And then we had a downtime. And then my CTO says, “Okay, [Ewere 00:04:00], check what's going on.” And I'm like, “How do I check?” [laugh]. I mean, I had no idea of what to do.And he says, “Okay, there's a tool called CloudWatch. You should be able to monitor.” And I'm like, “Okay.” I dive into CloudWatch, and boom, I'm confused again. And you look at the console, you see, it shows you certain metrics, and yet [people 00:04:18] don't understand what CPU metric talks about, what does network bandwidth talks about?And here I am trying to dig, and dig, and dig deeper, and I still don't get [laugh] a sense of what is actually going on. But what I needed to find out was, I mean, what was wrong with the memory of the system, so I delved into trying to install the CloudWatch agent, get metrics and all that. But the truth of the matter was that I couldn't really solve my problem very well, but I had [unintelligible 00:04:43] of knowing that I don't have memory out of the box; it's something that has to set up differently. And trust me, after then I didn't touch CloudWatch [laugh] again. Because, like you said, it was a problem, it was a bit difficult to work with.But fast forward a couple of years later, I could actually see someone use CloudWatch for a lot of beautiful stuff, you know? It creates beautiful dashboards, creates some very well-aggregated metrics. And also with the aggregated alarms that CloudWatch comes with, [unintelligible 00:05:12] easy for you to avoid what to call incident fatigue. And then also, the dashboards. I mean, there are so many dashboards that simplified to work with, and it makes it easy and straightforward to configure.So, the bootstrapping and the changes and the improvements on CloudWatch over time has made CloudWatch a go-to tool, and most especially the integration with containers and Kubernetes. I mean, CloudWatch is one of the easiest tools to integrate with EKS, Kubernetes, or other container services that run in AWS; it's just, more or less, one or two lines of setup, and here you go with a lot of beautiful, interesting, and insightful metrics that you will not get out of the box, and if you look at other monitoring tools, it takes a lot of time for you to set up, for you to configure, for you to consistently maintain and to give you those consistent metrics you need to know what's going on with your system from time to time.Corey: The problem I always ran into was that the traditional tools that I was used to using in data centers worked pretty well because you didn't have a whole lot of variability on an hour-to-hour basis. Sure, when you installed new servers or brought up new virtual machines, you had to update the monitoring system. But then you started getting into this world of ephemerality with auto-scaling originally, and later containers, and—God help us all—Lambda now, where it becomes this very strange back-and-forth story of, you need to be able to build something that, I guess, is responsive to that. And there's no good way to get access to some of the things that CloudWatch provides, just because we didn't have access into AWS's systems the way that they do. The inverse, though, is that they don't have access into things running inside of the hypervisor; a classic example has always been memory: memory usage is an example of something that hasn't been able to be displayed traditionally without installing some sort of agent inside of it. Is that still the case? Are there better ways of addressing those things now?Ewere: So, that's still the case, I mean, for EC2 instances. So before, now, we had an agent called a CloudWatch agent. Now, there's a new agent called Unified Cloudwatch Agent which is, I mean, a top-notch from CloudWatch agent. So, at the moment, basically, that's what happens on the EC2 layer. But the good thing is when you're working with containers, or more or less Kubernetes kind of applications or systems, everything comes out of the box.So, with containers, we're talking about a [laugh] lot of moving parts. The container themselves with their own CPU, memory, disk, all the metrics, and then the nodes—or the EC2 instance of the virtual machines running behind them—also having their own unique metrics. So, within the container world, these things are just a click of a button. Everything happens at the same time as a single entity, but within the EC2 instance and ecosystem, you still find this there, although the setup process has been a bit easier and much faster. But in the container world, that problem has totally been eliminated.Corey: When you take a look at someone who's just starting to get a glimmer of awareness around what CloudWatch is and how to contextualize it, what are the most common mistakes people make early on?Ewere: I also talked about this in my book, and one of the mistakes people make in terms of CloudWatch, and monitoring in generalities: “What am I trying to figure out?” [laugh]. If you don't have that answer clearly stated, you're going to run into a lot of problems. You need to answer that question of, “What am I trying to figure out?” I mean, monitoring is so broad, monitoring is so large that if you do not have the answer to that question, you're going to get yourself into a lot of trouble, you're going to get yourself into a lot of confusion, and like I said, if you don't understand what you're trying to figure out in the first place, then you're going to get a lot of data, you're going to get a lot of information, and that can get you confused.And I also talked about what I call alarm fatigues or incident fatigues. This happens when you configure so many alarms, so many metrics, and you're getting a lot of alarms hitting and notification services—whether it's Slack, whether it's an email—and it causes fatigue. What happens here is the person who should know what is going on with the system gets a ton of messages and in that scenario can miss something very important because there's so many messages coming in, so many integrations coming in. So, you should be able to optimize appropriately, to be able to, like you said, conceptualize what you're trying to figure out, what problems are you trying to solve? Most times you really don't figure this out for a start, but there are certain bare minimums you need to know about, and that's part of what I talked about in the book.One of the things that I highlighted in the book when I talked about monitoring of different layers is, when you're talking about monitoring of infrastructure, say compute services, such as virtual machines, or EC2 instances, the certain baseline and metrics you need to take note of that are core to the reliability, the scalability, and the efficiency of your system. And if you focus on these things, you can have a baseline starting point before you start going deeper into things like observability and knowing what's going on entirely with your system. So, baseline understanding of—baseline metrics, and baseline of what you need to check in terms of different kinds of services you're trying to monitor is your starting point. And the mistake people make is that they don't have a baseline. So, we do not have a baseline; they just install a monitoring tool, configure a CloudWatch, and they don't know the problem they're trying to solve [laugh] and that can lead to a lot of confusion.Corey: So, what inspired you from, I guess, kicking the tires on CloudWatch—the way that we all do—and being frustrated and confused by it, all the way to the other side of writing a book on it? What was it that got you to that point? Were you an expert on CloudWatch before you started writing the book, or was it, “Well, by the time this book is done, I will certainly know [laugh] more about the service than I did when I started.”Ewere: Yeah, I think it's a double-edged sword. [laugh]. So, it's a combination of the things you just said. So, first of all, I have experienced with other monitoring tools; I have love for reliability and scalability of a system. I started Kubernetes at some of the early times Kubernetes came out, when it was very difficult to deploy, when it was very difficult to set up.Because I'm looking at how I can make systems a little bit more efficient, a little bit more reliable than having to handle a lot of things like auto-scaling, having to go through the process of understanding how to scale. I mean, that's a school of its own that you need to prepare yourself for. So, first of all, I have a love for making sure systems are reliable and efficient, and second of all, I also want to make sure that I know what is going on with my system per time, as much as possible. The level of visibility of a system gives you the level of control and understanding of what your system is doing per time. So, those two things are very core to me.And then thirdly, I had a plan of a streak of books I want to write based on AWS, and just like monitoring is something that is just new. I mean, if you go to the package website, this is the first book on infrastructure monitoring AWS with CloudWatch; it's not a very common topic to talk about. And I have other topics in my head, and I really want to talk about things like networking, and other topics that you really need to go deep inside to be able to appreciate the value of what you see in there with all those scenarios because in this book, every chapter, I created a scenario of what a real-life monitoring system or what you need to do looks like. So, being that I have those premonitions, I know that whenever it came to, you know, to share with the world what I know in monitoring, what I've learned in monitoring, I took a [unintelligible 00:12:26]. And then secondly, as this opportunity for me to start telling the world about the things I learned, and then I also learned while writing the book because there are certain topics in the book that I'm not so much of an expert in things, like big data and all that.I had to also learn; I had to take some time to do more research, to do more understanding. So, I use CloudWatch, okay? I'm kind of good in CloudWatch, and also, I also had to do more learning to be able to disseminate this information. And also, hopefully, X-Ray some parts of monitoring and different services that people do not really pay so much attention into.Corey: What do you find that is still the most, I guess, confusing to you as you take a look across the ecosystem of the entire CloudWatch space? I mean, every time I play with it, I take a look, and I get lost in, “Oh, they have contributor analyses, and logs, and metrics.” And it's confusing, and every time I wind up, I guess, spiraling out of control. What do you find that, after all of this, is a lot easier for you, and what do you find that's a lot more understandable?Ewere: I'm still going to go back to the containers part. I'm sorry, I'm in love containers. [laugh].Corey: No, no, it's fair. Containers are very popular. Everyone loves them. I'm just basically anti-container based upon no better reason than I'm just stubborn and bloody-minded most of the time.Ewere: [laugh]. So, pretty much like I said, I kind of had experience with other monitoring tools. Trust me, if you want to configure proper container monitoring for other tools, trust me, it's going to take you at least a week or two to get it properly, from the dashboards, to the login configurations, to the piping of the data to the proper storage engine. These are things I talked about in the book because I took monitoring from the ground up. I mean, if you've never done monitoring before, when you take my book, you will understand the basic principles of monitoring.And [funny 00:14:15], you know, monitoring has some big data process, like an ETL process: extraction, transformation, and writing of data into an analytic system. So, first of all, you have to battle that. You have to talk about the availability of your storage engine. What are you using? An Elasticsearch? Are you using an InfluxDB? Where do you want to store your data? And then you have to answer the question of how do I visualize the data? What method do I realize this data? What kind of dashboards do I want to use? What methods of representation do I need to represent this data so that it makes sense to whoever I'm sharing this data with. Because in monitoring, you definitely have to share data with either yourself or with someone else, so the way you present the data needs to make sense. I've seen graphs that do not make sense. So, it requires some level of skill. Like I said, I've [unintelligible 00:15:01] where I spent a week or two having to set up dashboards. And then after setting up the dashboard, someone was like, “I don't understand, and we just need, like, two.” And I'm like, “Really?” [laugh]. You know? Because you spend so much time. And secondly, you discover that repeatability of that process is a problem. Because some of these tools are click and drag; some of them don't have JSON configuration. Some do, some don't. So, you discover that scalability of this kind of system becomes a problem. You can't repeat the dashboards: if you make a change to the system, you need to go back to your dashboard, you need to make some changes, you need to update your login, too, you need to make some changes across the layer. So, all these things is a lot of overhead [laugh] that you can cut off when you use things like Container Insights in CloudWatch—which is a feature of CloudWatch. So, for me, that's a part that you can really, really suck out so much juice from in a very short time, quickly and very efficiently. On the flip side, when you talk about monitoring for big data services, and monitoring for a little bit of serverless, there might be a little steepness in the flow of the learning curve there because if you do not have a good foundation in serverless, when you get into [laugh] Lambda Insights in CloudWatch, trust me, you're going to be put off by that; you're going to get a little bit confused. And then there's also multifunction insights at the moment. So, you need to have some very good, solid foundation in some of those topics before you can get in there and understand some of the data and the metrics that CloudWatch is presenting to you. And then lastly, things like big data, too, there are things that monitoring is still being properly fleshed out. Which I think that in the coming months and years to come, they will become more proper and they will become more presentable than they are at the moment.Corey: This episode is sponsored by our friends at Oracle HeatWave is a new high-performance accelerator for the Oracle MySQL Database Service. Although I insist on calling it “my squirrel.” While MySQL has long been the worlds most popular open source database, shifting from transacting to analytics required way too much overhead and, ya know, work. With HeatWave you can run your OLTP and OLAP, don't ask me to ever say those acronyms again, workloads directly from your MySQL database and eliminate the time consuming data movement and integration work, while also performing 1100X faster than Amazon Aurora, and 2.5X faster than Amazon Redshift, at a third of the cost. My thanks again to Oracle Cloud for sponsoring this ridiculous nonsense.Corey: The problem I've always had with dashboards is it seems like managers always want them—“More dashboards, more dashboards”—then you check the usage statistics of who's actually been viewing the dashboards and the answer is, no one since you demoed it to the execs eight months ago. But they always claim to want more. How do you square that?I guess, slicing between what people asked for and what they actually use.Ewere: [laugh]. So yeah, one of the interesting things about dashboards in terms of most especially infrastructure monitoring, is the dashboards people really want is a revenue dashboards. Trust me, that's what they want to see; they want to see the money going up, up, up, [laugh] you know? So, when it comes to—Corey: Oh, yes. Up and to the right, then everyone's happy. But CloudWatch tends to give you just very, very granular, low-level metrics of thing—it's hard to turn that into something executives care about.Ewere: Yeah, what people really care about. But my own take on that is, the dashboards are actually for you and your team to watch, to know what's going on from time to time. But what is key is setting up events across very specific and sensitive data. For example, when any kind of sensitive data is flowing across your system and you need to check that out, then you tie a metric to that, and in turn alarm to it. That is actually the most important thing for anybody.I mean, for the dashboards, it's just for you and your team, like I said, for your personal consumption. “Oh, I can see all the RDS connections are getting too high, we need to upgrade.” Oh, we can see that all, the memory, there was a memory spike in the last two hours. I know that's for you and your team to consume; not for the executive team. But what is really good is being able to do things like aggregate data that you can share.I think that is what the executive team would love to see. When you go back to the core principles of DevOps in terms of the DevOps Handbook, you see things like a mean time to recover, and change failure rate, and all that. The most interesting thing is that all these metrics can be measured only by monitoring. You cannot change failure rates if you don't have a monitoring system that tells you when there was a failure. You cannot know your release frequency when you don't have a metric that measures number of deployments you have and is audited in a particular metric or a particular aggregator system.So, we discovered that the four major things you measure in DevOps are all tied back to monitoring and metrics, at minimum, to understand your system from time to time. So, what the executive team actually needs is to get a summary of what's going on. And one of the things I usually do for almost any company I work for is to share some kind of uptime system with them. And that's where CloudWatch Synthetics Canary come in. So, Synthetic Canary is a service that helps you calculate that helps you check for uptime of the system.So, it's a very simple service. It does a ping, but it is so efficient, and it is so powerful. How is it powerful? It does a ping to a system and it gets a feedback. Now, if the status code of your service, it's not 200 or not 300, it considers it downtime.Now, when you aggregate this data within a period of time, say a month or two, you can actually use that data to calculate the uptime of your system. And that uptime [unintelligible 00:19:50] is something you can actually share to your customers and say, “Okay, we have an SLA of 99.9%. We have an SLA of 99.8%.” That data should not be doctored data; it should not be a data you just cook out of your head; it should be based on your system that you have used, worked with, monitored over a period of time so that the information you share with your customers are genuine, they are truthful, and they are something that they can also see for themselves.Hence companies are using [unintelligible 00:20:19] like status page to know what's going on from time to time whenever there is an incident and report back to their customers. So, these are things that executives will be more interested in than just dashboards, [laugh] dashboards, and more dashboards. So, it's more or less not about what they really ask for, but what you know and what you believe you are going to draw value from. I mean, an executive in a meeting with a client and says, “Hey, we got a system that has 99.9% uptime.”He opens the dashboard or he opens the uptime system and say, “You see our uptime? For the past three months, this has been our metric.” Boom. [snaps fingers]. That's it. That's value, instantly. I'm not showing [laugh] the clients and point of graphs, you know? “Can you explain the memory metric?” That's not going to pass the message, send the message forward.Corey: Since your book came out, I believe, if not, certainly by the time it was finished being written and it was in review phase, they came out with Managed Prometheus and Managed Grafana. It looks almost like they're almost trying to do a completely separate standalone monitoring stack of AWS tooling. Is that a misunderstanding of what the tools look like, or is there something to that?Ewere: Yeah. So, I mean by the time those announced at re:Invent, I'm like, “Oh, snap.” I almost told my publisher, “You know what? We need to add three more chapters.” [laugh]. But unfortunately, we're still in review, in preview.I mean, as a Hero, I kind of have some privilege to be able to—a request for that, but I'm like, okay, I think it's going to change the narrative of what the book is talking about. I think I'm going to pause on that and make sure this finishes with the [unintelligible 00:21:52], and then maybe a second edition, I can always attach that. But hey, I think there's trying to be a galvanization between Prometheus, Grafana, and what CloudWatch stands for. Because at the moment, I think it's currently on pre-release, it's not fully GA at the moment, so you can actually use it. So, if you go to Container Insights, you can see that you can still get how Prometheus and Grafana is presenting the data.So, it's more or less a different view of what you're trying to see. It's trying to give you another perspective of how your data is presented. So, you're going to have CloudWatch: it's going to have CloudWatch dashboards, it's going to have CloudWatch metrics, but hey, this different tools, Prometheus, Grafana, and all that, they all have their unique ways of presenting the data. And part of the reason I believe AWS has Prometheus and Grafana there is, I mean, Prometheus is a huge cloud-native open-source monitoring, presentation, analytics tool; it packs a lot of heat, and a lot of people are so used to it. Everybody like, “Why can't I have Prometheus in CloudWatch?”I mean—so instead of CloudWatch just being a simple monitoring tool, [unintelligible 00:22:54] CloudWatch has become an ecosystem of monitoring tool. So, we got—we're not going to see cloud [unintelligible 00:23:00], or just [unintelligible 00:23:00] log, analytics, metrics, dashboards, no. We're going to see it as an ecosystem where we can plug in other services, and then integrate and work together to give us better performance options, and also different perspectives to the data that is being collected.Corey: What do you think is next, as you take a look across the ecosystem, as far as how people are thinking about monitoring and observability in a cloud context? What are they missing? Where's the next evolution lead?Ewere: Yeah, I think the biggest problem with monitoring, which is part of the introduction part of the book, where I talked about the basic types of monitoring—which is proactive and reactive monitoring—is how do we make sure we know before things happen? [laugh]. And one of the things that can help with that is machine learning. There is a small ecosystem that is not so popular at the moment, which talks about how we can do a lot of machine learning in DevOps monitoring observability. And that means looking at historic data and being able to predict on the basic level.Looking at history, [then are 00:24:06] being able to predict. At the moment, there are very few tools that have models running at the back of the data being collected for monitoring and metrics, which could actually revolutionize monitoring and observability as we see it right now. I mean, even the topic of observability is still new at the moment. It's still very integrated. Observability just came into Cloud, I think, like, two years ago, so it's still being matured.But one thing that has been missing is seeing the value AI can bring into monitoring. I mean, this much [unintelligible 00:24:40] practically tell us, “Hey, by 9 p.m. I'm going to go down. I think your CPU or memory is going down. I think I'm line 14 of your code [laugh] is a problem causing the bug. Please, you need to fix it by 2 p.m. so that by 6 p.m., things can run perfectly.” That is going to revolutionize monitoring. That's going to revolutionize observability and bring a whole new level to how we understand and monitor the systems.Corey: I hope you're right. If you take a look right now, I guess, the schism between monitoring and observability—which I consider to be hipster monitoring, but they get mad when I say that—is there a difference? Is it just new phrasing to describe the same concepts, or is there something really new here?Ewere: In my book, I said, monitoring is looking at it from the outside in, observability is looking at it from the inside out. So, what monitoring does not see under, basically, observability sees. So, they are children of the same mom. That's how I put it. One actually needs the other and both of them cannot be separated from each other.What we've been working with is just understanding the system from the surface. When there's an issue, we go to the aggregated results that come out of the issue. Very basic example: you're in a Java application, and we all know Java is very memory intensive, on the very basic layer. And there's a memory issue. Most times, infrastructure is the first hit with the resultant of that.But the problem is not the infrastructure, it's maybe the code. Maybe garbage collection was not well managed; maybe they have a lot of variables in the code that is not used, and they're just filling up unnecessary memory locations; maybe there's a loop that's not properly managed and properly optimized; maybe there's a resource on objects that has been initialized that has not been closed, which will cause a heap in the memory. So, those are the things observability can help you track. Those are the things that we can help you see. Because observability runs from within the system and send metrics out, while basic monitoring is about understanding what is going on on the surface of the system: memory, CPU, pushing out logs to know what's going on and all that.So, on the basic level, observability helps gives you, kind of, a deeper insight into what monitoring is actually telling you. It's just like the result of what happened. I mean, we are told that the symptoms of COVID is coughing, sneezing, and all that. That's monitoring. [laugh].But before we know that you actually have COVID, we need to go for a test, and that's observability. Telling us what is causing the sneezing, what is causing the coughing, what is causing the nausea, all the symptoms that come out of what monitoring is saying. Monitoring is saying, “You have a cough, you have a runny nose, you're sneezing.” That is monitoring. Observability says, “There is a COVID virus in the bloodstream. We need to fix it.” So, that's how both of them act.Corey: I think that is probably the most concise and clear definition I've ever gotten on the topic. If people want to learn more about what you're up to, how you view about these things—and of course, if they want to buy your book, we will include a link to that in the [show notes 00:27:40]—where can they find you?Ewere: I'm on LinkedIn; I'm very active on LinkedIn, and I also shared the LinkedIn link. I'm very active on Twitter, too. I tweet once in a while, but definitely, when you send me a message on Twitter, I'm also going to be very active.I also write blogs on Medium, I write a couple of blogs on Medium, and that was part of why AWS recognized me as a Hero because I talk a lot about different services, I help with comparing services for you so you can choose better. I also talk about setting basic concepts, too; if you just want to get your foot wet into some stuff and you need something very summarized, not AWS documentation per se, something that you can just look at and know what you need to do with the service, I talk about them also in my blogs. So yeah, those are the two basic places I'm in: LinkedIn and Twitter.Corey: And we will, of course, put links to that in the [show notes 00:28:27]. Thank you so much for taking the time to speak with me. I appreciate it.Ewere: Thanks a lot.Corey: Ewere Diagboya, head of cloud at My Cloud Series. I'm Cloud Economist Corey Quinn, and this is Screaming in the Cloud. If you've enjoyed this podcast, please leave a five-star review on your podcast platform of choice, whereas if you hated this podcast, please leave a five-star review on your podcast platform of choice along with a comment telling me how many more dashboards you would like me to build that you will never look at.Corey: If your AWS bill keeps rising and your blood pressure is doing the same, then you need The Duckbill Group. We help companies fix their AWS bill by making it smaller and less horrifying. The Duckbill Group works for you, not AWS. We tailor recommendations to your business and we get to the point. Visit duckbillgroup.com to get started.Announcer: This has been a HumblePod production. Stay humble.

The History of Computing
The Dartmouth Time Sharing System and Time Sharing

The History of Computing

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 14, 2021 12:01


DTSS, or The Dartmouth Time Sharing System, began at Dartmouth College in 1963. That was the same year Project MAC started at MIT, which is where we got Multics, which inspired Unix. Both contributed in their own way to the rise of the Time Sharing movement, an era in computing when people logged into computers over teletype devices and ran computing tasks - treating the large mainframes of the era like a utility. The notion had been kicking around in 1959 but then John McCarthy at MIT started a project on an IBM 704 mainframe. And PLATO was doing something similar over at the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana. 1959 is also when John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz at Dartmouth College bought Librascope General Purpose computer, then being made in partnership with the Royal Typewriter Company and Librascope - whichwould later be sold off to Lockheed Martin. Librascope had Stan Frankel - who had worked on both the Manhattan Project and the ENIAC. And he architected the LGP-30 in 1956, which ended up at Dartmouth. At this point, the computer looked like a desk with a built-in typewriter. Kurtz had four students that were trying to program in ALGOL 58. And they ended up writing a language called DOPE in the early 60s. But they wanted everyone on campus to have access to computing - and John McCarthy said why not try this new time sharing concept. So they went to the National Science Foundation and got funding for a new computer, which to the chagrin of the local IBM salesman, ended up being a GE-225. This baby was transistorized. It sported 10,0000 transistors and double that number of diodes. It could do floating-point arithmetic, used a 20-bit word, and came with 186,000 magnetic cores for memory. It was so space aged that one of the developers, Arnold Spielberg, would father one of the greatest film directors of all time. Likely straight out of those diodes. Dartmouth also picked up a front-end processor called a DATANET-30 from GE. This only had an 18-bit word size but could do 4k to 16k words and supported hooking up 128 terminals that could transfer data to and from the system at 3,000 bits a second using the Bell 103 modem. Security wasn't a thing yet, so these things had direct memory access to the 225, which was a 235 by the time they received the computer. They got to work in 1963, installing the equipment and writing the code. The DATANET-30 received commands from the terminals and routed them to the mainframe. They scanned for commands 110 times per second from the terminals and ran them when the return key was pressed on a terminal. If the return key was a command they queued it up to run, taking into account routine tasks the computer might be doing in the background. Keep in mind, the actual CPU was only doing one task at a time, but it seemed like it was multi-tasking! Another aspect of democratizing computing across campus was to write a language that was more approachable than a language like Algol. And so they released BASIC in 1964, picking up where DOPE left off, and picking up a more marketable name. Here we saw a dozen undergraduates develop a language that was as approachable as the name implies. Some of the students went to Phoenix, where the GE computers were built. And the powers at GE saw the future. After seeing what Dartmouth had done, GE ended up packaging the DATANET-30 and GE-235 as one machine, which they marketed as the GE-265 the next year. And here we got the first commercially viable time-sharing system, which started a movement. One so successful that GE decided to get out of making computers and focus instead on selling access to time sharing systems. By 1968 they actually ended up shooting up to 40% of the market of the day. Dartmouth picked up a GE Mark II in 1966 and got to work on DTSS version 2. Here, they added some of the concepts coming out of the Multics project that was part of Project MAC at MIT and built on previous experiences. They added pipes and communication files to promote inter-process communications - thus getting closer to the multiple user conferencing like what was being done on PLATO with Notes. Things got more efficient and they could handle more and more concurrent sessions. This is when they went from just wanting to offer computing as a basic right on campus to opening up to schools in the area. Nearby Hanover High School started first and by 1967 they had over a dozen. Using further grants from NSF they added another dozen schools to what by then they were calling the Kiewit Network. Then added other smaller colleges and by 1971 supported a whopping 30,000 users. And by 73 supported leased line connections all the way to Ohio, Michigan, New York, and even Montreal. The system continued on in one form or another, allowing students to code in FORTRAN, COBOL, LISP, and yes… BASIC. It became less of a thing as Personal Computers started to show up here and there. But BASIC didn't. Every computer needed a BASIC. But people still liked to connect on the system and share information. At least, until the project was finally shut down in 1999. Turns out we didn't need time sharing once the Internet came along. Following the early work done by pioneers, companies like Tymshare and CompuServe were born. Tymshare came out of two of the GE team, Thomas O'Rourke and David Schmidt. They ran on SDS hardware and by 1970 had over 100 people, focused on time sharing with their Tymnet system and spreading into Europe by the mid-70s, selling time on their systems until the cost of personal computing caught up and they were acquired by McDonnell Douglas in 1984. CompuServe began on a PDP-10 and began similarly but by the time they were acquired by H&R Block had successfully pivoted into a dial-up online services company and over time focused on selling access to the Internet. And they survived through to an era when they migrated their own proprietary tooling to HTML in the late 90s - although they were eventually merged into AOL and are now a part of Verizon media. So the pivot bought them an extra decade or so. Time sharing and BASIC proliferated across the country and then the world from Dartmouth. Much of this - and a lot of personal stories from the people involved can be found in Dr Joy Rankin's “A People's History of Computing in the United States.” Published in 2018, it's a fantastic read that digs in deep on the ways that many of these systems evolved. There are other works, but she does a phenomenal job tying events into one another. One consistent point across her book is around societal impact. These pioneers democratized access to computing. Many of those who built businesses around time sharing missed the rapidly falling price of chips and the ready access to personal computers that were coming. They also missed that BASIC would be monetized by companies like Microsoft. But they brought computing to high schools in the area, established blueprints for teaching that are used through to this day, and as Grace Hopper did a generation before - made us think of even more ways to make programming more accessible to a new generation with BASIC. One other author of note here is John Kemeny. His book “Man and the computer” is a must read. He didn't have the knowledge of the upcoming personal computing - but far more prophetic than not around cloud operations as we get back to a time sharing-esque model of computing. And we do owe him, Kurtz, and everyone else involved a huge debt for their work. Many others pushed the boundaries of what was possible with computers. They pushed the boundaries of what was possible with accessibility. And now we have ubiquity. So when we see something complicated. Something that doesn't seem all that approachable. Maybe we should just wonder if - by some stretch - we can make it a bit more BASIC. Like they did.

Screaming in the Cloud
Working on the Whiteboard from the Start with Tim Banks

Screaming in the Cloud

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 13, 2021 44:10


About TimTim's tech career spans over 20 years through various sectors. Tim's initial journey into tech started as a US Marine. Later, he left government contracting for the private sector, working both in large corporate environments and in small startups. While working in the private sector, he honed his skills in systems administration and operations for largeUnix-based datastores.Today, Tim leverages his years in operations, DevOps, and Site Reliability Engineering to advise and consult with clients in his current role. Tim is also a father of five children, as well as a competitive Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu practitioner. Currently, he is the reigning American National and 3-time Pan American Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu champion in his division.Links: Twitter: https://twitter.com/elchefe The Duckbill Group: https://duckbillgroup.com TranscriptAnnouncer: Hello, and welcome to Screaming in the Cloud with your host, Chief Cloud Economist at The Duckbill Group, Corey Quinn. This weekly show features conversations with people doing interesting work in the world of cloud, thoughtful commentary on the state of the technical world, and ridiculous titles for which Corey refuses to apologize. This is Screaming in the Cloud.Corey: This episode is sponsored in part by Honeycomb. When production is running slow, it's hard to know where problems originate: is it your application code, users, or the underlying systems? I've got five bucks on DNS, personally. Why scroll through endless dashboards, while dealing with alert floods, going from tool to tool to tool that you employ, guessing at which puzzle pieces matter? Context switching and tool sprawl are slowly killing both your team and your business. You should care more about one of those than the other, which one is up to you. Drop the separate pillars and enter a world of getting one unified understanding of the one thing driving your business: production. With Honeycomb, you guess less and know more. Try it for free at Honeycomb.io/screaminginthecloud. Observability, it's more than just hipster monitoring.Corey: Welcome to Screaming in the Cloud. I'm Corey Quinn. Periodically, I have a whole bunch of guests come on up, second time. Now, it's easy to take the naive approach of assuming that it's because it's easier for me to find a guest if I know them and don't have to reach out to brand new people all the time. This is absolutely correct; I'm exceedingly lazy. But I don't have too many folks on a third time, but that changes today.My guest is Tim Banks. I've had him on the show twice before, both times it led to really interesting conversations around a wide variety of things. Since those episodes, Tim has taken the job as a principal cloud economist here at The Duckbill Group. Yes, that is probably the strangest interview process you can imagine, but here we are. Tim, thank you so much for joining me both on the show and in the business.Tim: My pleasure, Corey. It was definitely an interesting interview process, you know, but I was glad to be here. So, I'm happy to be here a third time. I don't know if you get a jacket like you do in Saturday Night Live, if you host, like, a fifth time, but we'll see. Maybe it's a vest. A cool vest would be nice.Corey: We can come up with something.[ effectively, it can be like reverse hangman where you wind up getting a vest and every time you come on after that you get a sleeve, then you get a second sleeve, and then you get a collar, and we can do all kinds of neat stuff.Tim: I actually like that idea a lot.Corey: So, I'm super excited to be able to have this conversation with you because I don't normally talk a lot on this show about what cloud economics is because my guest usually is not as deep into the space as I am, and that's fine; people should never be as deep into this space as I am, in the general sense, unless they work here. Awesome. But I do guest on other shows, and people ask me all kinds of questions about AWS billing and cloud economics, and that's fine, it's great, but they don't ask the questions about the space in the same way that I would and the way that I think about it. So, it's hard for me to interview myself. Now, I'm not saying I won't try it someday, but it's challenging. But today, I get to take the easy path out and talk to you about it. So Tim, what the hell is a principal cloud economist?Tim: So, a principal cloud economist, is a cloud computing expert, both in architecture and practice, who looks at cloud cost in the same way that a lot of folks look at cloud security, or cloud resilience, or cloud performance. So, the same engineering concerns you have about making sure that your API stays up all the time, or to make sure that you don't have people that are able to escape containers or to make sure that you can have super, super low response times, is the same engineering fundamentals that I look at when I'm trying to find a way to reduce your AWS bill.Corey: Okay. When we say cloud cost and cloud economics, the natural picture that leads to mind is, “Oh, I get it. You're an Excel jockey.” And sometimes, yeah, we all kind of play those roles, but what you're talking about is something else entirely. You're talking about engineering expertise.And sure enough, if you look at the job postings we have for roles on the team from time to time, we have not yet hired anyone who does not have an engineering and architecture background. That seems odd to folks who do not spend a lot of time thinking about the AWS bill. I'm told those people are what is known as ‘happy.' But here we are. Why do we care about the engineering aspect of any of this?Tim: Well, I think first and foremost because what we're doing in essence, is still engineering. People aren't putting construction paper up on [laugh] AWS; sometimes they do put recipes up on there, but it still involves working on a computer, and writing code, and deploying it somewhere. So, to have that basic understanding of what it is that folks are doing on the platform, you have to have some engineering experience, first and foremost. Secondly, the fact of the matter is that most cost optimization, in my opinion, can be done on the whiteboard, before anything else, and really I think should be done on the whiteboard before anything else. And so the Excel aspect of it is always reactive. “We have now spent this much. How much was it? Where did it go?” And now we have to figure out where it went.I like to figure out and get a ballpark on how much something is going to cost before I write the first line of code. I want to know, hey, we have a tier here, we're using this kind of storage, it's going to take this kind of instance types. Okay, well, I've got an idea of how much it's going to cost. And I was like, “You know, that's going to be expensive. Before we do anything, is there a way that we can reduce costs there?”And so I'm reverse engineering that on already deployed workloads. Or when customers want to say, “Hey, we were thinking about doing this, and this is our proposed architecture,” I'm going to look at it and say, “Well, if you do this and this and this and this, you can save money.”Corey: So, it sounds like you and I have a bit of a philosophical disagreement in some ways. One of my recurring talking points has always been that, “Oh, by and large, application developers don't need to think overly much about cloud cost. What they need to know generally fits on an index card.” It's, okay, big things cost more than small things; if you turn something on, it will never get turned off and will bill you in perpetuity; data transfer has some weird stuff; and if you store data, you pay for data, like, that level of baseline understanding. When I'm trying to build something out my immediate thought is, great, is this thing possible?Because A, I don't always know that it is, and B, I'm super bad at computers so for me, it may absolutely not be, whereas you're talking about baking cost assessments into the architecture as a day one type of approach, even when sketching ideas out on the whiteboard. I'm curious as to how we diverge there. Can you talk more about your philosophy?Tim: Sure. And the reason I do that is because, as most folks that have an engineering background in cloud infrastructure will tell you, you want to build resilience in, on the whiteboard. You certainly want to build performance in, on the whiteboard, right? And security folks will tell you you want to do security on the whiteboard. Because those things are hard to fix after they're deployed.As soon as they're deployed, without that, you now have technical debt. If you don't consider cost optimization and cost efficiency on the whiteboard, and then you try and do it after it's deployed, you not only have technical debt, you may have actual real debt.Corey: One of the comments I tend to give a lot is that architecture and cost are the same thing in the world of cloud. And I think that we might be in violent agreement, as Liz Fong-Jones is fond of framing it, where I am acutely aware of aspects of cost and that does factor into how I build things on the whiteboard—let's also be very clear, most of the things that I build are very small scale; the largest cost by a landslide is the time I spend building it—in practice, that's an awful lot of environments; people are always more expensive than the AWS environment they're working on. But instead, it's about baking in the assumptions and making sure you're not coming up with something that is going to just be wasteful and horrible out of the gate, and I guess part of that also is the fact that I am at a level of billing understanding that I sort of absorbed these concepts intrinsically. Because to me, there is no difference between cost and architecture in an environment like this. You're right, there's always an inherent trade-off between cost and durability. On the one hand, I don't like that. On the other, it feels like it's been true forever and I don't see a way out of it.Tim: It is inescapable. And it's interesting because you talk about the level of an application developer or something like that, like what is your level of concern, but retroactively, we'll go in for cost optimization houses—and I've done this as far back as when I was working at AWS has a TAM—and I'll ask the question to an application developer or database administrator, and I'm like, “Why do you do this? What do you have a string value for something that could be a Boolean?” And you'll ask, “Well, what difference does that make?” Well, it makes a big difference when you're talking about cycles for CPU.You can reduce your CPU consumption on a database instance by changing a string to a Boolean, you need fewer instances, or you need a less powerful instance, or you need less memory. And now you can run a less expensive instance for your database architecture. Well, maybe for one node it's not that biggest difference, but if you're talking about something that's multi-AZ and multi-node, I mean, that can be a significant amount of savings just by making one simple change.Corey: And that might be the difference right there. I didn't realize that, offhand. It makes sense if you think about it, but just realizing that I've made that mistake on one of my DynamoDB tables. It costs something like seven cents a month right now, so it's not something I'm rushing to optimize, but you're right, expand that out by a factor of a million or so, and we're talking serious money, and then that sort of optimization makes an awful lot of sense. I think that my position on it is that when you're building out something small scale as a demo or a proof of concept, spending time on optimizations like this is not the best use of anyone's time or brain sweat, for lack of a better term. How do you wind up deciding when it's time to focus on stuff like that?Tim: Well, first, I will say that—I daresay that somewhere in the 80% of production workloads are just—were the POC, [laugh] right? Because, like, “It worked for this to get funding, let's run it,” right?Corey: Let they who does not have a DynamoDB table in production with the word ‘test' or ‘dev' in it cast the first stone.Tim: It's certainly not me. So, I understand how some of those decisions get made. And that's why I think it's better to think about it early. Because as I mentioned before, when you start something and say, “Hey, this works for now,” and you don't give consideration to that in the future, or consideration for what it's going to be like in the future, and when you start doing it, you'll paint yourself into corners. That's how you get something like static values put in somewhere, or that's how you get something like, well, “We have to run this instance type because we didn't build in the ability to be more microservice-based or stateless or anything like that.”You've seen people that say, “Hey, we could save you a lot of money if you can move this thing off to a different tier.” And it's like, “Well, that would be an extensive rewrite of code; that'd be very expensive.” I daresay that's the main reason why most AS/400s are still being used right now is because it's too expensive to rewrite the code.Corey: Yeah, and there's no AWS/400 that they can migrate to. Yet. Re:Invent is nigh.Tim: So, I think that's why, even at the very beginning, even if you were saying, “Well, this is something we will do later.” Don't make it impossible for you to do later in your code. Don't make it impossible for you to do later in your architecture. Make things as modular as possible, so that way you can say, “Hey”—later on down the road—“Oh, we can switch this instance type.” Or, “Here's a new managed service that we can maybe save money on doing this.”And you allow yourself to switch things out, or turn different knobs, or change the way you do things, and give yourself more options in the future, whether those options are for resilience, or those options or for security, or those options are for performance, or they're for cost optimizations. If you make binding decisions earlier on, you're going to have debt that's going to build up at some point in the future, and then you're going to have to pay the piper. Sometimes that piper is going to be AWS.Corey: One thing that I think gets lost in a lot of conversations about cloud economics—because I know that it happened to me when I first started this place—where I am planning to basically go out and be the world's leading expert in AWS cost analysis and understanding and optimization. Great. Then I went out into the world and started doing some of my first engagements, and they looked a lot less like far-future cost attribution projections and a lot more like, “What's a reserved instance?” And, “We haven't bought any of those in 18 months.” And, “Oh, yeah, we shut down an entire project six months ago. We should probably delete all the resources, huh?”The stuff that I was preparing for at the high end of the maturity curve are great and useful and terrific to have conversations about in some very nuanced depth, but very often there's a walk before you can run style of conversation where, okay, let's do the easy stuff first before we start writing a whole bunch of bespoke internal stuff that maps your business needs to the AWS bill. How do you, I guess, reconcile those things where you're on the one hand, you see the easy stuff and on the other, you see some of the just the absolutely challenging, very hard, five-years-of-engineering-effort-style problems on the other?Tim: Well, it's interesting because I've seen one customer very recently who has brilliant analyses as to their cost; just well-charted, well-tagged, well-documented, well—you know, everything is diagrammed quite nicely and everything like that, and they're very, very aware of their costs, but they leave test instances running all weekend, you know, and their associated volumes and things like that. And that's a very easy thing to fix. That is a very, very low-hanging fruit. And so sometimes, you just have to look at where they're spending their efforts where sometimes they do spend so much time chasing those hard to do things because they are hard to do and they're exciting in an engineering aspect, and then something as simple as, “Hey, how about we delete these old volumes?” It just isn't there.Or, “How about we switch to your S3 bucket storage type?” Those are easy, low-hanging fruits, and you would be surprised how sometimes they just don't get that. But at the same time, sometimes customers have, like, “Hey, we could knock this thing out, we knock this thing out,” because it's Trusted Advisor. Every AI cost optimization recommendation you can get will tell you these five things to do, no matter who you are or where you are, but they don't do the conceptual things like understanding some of the principles behind cost optimization and cost optimization architecture, and proactive cost optimization versus react with cost optimizations. So, you're doing very conceptual education and conversations with folks rather than the, “Do these five things.” And I've not often found a customer that you have to do both on; it's usually one or the other.Corey: It's funny that you made that specific reference to that example. One of my very first projects—not naming names. Generally, when it comes to things like this, you can tell stories or you can name names; I bias for stories—I was talking to a company who was convinced that their developer environments were incredibly overwrought, expensive, et cetera, and burning money. Okay, great. So, I talked about the idea of turning those things off at night or between test runs, deleting volumes to snapshot, and restore them on a schedule when people come in in the morning because all your developers sit in the same building in the same time zones. Great. They were super on board with the idea, and it was going to be a little bit of work, but all right, this was in the days before the EC2 Instance Scheduler, for example.But first, let's go ahead and do some analysis. This is one of those early engagements that really reinforced my idea of, yeah, before we start going too far down the rabbit hole, let's double-check what's going on in the account. Because periodically you encounter things that surprise people. Like, “What's up with those Australia instances?” “Oh, we don't have anything in that region.” “I believe you're being sincere when you say this, however, the API generally doesn't tell lies.”So, that becomes a, oh, security incident time. But looking at this, they were right; they had some fairly sizable developer instances that were running all the time, but doing some analysis, their developer environment was 3% of their bill at the time and they hadn't bought RIs in a year-and-a-half. And looking at what they were doing, there was so much easier stuff that they could do to generate significant savings without running the potential of turning a developer environment off at night in the middle of an incident or something like that. The risk factor and effort were easier just do the easy stuff, then do another pass and look at the deep stuff. And to be clear, they weren't lying to me; they weren't wrong.Back when they started building this stuff out, their developer environments were significantly large and were a significant portion of their spend. And then they hit product-market fit, and suddenly their production environment had to scale significantly in a short period of time. Which, yay, cloud. It's good at that. Then it just became such a small portion that developer environments weren't really a thing. But the narrative internally doesn't get updated very often because once people learn something, they don't go back to relearn whether or not it's still true. It's a constant mistake; I make it myself frequently.Tim: I think it's interesting, there are things that we really need to put into buckets as far as what's an engineering effort and what's an administrative effort. And when I say ‘administrative effort,' I mean if I can save money with a stroke of a pen, well, that's going to be pretty easy, and that's usually going to be RIs; that's going to be EDPs, or PPAs or something like that, that don't require engineering effort. It just requires administrative effort, I think RIs being the simplest ones. Like, “Oh, all I have to do is go in here and click these things four times and I'm going to save money?” “Well, let's do that.”And it's surprising how often people don't do that. But you still have to understand that, and whether it's RIs or whether it's a savings plan, it's still a commitment of some kind, but if you are willing to make that commitment, you can save money with no engineering effort whatsoever. That's almost free money.Corey: So, much of what we do here comes down to psychology, in many ways, more than it does math. And a lot of times you're right, everything you say is right, but in a large-scale environment, go ahead and click that button to buy the savings plan or the reserved instance, and that's a $20 million purchase. And companies will stall for months trying to run a different series of analyses on this and what if this happens, what if that happens, and I get it because, “Yeah, I'm going to click this button that's going to cost more money than I'll make in my lifetime,” that's a scary thing to do; I get it. But you're going to spend the money, one way or the other, with the provider, and if you believe that number is too high, I get it; I am right there with you. Buy half of them right now and then you can talk about the rest until you get to a point of being comfortable with it.Do it incrementally; it's not all or nothing, you have one shot to make the buy. Take pieces out of it that makes sense. You know you're probably not going to turn off your database cluster that handles all of production in the next year, so go ahead and go for it; it saves some money. Do the thing that makes sense. And that doesn't require deep-dive analytics that requires, on some level, someone who's seen a lot of these before who gets what customers are going through. And honestly, it's empathy in many respects, becomes one of those powerful things that we can apply to our customer accounts.Tim: Absolutely. I mean, people don't understand that decision paralysis, about making those commitments costs you money. You can spend months doing analysis, but those months doing analysis, you're going to spend 30, 40, 50, 60, 70% more on your EC2 instances or other compute than you would otherwise, and that can be quite significant. But it's one of those cases where we talk about psychology around perfect being the enemy of good. You don't have to make the perfect purchase of RIs or savings plans and have that so tuned perfectly that you're going to get one hundred percent utilization and zero—like, you don't have to do that.Just do something. Do a little bit. Like you said, buy half; buy anything; just something, and you're going to save money. And then you can run analysis later on, while you're saving money [laugh] and get a little better and tune it up a little more and get more analysis on and maybe fine-tune it, but you don't actually ever need to have it down to the penny. Like, it never has to be that good.Corey: At some point, one of the value propositions we have for our customers has always been that we tell you when to stop focusing on saving money because there's a theoretical cap of a hundred percent of the cloud bill that you can save, but you can make so much more than that by launching the right feature to the right market a little sooner; focus on that. Be responsible stewards of the money that's invested with you, but by and large, as a general piece of guidance, at some point, stop cutting and go back to doing the thing that makes your company work. It's not all about saving money at all costs for almost all of us. It is for us, but we're sort of a special case.Tim: Well, it's a conversation I often have. It's like, all right, are you trying to save money on AWS or are you trying to save money overall? So, if you're going to spend $400,000 worth of engineering effort to save $10,000 on your AWS bill, that doesn't make no sense. So—[laugh]—Corey: Right. There has to be a strategic reason to do things like that—Tim: Exactly.Corey: —and make sure you understand the value of what you're getting for this. One reason that we wind up charging the way that we do—and we've gotten questions on this for a while—has been that we charge a fixed fee for what we do on engagements. And similarly—people have asked this, but haven't tied the two things together—you talk about cost optimization, but never cost-cutting. Why is that? Is that just a negative term?And the answer has been no, they're aligned. What we do focuses on what is best for the customer. Once that fixed fee is decided upon, every single thing that we say is what we would do if we were in the customer's position. There are times we'll look at what they have going on and say, “Ah, you really should spend more money here for resiliency, or durability,” or, “Okay, that is critical data that's not being backed up. You should consider doing that.”It's why we don't take percentages of things because, at that point, we're not just going with the useful stuff, it's, well we're going to basically throw the entire kitchen sink at you. We had an early customer and I was talking to their AWS account manager about what we were going to be doing and their comment was, “Oh, saving money on AWS bills is great, make sure you check the EBS snapshots.” Yeah, I did that. They were spending 150 bucks a month on EBS snapshots, which is basically nothing. It's one of those stories where if, in the course of an hour-long meeting, I can pay for that entire service, by putting a quarter on the table, I'm probably not going to talk about it barring [laugh] some extenuating circumstances.Focus on the big things, not the things that worked in a different environment with a different account and different constraints. It's hard to context switch like that, but it gets a lot easier when it is basically the entirety of what we do all day.Tim: The difference I draw between cost optimization and cost-cutting is that cost optimization is ensuring that you're not spending money unnecessarily, or that you're maximizing your dollar. And so sometimes we get called in there, and we're just validation for the measures they've already done. Like, “Your team is doing this exactly right. You're doing the things you should be doing. We can nitpick if you want to; we're going to save you $7 a year, but who cares about that? But y'all are doing what you should be doing. This is great. Going forward, you want to look for these things and look for these things and look for these things. We're going to give you some more concepts so that you are cost-optimized in the future.” But it doesn't necessarily mean that we have to cut your bill. Because if you're already spending efficiently, you don't need your bill cut; you're already cost-optimized.Corey: Oh, we're not going to nitpick on that, you're mostly optimized there. It's like, “Yeah, that workload's $140 million a year and rising; please, pick nits.” At which point? “Okay, great.” That's the strategic reason to focus on something. But by and large, it comes down to understanding what the goals of clients are. I think that is widely misunderstood about what we do and how we do it.The first question I always ask when someone does outreach of, “Hey, we'd like to talk about coming in here and doing a consulting engagement with us.” “Great.” I always like to ask the quote-unquote, “Foolish question” of, “Why do you care about the AWS bill?” And occasionally I'll get people who look at me like I have two heads of, “Why wouldn't I care about the AWS bill?” Because there are more important things to care about for the business, almost certainly.Tim: One of the things I try and do, especially when we're talking about cost optimization, especially trying to do something for the right now so they can do things going forward, it's like, you know, all right, so if we cut this much from your bill—if you just do nothing else, but do reserved instances or buy a savings plan, right, you're going to save enough money to hire four engineers. Think about what four engineers would do for your overall business? And that's how I want you to frame it; I want you to look at what cost optimization is going to allow you to do in the future without costing you any more money. Or maybe you save a little more money and you can shift it; instead of paying for your AWS bill, maybe you can train your developers, maybe you can get more developers, maybe you can get some ProServ, maybe you can do whatever, buy newer computers for your people so they can do—whatever it is, right? We're not saying that you no longer have to spend this money, but saying, “You can use this money to do something other than give it to Jeff Bezos.”Corey: This episode is sponsored in part by Liquibase. If you're anything like me, you've screwed up the database part of a deployment so severely that you've been banned from touching every anything that remotely sounds like SQL, at at least three different companies. We've mostly got code deployments solved for, but when it comes to databases we basically rely on desperate hope, with a roll back plan of keeping our resumes up to date. It doesn't have to be that way. Meet Liquibase. It is both an open source project and a commercial offering. Liquibase lets you track, modify, and automate database schema changes across almost any database, with guardrails to ensure you'll still have a company left after you deploy the change. No matter where your database lives, Liquibase can help you solve your database deployment issues. Check them out today at liquibase.com. Offer does not apply to Route 53.Corey: There was an article recently, as of the time of this recording, where Pinterest discussed what they had disclosed in one of their regulatory filings which was, over the next eight years, they have committed to pay AWS $3.2 billion. And in this article, they have the head of engineering talking to the reporter about how they're thinking about these things, how they're looking at things that are relevant to their business, and they're talking about having a dedicated team that winds up doing a whole bunch of data analysis and running some analytics on all of these things, from piece to piece to piece. And that's great. And I worry, on some level, that other companies are saying, “Oh, Pinterest is doing that. We should, too.” Yeah, for the course of this commitment, a 1% improvement is $32 million, so yeah, at that scale I'm going to hire a team of data scientists, too, look at these things. Your bill is $50,000 a month. Perhaps that's not worth the effort you're going to put into it, barring other things that contribute to it.Tim: It's interesting because we will get folks that will approach us that have small accounts—very small, small spend—and like, “Hey, can you come in and talk to us about this whatever.” And we can say very honestly, “Look, we could, but the amount of money we're going to charge you is going to—it's not going to be worth your while right now. You could probably get by on the automated recommendations, on the things that already out there on the internet that everybody can do to optimize their bill, and then when you grow to a point where now saving 10% is somebody's salary, that's when it, kind of, becomes more critical.” And it's hard to say what point that is in anyone's business, but I can say sometimes, “Hey, you know what? That's not really what you need to focus on.” If you need to save $100 a month on your AWS bill, and that's critical, you've got other concerns that are not your AWS bill.Corey: So, back when you were interviewing to work here, one of the areas of focus that you kept bringing up was the concept of observability, and my response to this was, “Ah, hell. Another one.” Because let's be clear, Mike Julian—my business partner and our CEO—has written a book called Practical Monitoring, and apparently what we learned from this is as soon as you finish writing a book on the topic, you never want to talk about that topic ever again, which yeah, in hindsight makes sense. Why do you care about observability when you're here to look at cloud costs?Tim: Because cloud costs is another metric, just like you would use for performance, or resilience, or security. You do real-time monitoring to see if somebody has compromised the system, you do real-time monitoring to see if you have bad performance, if response times are too slow. You do real-time monitoring to know if something has gone down and then you need to make adjustments, or that the automated responses you have in response to that downtime are working. But cloud costs, you send somebody a report at the end of the month. Can you imagine, if you will—just for a second—if you got a downtime report at the end of month, and then you can react to something that has gone down?Or if you get a security report at the end of the month, and then you can react to the fact that somebody has your root keys? Or if you get [laugh] a report at the end of month, this said, “Hey, the CPU on this one was pegged. You should probably scale up.” That's outrageous to anybody in this industry right now. But why do we accept that for cloud cost?Corey: It's worse than that. There are a number of startups that talk about, “Oh, real-time cloud cost monitoring. Okay, the only way you're going to achieve such a thing is if you build an API shim that interprets everything that you're telling your cloud control plane to do, taking cost metrics out of it, and then passing it on to the actual cloud control plane.” Otherwise, you're talking about it showing up in the billing record in—ideally, eight hours; in practice, several days, or you're talking about the CloudTrail events, which is not holistic but gives you some rough idea, but it's also in some cases, 5 to 20 minutes delayed. There's no real-time way to do this without significant disruption to what's going on in your environment.So, when I hear about, “Oh, we do real-time bill analysis.” Yeah, it feels—to be very direct—you don't know enough about the problem space you're working within to speak intelligently about it because anyone who's played in this space for a while knows exactly how hard it is to get there. Now, I've talked to companies that have built real-time-ish systems that take that shim approach and acts sort of as a metadata sidecar ersatz billing system that tracks all of this so they can wind up intercepting potentially very expensive configuration mistakes. And that's great. That's also a bit beyond for a lot of folks today, but it's where the industry is going. But there is no way to get there today, short of effectively intercepting all of those calls, in a way that is cohesive and makes sense. How do you square that circle given the complete lack of effective tooling?Tim: Honestly, I'm going to point that right back at the cloud provider because they know how much you're spending, real-time. They know exactly how much you spend in real-time. They've figured it out. They have the buckets, they have APIs for it internally. I'm sure they do; it would make no sense for them not to. Without giving anything anyway, I know that when I was at AWS, I knew how much they were spending, almost real-time.Corey: That's impressive. I wish that existed. My never having worked at AWS perspective on it is that they, of course, have the raw data effective immediately, or damn close to it, but the challenge for the billing system is distilling and summarizing and attributing all of that in a reasonable timeframe; it is an exabyte-scale problem. I've talked to folks there who have indicated it is comfortably north of a petabyte in raw data per day. And that was a couple of years ago, so one can only imagine as the footprint has increased, so has all of this.I mean, the billing system is fundamentally magic from the outside. I'm not saying it's good magic, but it is magic, and it's something that is unappreciated, that every customer uses, and is one of those areas that doesn't get the attention it deserves. Because, let's be clear, here, we talk about observability; the bill is still the only thing that AWS offers that gives you a holistic overview of everything running in your account, in one place.Tim: What I think is interesting is that you talk about this, the scale of the problem and that it makes it difficult to solve. At the same time, I can have a conversation with my partner about kitty litter, and then all of a sudden, I'm going to start getting ads about kitty litter within minutes. So, I feel like it's possible to emit cost as a metric like you would CPU or disk. And if I'm going to look at who's going to do that, I'm going to look right back at AWS. The fun part about that, though, is I know from AWS's business model, that if that's something they were to emit, it would also cost you, like, 25 cents per call, and then you would actually, like, triple your cloud costs just trying to figure out how much it costs you.Corey: Only with 16 other billing dimensions because of course it would. And again, I'm talking about stuff, because of how I operate and how I think about this stuff, that is inherently corner case, or [vertex 00:31:39] case in many cases. But for the vast majority of folks, it's not the, “Oh, you have this really weird data transfer paradigm between these two resources,” which yeah, that's a problem that needs to be addressed in an awful lot of cases because data transfer pricing is bonkers, but instead it's the, “Huh. You just spun up a big cluster that's going to cost $20,000 a month.” You probably don't need to wait a full day to flag that.And you also can't put this on the customer in the sense of, “Oh, just set some budget alarms, that's great. That's the first thing you should do in a new AWS account.” “Well, jackhole, I've done an awful lot of first things I'm supposed to do in an AWS account, in my dedicated test account for these sorts of things. It's been four months, I'm not done yet with all of those first things I'm supposed to do.” It's incredibly secure, increasingly expensive, and so far all it runs is a single EC2 instance that is mostly there just so that everything else doesn't error out trying to divide by zero.Tim: There are some things that are built-in. If I stand up an EC2 instance and it goes down, I'm going to get an alert that this instance terminated for some reason. It's just going to show up informationally.Corey: In the console. You're not going to get called about it or paged about it, unless—Tim: Right.Corey: —you have something else in the business that will, like a boss that screams at you two o'clock in the morning. This is why we have very little that's production-facing here.Tim: But if I know that alert exists somewhere in the console, that's easy for me to write a trap for. That's easy for me to write, say hey, I'm going to respond to that because this call is going to come out somewhere; it's going to get emitted somewhere. I can now, as an engineer, write a very easy trap that says, “Hey, pop this in the Slack. Send an alert. Send a page.”So, if I could emit a cost metric, and I could say, “Wow. Somebody has spun up this thing that's going to cost X amount of money. Someone should get paged about this.” Because if they don't page about this and we wait eight hours, that's my month's salary. And you would do that if your database server went down; you would do that if someone rooted that database server; you would do that if the database server was [bogging 00:33:48] you to scale up another one. So, why can't you do that if that database server was all of sudden costing you way more than you had calculated?Corey: And there's a lot of nuance here because what you're talking about makes perfect sense for smaller-scale accounts, but even some of the very large accounts where we're talking hundreds of millions a year in spend, you can set compromised keys up on GitHub, put them in Payspin, whatever, and then people start spinning up Bitcoin miners everywhere. Great. It takes a long time to materially move the needle on that level of spend; it gets lost in the background noise. I lose my mind when I wind up leaving a managed NAT gateway running and it cost me 70 bucks a month in my $5 a month test account. Yeah, but you realize you could basically buy an island and it gets lost in the AWS bill at some of the high watermarks for some of these larger accounts.“Oh, someone spun up a cluster that's going to cost $400,000 a year?” Yeah, do I need to re-explain to you what a data science team does? They light money on fire in return for questionable returns, as a general rule. You knew that when you hired them; leave them alone. Whereas someone in their developer account does this, yeah, you kind of want to flag that immediately.It always comes down to rules and context. But I'd love to have some templates ready to go of, “I'm a starving student, please alert me anytime it looks like I might possibly exceed the free tier,” or better yet, “Don't let me, and if I do, it's on you and you eat the cost.” Conversely, it's, “Yeah, this is a Netflix sub-account or whatnot. Maybe don't bother me for anything whatsoever because freedom and responsibility is how we roll.” I imagine that's what they do internally on a lot of their cloud costing stuff because freedom and responsibility is ingrained in their culture. It's great. It's the freedom from having to think about cloud bills and the responsibility for paying it, of the cloud bill.Tim: Yeah, we will get internally alerted if things are [laugh] up too long, and then we will actually get paged, and then our manager would get paged, [laugh] and it would go up the line. If you leave something that's running too expensive, too long. So, there is a system there for it.Corey: Oh, yeah. The internal AWS systems for employees are probably my least favorite AWS service, full stop. And I've seen things posted about it; I believe it's called Isengard, for spinning up internal accounts and the rest—there's a separate one, I think, called Conduit, but I digress—that you spin something up, and apparently if it doesn't wind up—I don't need you to comment on this because you worked there and confidentiality is super important, but to my understanding it's, great, it has a whole bunch of formalized stuff like that and it solves for a whole lot of nifty features that bias for the way that AWS focuses on accounts and how they've view security and the rest. And, “Oh, well, we couldn't possibly ship this to customers because it's not how they operate.” And that's great.My problem with this internal provisioning system is it isolates and insulates AWS employees from the real pain of working with multiple accounts as a customer. You don't have to deal with the provisioning process of Control Tower or whatnot; you have your own internal thing. Eat your own dog food, gargle your own champagne, whatever it takes to wind up getting exposure to the pain that hits customers and suddenly you'll see those things improve. I find that the best way to improve a product is to make the people building it live with the painful parts.Tim: I think it's interesting that the stance is, “Well, it's not how the customers operate, and we wouldn't want the customers to have to deal with this.” But at the same time, you have to open up, like, 100 accounts if you need more than a certain number of S3 buckets. So, they are very comfortable with burdening the customer with a lot of constraints, and they say, “Well, constraints drive innovation.” Certainly, this is a constraint that you could at least offer and let the customers innovate around that.Corey: And at least define who the customer is. Because yeah, “I'm a Netflix sub-account is one story,” “I'm a regulated bank,” is another story, and, “I'm a student in my dorm room, trying to learn how this whole cloud thing works,” is another story. From risk tolerance, from a data protection story, from a billing surprise story, from a, “I'm trying to learn what the hell this is, and all these other service offerings you keep talking to me about confuse the hell out of me; please streamline the experience.” There's a whole universe of options and opportunity that isn't being addressed here.Tim: Well, I will say it very simply like this: we're talking about a multi-trillion dollar company versus someone who, if their AWS bill is too high, they don't pay rent; maybe they don't eat; maybe they have other issues, they don't—medical bill doesn't get paid; child care doesn't get paid. And if you're going to tell me that this multi-trillion dollar company can't solve for that so that doesn't happen to that person and tells them, “Well, if you come in afterwards, after your bill gets there, maybe we can do something about it, but in the meantime, suffer through this.” That's not ethical. Full stop.Corey: There are a lot of things that AWS gets right, and I want to be clear that I'm not sitting here trying to cast blame and say that everything they're doing is terrible. I feel like every time I talk about billing in any depth, I have to throw this disclaimer in. Ninety to ninety-five percent of what they do is awesome. It's just the missing piece that is incredibly painful for customers, and that's what I spend most of my time focusing on. It should not be interpreted to think that I hate the company.I just want them to do better than they are, and what they're doing now is pretty decent in most respects. I just want to fix the painful parts. Tim, thank you for joining me for a third time here. I'm certain I'll have you back in the somewhat near future to talk about more aspects of this, but until then, where can people find you slash retain your services?Tim: Well, you can find me on Twitter at @elchefe. If you want to retain my services for which you would be very, very happy to have, you can go to duckbillgroup.com and fill out a little questionnaire, and I will magically appear after an exchange of goods and services.Corey: Make sure to reference Tim by name just so that we can make our sales team facepalm because they know what's coming next. Tim, thank you so much for your time; it's appreciated.Tim: Thank you so much, Corey. I loved it.Corey: Principal cloud economist here at The Duckbill Group, Tim Banks. I'm Cloud Economist Corey Quinn, and this is Screaming in the Cloud. If you've enjoyed this podcast, please leave a five-star review on your podcast platform of choice whereas if you've hated this podcast, please leave a five-star review on your podcast platform of choice, wait at least eight hours—possibly as many as 48 to 72—and then leave a comment explaining what you didn't like.Corey: If your AWS bill keeps rising and your blood pressure is doing the same, then you need The Duckbill Group. We help companies fix their AWS bill by making it smaller and less horrifying. The Duckbill Group works for you, not AWS. We tailor recommendations to your business and we get to the point. Visit duckbillgroup.com to get started.Announcer: This has been a HumblePod production. Stay humble.

Ask Noah Show
Episode 254: Self Hosting Hardware

Ask Noah Show

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 13, 2021 56:20


This episode we focus on your questions! How to build a NAS? Best remote desktop software? We cover it all! Mozilla announced Firefox Suggest. FreeNAS and NextCloud are in a new partnership, and a self hosted server system for layman. -- During The Show -- Steve's House Moving the NOC Uplift Desk (https://www.upliftdesk.com/) Caller Chris Prosumer TV injector Use RF Modulator Cabletronix RF Modulators (https://www.cabletronix.com/products/products2.php?cat2=60) STI Desimator (http://www.amazon.com/dp/B075FDL4VZ/?tag=minddripmedia-20) 15:40 Caller James Sunfounder (http://www.amazon.com/dp/B08FHF7H3L/?tag=minddripmedia-20) Screen Size/Resolution Considerations 22:22 New Laptop Suggestions? - Lou X1 Carbon T14s AMD Gen 2 X1 Yoga Gen 6 Framework Laptop XPS 13 System76 Lemur Pro Asus Zephrus G14 with 3060 Razor Blade 14 with 3060 28:02 Recommendation for NAS? - Chris Xeon-D D-1612 Supermicro X10SDV-4C-TLN2F Raspberry Pi 4 Ryzen 3 CPU and Motherboard Fractal Design Node 804 Case (http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00K6OVG0I/?tag=minddripmedia-20) Fractal Design Define 7 XL (http://www.amazon.com/dp/B08146GB6Y/?tag=minddripmedia-20) Backup Software TrueNAS OpenMediaVault Low Power Celeron Motherboard (http://www.amazon.com/dp/B07CJTRT3R/?tag=minddripmedia-20) Pine64 NAS Case (https://pine64.com/product/rockpro64-metal-desktop-nas-casing/) Restic (https://restic.net/) BareOS (https://www.bareos.com/) 36:44 Running OpenRGB as root - Erick Use a SystemD Unit File ``` [Unit] Description=Run openrgb server After=network.target lm_sensors.service [Service] Type=forking RemainAfterExit=yes ExecStart=/usr/bin/openrgb --server --startminimized Restart=always [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target ``` 38:23 Helm Email Server - Anthony Helm Server (https://github.com/helm/helm) 39:59 Suggestion for drum notations - Bhikhu PadMu (https://www.padformusician.com/en/products/19-22-padmu-3-lumi.html#/1-version-single) 40:55 Sunjam Asks Matrix P2P Not here yet Move from Synapse to Dendrite 43:33 Kpovoc Asks Rust Desk (https://rustdesk.com/) 45:28 Pick of the Week RpiSurv RpiSurv Github (https://github.com/SvenVD/rpisurv) 48:40 Gadget of the Week FreedomBox (https://www.freedombox.org/) PreBuilt FreedomBox (https://www.olimex.com/Products/OLinuXino/Home-Server/Pioneer-FreedomBox-HSK/) 50:40 Nextcloud & TrueNAS Nextcloud and TrueNAS partner World EINNews article (https://world.einnews.com/pr_news/553659451/nextcloud-and-truenas-deliver-productivity-and-privacy) 53:40 Firefox Suggest Firefox Blog Post (https://support.mozilla.org/en-US/kb/navigate-web-faster-firefox-suggest#w_contextual-suggestions) Currently Opt-In Not Terrible -- The Extra Credit Section -- For links to the articles and material referenced in this week's episode check out this week's page from our podcast dashboard! This Episode's Podcast Dashboard (http://podcast.asknoahshow.com/254) Phone Systems for Ask Noah provided by Voxtelesys (http://www.voxtelesys.com/asknoah) Join us in our dedicated chatroom #GeekLab:linuxdelta.com on Matrix (https://element.linuxdelta.com/#/room/#geeklab:linuxdelta.com) -- Stay In Touch -- Find all the resources for this show on the Ask Noah Dashboard Ask Noah Dashboard (http://www.asknoahshow.com) Need more help than a radio show can offer? Altispeed provides commercial IT services and they're excited to offer you a great deal for listening to the Ask Noah Show. Call today and ask about the discount for listeners of the Ask Noah Show! Altispeed Technologies (http://www.altispeed.com/) Contact Noah live [at] asknoahshow.com -- Twitter -- Noah - Kernellinux (https://twitter.com/kernellinux) Ask Noah Show (https://twitter.com/asknoahshow) Altispeed Technologies (https://twitter.com/altispeed) Special Guest: Steve Ovens.

Broken Silicon
122. Nvidia Ampere 2022 Refresh, Intel ARC Pics & Perf, Silicon Lottery Interview

Broken Silicon

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 12, 2021 134:20


Tom & Dan discuss the latest Nvidia Ampere, AMD RDNA 2, and Intel Alchemist news. Tom also offers an Exclusive interview of the founder of Silicon Lottery – a CPU binning business that just closed. [SPONSOR: Get 10% off Tasty Vite Ramen with Code “brokensilicon” at: https://bit.ly/3oyv4tR] [SPONSOR: dieshrink = 3% off games, brokensilicon = 25% off Win10: https://bit.ly/MoWin10Pro] 0:00 This Episode is Different 3:33 Wii COD4, Reesie's Name, Foldable Phones 13:06 RX6600 Performance, Pricing, and Availability 22:26 Nvidia's 2022 Ampere Refresh - 3090 Ti? 3060 SUPER? 3070 Ti 16GB?! 32:52 Steam Deck Benchmarked 37:28 AMD CPU Lineup in 2022 44:50 Intel ARC Cooler, Launch Date, and Performance Leak 52:54 Silicon Lottery Closes 57:06 Who is Preston? 1:02:14 When did Preston think of starting Silicon Lottery 1:08:14 How did he source and bin CPUs? 1:17:01 Dealing with Customer Service for Binned Parts 1:19:32 When was Silicon Lottery Most Popular? 1.24:03 Was Intel intentionally Underclocking chips due to lack of competition AMD? 1:28:36 When did business start to decline? 1:37:37 Is overclocking becoming obsolete? 1:50:09 How would they have binned Alder Lake & Little Cores? 1:52:56 What's next for Preston and Silicon Lottery? https://videocardz.com/newz/amd-radeon-rx-6600-final-specifications-and-official-performance-leaked https://videocardz.com/newz/amd-radeon-rx-6600-non-xt-with-1792-stream-processors-launches-mid-october https://youtu.be/eS6pYpOYZKs https://videocardz.com/newz/nvidia-rumored-to-launch-rtx-3090-super-rtx-3070-ti-16gb-and-rtx-2060-12gb-in-january https://videocardz.com/newz/nvidia-geforce-rtx-3090-ti-rumors-450w-tdp-21gbps-memory-and-new-power-connector https://wccftech.com/steam-deck-handheld-console-benchmarked-60-fps-with-decent-image-quality-in-several-aaa-games-30-fps-in-cyberpunk-2077-at-native-resolution/ https://3g.ali213.net/news/html/625257.html?s=09 https://youtu.be/Cr1tBFUjPBQ https://siliconlottery.com/

Hacker Public Radio
HPR3442: What is this thing called science

Hacker Public Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 12, 2021


Counter Point This show is a counter point to: hpr3414 :: Critical Thinking may make You Critical of the Covid Crisis Some time ago, I did some Hacker Public Radio episodes in which I ostensibly demonstrated how to create a PDF with Scribus. Secretly, I was actually demonstrating how unexpected payloads could be embedded into a PDF. Did the PDF I uploaded as part of that episode no longer contain a payload if the listener who downloaded it wasn't aware that the payload existed? I've been diagnosed by educators as a "life long learner," which as far as I can tell is a buzzword referring to someone who takes pleasure in learning new things. In our world of technology, dear listener, I think this term is just "hacker." And that's appropriate, because this is Hacker Public Radio you're listening to now, and listeners of this show tend to be people who enjoy learning and exploring new ideas, taking apart gadgets to see what makes them tick, reverse engineering code and data to understand how it gets processed, and so on. The thing about being a hacker or a life-long learner is that there's a lot of stuff out there that wants to be hacked, or learnt. And it turns out that it's just not possible to learn everything. Sometimes, you're out of your depth. It can be tricky to recognize when you're out of your depth, and I think there's a certain learn-able skill to knowing that you don't know something. There's a lot of value to this skill, because when you can recognize you don't have expertise on something, you're able to look around you and find someone who has. That's significant because you can learn from someone with expertise. In my own humdrum life, before getting a full-time job at a tech company, I was commissioned on several occasions to build out infrastructure for a video game development project, an indie radio station, a few different multimedia projects, and so on. When I took on those roles, I became the resident expert. People turned to me for the authoritative word on what technological solutions should be used. When I told them, they were more or less obligated to listen, because that was the role I'd been hired for. If they were to ask me what a workstation should run, and I said Linux, but they bought a Mac instead, then my role would be unarguably redundant. They could just as easily type the question into a search engine on the Internet, and ignore the result. Or they could roll a die, or whatever. In those cases, though, it's a question of my opinion compared to someone else's opinion. Both are valid. Because I was the architect, my opinion mattered more to the long-term plan, but if the long-term plan were to change from having a highly-available cluster for fast 3d model rendering to having workstations with a familiar desktop, then my opinion would be less valid. But there are some areas in life where opinions don't matter. Specifically, that area is science. But what is science, anyway? People talk about science a lot, but it took me a long time, especially as someone who largely came from an artistic background, to comprehend the significance of the term, much less how it worked. Forget about all the high school classes and pop dietitians and physicists. Science is a framework. It's a set of principles designed to help our human brains hack the world around us in a methodical and precise way. Instead of letting our opinions, which may or may not be relevant, influence conclusions and decisions we make, science looks at the results of controlled input and output. Wait a minute. "Input and output"? Those are words I understand. Those are computer terms! Yeah it turns out that computers are the product of science, and in fact building computers and programming computers is a form of Computer Science. Those are just words we made up, but they reveal a lot about what we computer hackers do all day. Computers don't understand the influence of opinion, or your force of will, or the power of faith. They just take input and produce output. They do this very reliably. I don't know whether you've ever tried, but it's really hard to make a computer. Comprehending how a CPU processes rudimentary electrical pulses to transform them into complex instruction sets is mind-bending, at least to me. I've sat down and thought about it critically. I've set up a few experiments, too. There's one you can do with dominoes, believe it or not, that can somewhat help you design a logic circuit. There's a Turing Machine you can build with Magic The Gathering cards. And an electronics kit that'll help you build an 8bit CPU. But even with all of those experiments, the open RISC-V CPU still eludes my comprehension. And just to be clear: back in 2008 or so, I was hired to stress test a RISC CPU to determine whether it was efficient at rendering massive amounts of video. I designed tests in an attempt to prove that a RISC CPU could not out-perform the latest Intel Core2duo, and could not achieve the goal (RISC is better, what can I say?) So my affinity for RISC is far from just a passing interest. But I can't build a RISC-V or even really explain how a CPU works. For that, I understand that there are experts. These aren't just people I call experts because they're labeled that way on their shirt pocket. They're experts because they're building the RISC-V, and it works. I met some of them back at OSS Con in 2019. I recognize their expertise, because they're proving their knowledge. Let's say I approached the RISC-V booth with the preconception that x86 was superior. After all, why would most consumer computers be running x86 if it weren't the best? I might be skeptical if I were told that RISC-V is superior for some tasks. Could they have ulterior motives? Could they have been paid off by Big Silicon to lie about RISC's performance in order to hurt x86's marketshare? Sure, it could happen. And that skepticism is important. It's arguably part of the scientific process. Look at the results of an experiment, replicate the input and ensure that the output is reliably the same. But you can't be sure until you've duplicated the experiments that make the claim in the first place. Unfortunately, this often requires some pretty controlled environments, and possibly some pretty high end equipment. The bottom line is that I'm never going to get around to doing that, I'm never going to have access to those resources, and I'm never going to have the understanding I'd need to comprehend all the potential variables involved. In short, I just don't have the expertise. But I'm willing to trust the expertise of a lot of people from all over the world working on this project. I'm going to trust that because they all agree on similar findings, that what they're saying about the design and architecture of their CPU, that there's a high likelihood that their findings are correct. The same goes, as it turns out, for biological sciences. No matter how many one-off experiments discover that cigarette smoking is beneficial to your health, the wider scientific consensus is that it's harmful. No matter how man "free-thinkers" on the Internet discover that Covid-19 is actually no worse than the common cold, the worldwide scientific community asserts that it's actually harmful, and medical staffs across the globe assert that increased cases of Covid-19 cause bed and healthcare shortages for everyone else. Somebody online may assert that it's an impossibly unified globe-spanning political plot, but that relies on a bunch of untest-able opinions and interpretations of reality that fall well outside any scientific framework. It seems to me that this line of speculation makes about as much sense as asking whether your computer can really still add numbers accurately. Couldn't it occasionally be lying to you? The device you're using to listen to my voice right now not to scramble what I'm saying and accurately play what I recorded in the first place is based on the same scientific principles used by those in biological sciences. We're feeding data into functions, whether the function is written in code, forged in silicon, or written on paper as a math formula, and we're observing the results. When every expert in their field, across the entire globe, agrees on the output, I think we do too. It's either that, or we'd better all go build our own 8bit circuits out of chickens and batteries and just start to rebuild. So did the PDF I uploaded as part of the Scribus episode no longer contain a payload if the listener who downloaded it wasn't aware that the payload existed? Obviously not. If the listener lacked the foresight or expertise to investigate the PDF for a hidden file, then they could have posted an episode of their own about how my PDF was completely normal. They'd have been confident in their findings. But you and I know that whatever experiments they might have used to come to the conclusion that Klaatu was NOT a liar was, in the end, insufficient. The payload did exist, but it was just outside this imaginary listener's detection or comprehension. Critical thinking is important. But at the same time, the scientific framework requires more than just critical thinking, just as building a RISC-V CPU requires more than just being a fan of reduced instruction sets. And solving the Covid-19 crisis takes a lot more than just critical thinking and a couple of backyard "experiments." We're not in the Dark Ages any more, folks. Get vaccinated. Stay safe, and I'll talk to you next time.

Adafruit Industries
Deep Dive w/Scott: SVD and Interrupts

Adafruit Industries

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 8, 2021 121:19


Scott covers progress on the Cortex A work for Raspberry Pi. He's been working on expanding the system view description (SVD) files and learning all about the Generic Interrupt Controller (GIC400 / GICv2). He'll also answer any questions folks have. Visit the Adafruit shop online - http://www.adafruit.com Chat with me and lot of others on the Adafruit Discord at https://adafru.it/discord. Deep Dive happens every week. Normally Fridays at 2pm Pacific but occasionally shifted to Thursday at 2pm. Typically goes for two hours or more. Questions are welcome. 0:00 Getting started 0:02:00 Hello and Housekeeping 0:04:42 Unexpected Makers Feather S2 - https://unexpectedmaker.com/ 0:05:30 Today's topic deep dive Raspberry Pi 0:06:30 Educational/Work Background summary 0:10:20 Getting started in Board Design - KiCad, Oshpark - https://www.kicad.org/ 0:12:00 Working on google maps, reasons for leaving 0:13:35 What was the most important thing learned at Google? 0:14:45 Getting started with surface mount 0:16:15 Flux and soldering, Pin Headers - https://www.adafruit.com/product/2830 0:20:30 Adafruit Collin's Lab soldering videos - https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLjF7R1fz_OOXyxiYQWEX4OZga9c7jrw5q 0:21:05 Hand soldering, vs. SMD for dotstars 0:22:17 Looking at the ‘new' Pi Development board 40-Pin / external JTAG / SWD adapter - https://oshpark.com/shared_projects/fBq76nP9 0:24:22 Raspberry Pi CM4 0:25:37 USB to UART external board 0:26:45 External connector and chickadee logo ( on oshpark ) 0:29:35 Oshpark, PCB shopper (dot com) 0:31:00 Chickadee.tech web page and After Dark theme 0:32:12 Two weeks of progress on RPi 0:32:32 Troubleshooting 4 layer boards 0:33:25 adafruit/samd-peripherals github page - SAMD21 / SAMD51 0:33:52 adafruit / Broadcom peripherals page - https://github.com/adafruit/broadcom-peripherals 0:35:55 Recap system on chips ( SAM D21 block diagram ) 0:38:00 .SVD ( arm ) vs flash.xml ? 0:38:46 Memory Mapped I/O and Product (memory) Mapping 0:40:40 SVD file used for debugging and generate C code 0:42:00 RPi Desktop/workspace setup explained 0:44:00 Debug output and open OCD 0:44:35 Gdbstub PyCortexMDebug - https://github.com/bnahill/PyCortexMDebug 0:46:30 “svd” commands 0:50:24 Using KDE console terminal for tiling “management” 0:51:00 IRQ's and interrupts 0:53:24 Need USB Interrupts to get TinyUSB to work 0:54:00 PPI vs SPI 0:57:28 Would interrupts drive support to multicore 0:58:55 Do we need delays to support interrupts? (no) 1:00:50 Can you have delays in an interrupt? ( don't want to ) 1:02:10 SVDcon (sp) converted table 1:02:39 Python generated jinja macros (svd tool) 1:07:50 GPIO alternate functions - moving to get interrupts working 1:08:40 USB initialization need to be powered on ( see vcmailbox ? ) 1:09:40 How does the interrupt handler work - assembly code 1:10:10 saving and restoring state in interrupts (macro) 1:11:30 handling invalid interrupt entries 1:12:25 CPU exception top level code 1:13:14 handle IRQ 1:14:15 svd USB_OTG_GLOBAL / examine the registers 1:17:02 next thing down the line, the interrupt controller 1:20:30 Lady Ada on the screen! 1:32:23 - after some good advice, goodbye 1:35:20 ARM provided svd conv (sp) 1:38:52 GIC 400 1:40:53 the GIC 400 overview diagram 1:43:20 Interrupt “1023” magic number - in a spurious interrupt 1:46:42 Interrupt handling state machine diagram Figure 3-1 1:47:55 Distributor register descriptions - GICD_ITARGETS 1:49:00 Old show notes - https://github.com/adafruit/deep-dive-notes/ 1:51:16 Reviewing interrupt priority fields 1:54:20 interrupts are all zero 1:55:00 Try setting priority to one, as an experiment 1:57:00 restart with new code - gdb says in fifo-read 1:58:34 Wrap-up 1:59:25 Next week next Friday 2:00:09 cat-cam ----------------------------------------- LIVE CHAT IS HERE! http://adafru.it/discord Adafruit on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/adafruit Subscribe to Adafruit on YouTube: http://adafru.it/subscribe New tutorials on the Adafruit Learning System: http://learn.adafruit.com/ -----------------------------------------

Adafruit Industries
John Park's CircuitPython Parsec: CPU Temperature

Adafruit Industries

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 8, 2021 2:27


#circuitpythonparsec You can use CircuitPython to ask your microcontroller for its CPU temperature. And, get this, it'll answer you! To learn about CircuitPython: https://circuitpython.org Visit the Adafruit shop online - http://www.adafruit.com ----------------------------------------- LIVE CHAT IS HERE! http://adafru.it/discord Adafruit on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/adafruit Subscribe to Adafruit on YouTube: http://adafru.it/subscribe New tutorials on the Adafruit Learning System: http://learn.adafruit.com/ -----------------------------------------

Daily Tech Headlines
GM Announces Ultra Cruise- DTH

Daily Tech Headlines

Play Episode Listen Later Oct 7, 2021


GM unveils its next-gen driver assist system Ultra Cruise, Twitter tests a warning about joining in “intense” conversations, and AMD says Windows 11 can cause CPU performance issues. MP3 Please SUBSCRIBE HERE. You can get an ad-free feed of Daily Tech Headlines for $3 a month here. A special thanks to all our supporters–without you,Continue reading "GM Announces Ultra Cruise- DTH"

Software Engineering Radio - The Podcast for Professional Software Developers
Episode 479: Luis Ceze on the Apache TVM Machine Learning Compiler

Software Engineering Radio - The Podcast for Professional Software Developers

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 29, 2021 51:29


Luis Ceze of OctoML discusses Apache TVM, an open source machine learning model compiler for a variety of different hardware architectures with host Akshay Manchale. Luis talks about the challenges in deploying models on specialized hardware and how TVM.

Broken Silicon
120. Intel Arc A700, AMD RDNA 4 Price/Performance, Nvidia 3070 SUPER, PS5 Zen 2.5

Broken Silicon

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 28, 2021 122:15


Intel isn't just about to launch Desktop Graphics Cards, they are also bringing a Neural Engine to Meteor Lake - and we gotta talk about it! We also discus RDNA 4 Performance, RDNA 4 pricing, RTX 3070 SUPER, Nvidia DLAA, and PS5's "custom" Zen 2 CPU. [SPONSOR for cheap Windows & Gaming Keys: https://www.cdkeyoffers.com/] 25% software discount code: brokensilicon 3% EVERYTHING discount code: dieshrink Windows 10 Key: https://bit.ly/3izasOD 0:00 Lab Dan (Intro Banter) 2:40 Texas Instruments Products, Tesla vs Ford Founders (Corrections & Omissions) 7:40 Meteor Lake's Neural Engine – Why it could be revolutionary for desktop users! 19:15 Apple's ecosystem advantage, the iPhone 13 is kinda "4nm", Tim Cook Impression 27:35 Arc Desktop Lineup Leak - Performance, Segmentation, Launch Volume, Naming 45:55 RDNA 4 & RDNA 3 Performance Target and Pricing Leak 59:10 What do we think about prices doubling while performance quadruples? 1:15:17 Nvidia DLAA Tested - Another good option for Nvidia users 1:19:02 Nvidia 3080 Super & 3070 Super Whispers - why it makes sense for Q1. 1:27:42 Illegal RADEON Instinct Accelerators Smuggled into China (not mining cards) 1:32:27 PlayStation 5 does not have "Zen 2.5", but it optimized for gaming. 1:41:12 Nvidia Leaks PS5 Exclusives coming to PC, Zen 3D EPYC Lineup (Wrap Up) 1:50:42 Zen 3D -> Zen 4 Perf, Preventing Cheaters at Kernel Level (Final Reader Mail) Recent Daniel Nenni Broken Silicon: https://youtu.be/w8JmHsKhP9g https://youtu.be/x0vx5d5Acwo https://youtu.be/7SjgyRhfClA https://videocardz.com/newz/intel-arc-alchemist-graphics-cards-to-adopt-arc-a-naming https://twitter.com/momomo_us/status/1442121954853457922 https://videocardz.com/newz/asus-gigabyte-and-msi-to-launch-custom-intel-arc-alchemist-graphics-cards https://youtu.be/6PTGCUJan8M https://www.techpowerup.com/review/nvidia-dlaa-anti-aliasing/ https://wccftech.com/nvidia-ada-lovelace-ad102-gpu-clock-as-high-as-2-2-ghz-384-bit-bus-gddr6x-over-80-tflops/ https://videocardz.com/newz/nvidia-geforce-rtx-3080-super-3070-super-and-3060-super-get-rumored-specifications https://twitter.com/kopite7kimi/status/1440516490164260868 https://www.tomshardware.com/news/amds-radeon-instinct-accelerators-sneak-into-chinese-hpc-projects-through-vietnam https://twitter.com/GPUsAreMagic/status/1438082723277688836 https://twitter.com/GPUsAreMagic/status/1438098033162457089 https://twitter.com/GPUsAreMagic/status/1439205765559066627 https://ighor.medium.com/i-unlocked-nvidia-geforce-now-and-stumbled-upon-pirates-dc48a3f8ff7 https://www.pcgamer.com/amp/amd-rx-5000-graphics-card-sam-support/ https://wccftech.com/amd-microsoft-bring-tensorflow-directml-to-life-4x-improvement-with-rdna-2-gpus/ https://www.coolserver.com.cn/product_285.html https://twitter.com/ExecuFix/status/1438420566243950595 https://wccftech.com/intel-arc-alchemist-gpus-tsmc-6nm-because-of-insufficient-manufacturing-capacity-at-intel-fabs-xess-backwards-compatibility-custom-graphics-cards/ https://videocardz.com/newz/gainward-and-galax-confirm-and-launch-geforce-rtx-3060-with-ga104-150-gpu https://wccftech.com/amd-achieves-epyc-record-breaking-16-market-share-in-recent-quarter/ https://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/evga-x570-dark https://www.lg.com/us/monitors/lg-32ep950-b-oled-monitor

The Cloud Pod
135: The Cloud Pod Goes to Google Cloud Toronto, Eh?

The Cloud Pod

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 24, 2021 41:57


On The Cloud Pod this week, AWS releases OpenSearch and EKS Anywhere, Google Cloud is now available in the Toronto region, and Microsoft deals with two critical security issues.  A big thanks to this week's sponsors: Foghorn Consulting, which provides full-stack cloud solutions with a focus on strategy, planning and execution for enterprises seeking to take advantage of the transformative capabilities of AWS, Google Cloud and Azure. JumpCloud, which offers a complete platform for identity, access, and device management — no matter where your users and devices are located.  This week's highlights

Syntax - Tasty Web Development Treats
From React To SvelteKit

Syntax - Tasty Web Development Treats

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 22, 2021 55:27


In this episode of Syntax, Scott talks with Wes about moving Level Up Tutorials from React to SvelteKit — why he did it, how, benefits, things to watch out for, and more! Prismic - Sponsor Prismic is a Headless CMS that makes it easy to build website pages as a set of components. Break pages into sections of components using React, Vue, or whatever you like. Make corresponding Slices in Prismic. Start building pages dynamically in minutes. Get started at prismic.io/syntax. Sentry - Sponsor If you want to know what's happening with your code, track errors and monitor performance with Sentry. Sentry's Application Monitoring platform helps developers see performance issues, fix errors faster, and optimize their code health. Cut your time on error resolution from hours to minutes. It works with any language and integrates with dozens of other services. Syntax listeners new to Sentry can get two months for free by visiting Sentry.io and using the coupon code TASTYTREAT during sign up. Cloudinary - Sponsor Cloudinary is the best way to manage images and videos in the cloud. Edit and transform for any use case, from performance to personalization, using Cloudinary's APIs, SDKs, widgets, and integrations. Show Notes 07:28 - Thoughts Apples to oranges, so unfortunately, no super legit ability to compare. SvelteKit isn't analogous with a custom React setup that uses CSR SSR is usually going to be faster - we can ship less JS Some big things changed beyond React → SvelteKit Apollo → GFetch Plyr → Vime HLS starts grabbing chunks immediately, so it's hard to get accurate load time and transfer. Whole conversion took a couple of months. Hardest part was making UI choices and changes, straight up converting components one by one wasn't actually that tough 16:14 - Converting React components to Svelte useState becomes just a straight-up variable Graphql calls were hooks now just imported generated functions Remove extranous fragments Convert {things && } to {#if thing}{/if}  becomes  24:06 - Spark joys State Our checkout flow became way more transparent, way easier with Svelte stores Render flow Was never something we needed to really think about. Didn't think about memoizing, or worrying about too many renders down the line, just never needed to Overall developer experience It's honestly a joy to work in and I don't want to go back Making a library Package dir, new SvelteKit project, svelte-kit package I made svelte-toy - https://github.com/leveluptuts/svelte-toy svelte-element-query - https://github.com/leveluptuts/Svelte-Element-Query svelte-simple-datatable fork Creating a sitemap was extremely easy, because of server-side routes. file.returnformat.ts ie sitemap.xml.ts CSS without a css-in-js library for scoping is a dream. CSS props are now 100% via CSS variables using the https://svelte.dev/docs#style_props Animations are all done with Svelte's internal animations lib 32:45 - Hosting adapter-node Hosted on render.com as a straight-up node process $7/m for more than enough RAM and CPU, Lots of other options for static, Vercel, workers whatever, I like having just a straight-up node app you can host anywhere 35:50 - Things to do Admin tools Pancake lib for charts 37:00 - Challenges ESM is not always smooth sailin Import has from ‘lodash/has' didn't working in dev, but import has from ‘lodash/has.js' didn't work in prod. Solution was to use lodash.has as the dependency Apollo included all React as a dep unless you import from @core TS is great, but there was once where I wanted to define the entire props ts object for a spread prop, but was not possible Drag animations Cloudinary 42:46 - Wes' questions What about the ecosystem? What about forms + DOM data? Serverless functions? Do you always bind to state? Or just access directly? formData = writable({ title: "yo" }) {$formData.title} Is it stable? Deno - Snel Links https://leveluptutorials.com/ https://vitejs.dev/ ××× SIIIIICK ××× PIIIICKS ××× Scott: The Skeptics Guide To The Universe Podcast Wes: Pressure Washer Nozzle Shameless Plugs Scott: Web Components 101 - Sign up for the year and save 25%! Wes: All Courses - Use the coupon code ‘Syntax' for $10 off! Tweet us your tasty treats! Scott's Instagram LevelUpTutorials Instagram Wes' Instagram Wes' Twitter Wes' Facebook Scott's Twitter Make sure to include @SyntaxFM in your tweets

Rebuild
317: See You In Court (hak)

Rebuild

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 22, 2021 107:10


Hakuro Matsuda さんをゲストに迎えて、Apple イベント、iPad mini, iPhone 13, Wise などについて話しました。 Show Notes Porter Robinson's (Second Sky.) Twitter Super Follows has generated only around $6K+ in its first two weeks Apple Events - September 2021 iPad mini - Apple New iPad Mini Has Downclocked A15 Chip Compared to iPhone 13 The bitter lawsuit hanging over the Apple Watch's new swipe keyboard Has Apple hit a wall with the A15 processor? iPhone 13 A15 benchmarks reveal 21% CPU speed gain over iPhone 12 ドコモの「瞬速5G」をご紹介 iPhone 13 Pro and iPhone 13 Pro Max Lightning to USB 3 Camera Adapter Google hypes Pixel 6 launch in Japan with potato chips ミッドサマー メイドインアビス ペンギンに「宇宙人の可能性」が浮上 糞から金星にある化学物質 「金星に生命の痕跡」に反証続々、ホスフィンは誤検出の可能性 DUNE/デューン 砂の惑星 The Matrix Resurrections | Official Trailer 望郷太郎(5) Wise: Online Money Transfers Nintendo finally adds Bluetooth audio to the Switch in new software update Bluetoothオーディオに対応したSwitchで,Bluetoothヘッドセットの接続と遅延を検証してみた The Morning Show | Apple TV+

The CultCast
California Streaming reactions + iPhone 13 Vs. 13 Pro! (CultCast #510)

The CultCast

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 17, 2021 98:03


This week: reacting to iPhone 13 and 13 Pro, iPad mini, and and what the h-e-double hockey sticks happened to Apple Watch Series 7?! Plus: iPhone 13 Vs. iPhone 13 Pro - what you need to know before you buy! Get 2-3 episodes of CultCast Off Topic each and every week for just $6! Off Topic is a new weekly variety show hosted by Erfon Elijah and friends, dedicated to tech, gaming, culture, and more. Join Cult Support, good friend! This episode supported by Easily create a beautiful website all by yourself, at Squarespace.com/cultcast. Use offer code CultCast at checkout to get 10% off your first purchase of a website or domain. Cult of Mac's watch store is full of beautiful straps that cost way less than Apple's. See the full curated collection at Store.Cultofmac.com CultCloth will keep your iPhone 12, Apple Watch, iPad, glasses and lenses sparkling clean, and for a limited time use code CULTCAST at checkout to score a free CarryCloth with any order at CultCloth.co. Join us in the CultClub! discord.gg/BrKdnSK On the show this week @erfon / @lkahney / @lewiswallace iPhone 13's Cinematic mode marks new era in computational photography Of all the things Apple revealed Tuesday, to me the most impressive was the iPhone 13's new Cinematic mode. The depth-of-field effect creates amazing focus transitions between subjects. Win one year of unlimited cloud backup from Backblaze [Cult of Mac giveaway] Apple Watch Series 7 looks like a late substitution for the upgrade Apple wanted to deliver Apple Watch Series 7 is not the upgrade most of us expected to see from Tuesday's Apple event. The new model doesn't sport the big design refresh multiple sources said was coming. It doesn't even pack a new chip. Apple Watch Series 7 Tidbits: S7 Chip, Storage Remains 32GB, USB-C Fast Charging Cable in the Box, and More MacRumors can confirm several details about the Series 7 not currently shared by Apple. First, the Apple Watch Series 7 is indeed powered with an S7 branded chip, which Apple indicates will offer the same 20% advantage in performance compared to the S5 chip found in the Apple Watch SE and Series 5 as the Apple Watch Series 6 did. New budget iPad 9 gets better video chat, doubles storage On the inside is an Apple A13 processor, an improvement over the A12 in its predecessor. Apple promises that brings 20% faster CPU and GPU performance. iPad mini gets its biggest, most amazing upgrade yet Apple today surprised us with a brand-new 2021 iPad mini — its best compact tablet to date. It sports a gorgeous new design inspired by iPad Pro, an Liquid Retina display, and a blazing-fast A15 Bionic chip with 5G connectivity. What's Still Coming in 2021 at Apple's Second Fall Event

The Vergecast
Microsoft announces Surface event for Sept. 22nd / Apple concedes to let apps link to the web sign up / iPhone 13 could have satellite connectivity

The Vergecast

Play Episode Listen Later Sep 3, 2021 77:34


The Verge's Dieter Bohn, Alex Cranz, and Chaim Gartenberg discuss a bunch of new Apple App Store policies, the upcoming Microsoft Surface event, and some fun strange new gadgets from this week. Further reading: Reddit bans anti-vaccine subreddit r/NoNewNormal after site-wide protest Ivermectin misinformation has poisoned Amazon's platform, with few fixes planned Apple's $100 million settlement agreement “clarifies” App Store rules for developers, but doesn't change much Apple concedes to let apps like Netflix, Spotify, and Kindle link to the web to sign up Apple and Google must allow developers to use other payment systems, new Korean law declares Apple will ask before it targets you with its ads in iOS 15 Apple says Arizona and Georgia will be first to add state IDs to iPhones Microsoft announces Surface event for September 22nd Microsoft will release Windows 11 on October 5th Windows 11 won't include Android app support at launch The Windows 11 upgrade situation just got less and more confusing Microsoft won't stop you installing Windows 11 on older PCs Microsoft is threatening to withhold Windows 11 updates if your CPU is old Microsoft is kicking unsupported PCs out of Windows 11 testing The iPhone 13 could have satellite connectivity The iPhone 13's rumored satellite link sounds like it's just for emergencies The next Apple Watch may be delayed due to manufacturing issues Apple reportedly wants a Watch with more health tracking and could ship one next year Apple buys classical music streaming service Primephonic Midrange Samsung Galaxy S21 FE appears again in leaked manual Samsung adds new foldable features to its older Z Fold and Z Flip phones with One UI 3.1.1 Fashion follows function: what's next for the phone industry TV streaming service Locast suspends service after court ruling This chainless drive system could revolutionize e-bike designs  Sony's new PS5 model weighs less because it has a smaller heatsink Bose announces QuietComfort 45 noise-canceling headphones with 24-hour battery life Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices

This Week in Tech (MP3)
TWiT 838: Crowbar and a Foot - OnlyFans about-face, Tim Cook 10th anniversary, Elizabeth Holmes trial

This Week in Tech (MP3)

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 30, 2021 147:19


OnlyFans about-face, Tim Cook 10th anniversary, Elizabeth Holmes trial First Look at Leo's Galaxy Watch 4 Classic and Galaxy Z Flip 3. The All-Seeing "i": Apple Just Declared War on Your Privacy. EU agency advises against using search & browsing history for credit scores. From Pearl to Pegasus: Bahraini Government Hacks Activists with NSO Group Zero-Click iPhone Exploits. T-Mobile Hacker Who Stole Data on 50 Million Customers: 'Their Security Is Awful'. Norton and Avast are merging into an $8 billion antivirus empire. Tim Cook's Run as Apple CEO Could End as Early as 2025. Who Will Replace Him? Analyst: Chipset Shortage Now Affects 'Everybody But Apple' Elizabeth Holmes: from Silicon Valley's female icon to disgraced CEO on trial. OnlyFans no longer plans to ban porn, saying in abrupt U-turn that it wants to be a 'home for all creators'. OnlyFans' policy change is a tale as old as the internet. Microsoft is threatening to withhold Windows 11 updates if your CPU is old. Microsoft Promotes Product Chief Panay to Senior Leadership Team. Microsoft won't stop you from installing Windows 11 on older PCs. The remote work argument has already been won by startups. Scientists add human fat gene into potatoes to make them grow huge. Amateur gardener grows world's biggest potato. Host: Leo Laporte Guests: Owen JJ Stone, Dwight Silverman, and Alex Wilhelm Download or subscribe to this show at https://twit.tv/shows/this-week-in-tech Get episodes ad-free with Club TWiT at https://twit.tv/clubtwit Sponsors: podium.com/twit CrowdStrike.com/twit wordtune.com/twit ZipRecruiter.com/Twit