Synopsis: After defeating Syrian rebels at Qarqar and extending his dominion to the borders of Egypt, Sargon II labors to defend Tabal from the advances of Midas of Phrygia. Letters to Midas from Pisiri of Carchemish give Sargon a pretext to depose the Country Lord and annex his kingdom to Assyria. “In my fifth regnal year, Pisiri of the city Carchemish sinned against the treaty sworn by the great gods and repeatedly sent messages hostile to Assyria to Midas, king of the land Musku; he held me in contempt. I threw (Pisiri), together with his family, in iron fetters. I opened his palace, his treasure house. I carried off as booty 10 talents of refined gold, (and) 2,100 talents of silver, (along with) arhu-copper, tin, iron, elephant hides, elephant ivory, battle-gear, and the guilty people among the city Carchemish who had sided with (Pisiri), along with their possessions, and brought them to Assyria. I conscripted 50 chariots, 200 cavalry and 3,000 foot soldiers from among them and added them to my royal military contingent. I settled Assyrians in the city Carchemish and imposed the yoke of the god Assur, my lord, upon them.” – The Annals of Sargon II Map of the Iron Age Near East: https://audio.ancientworldpodcast.com/Map_Near_East.jpg Map of Iron Age Anatolia: https://audio.ancientworldpodcast.com/Map_Anatolia.jpg Map of Iron Age Northern Syria: https://audio.ancientworldpodcast.com/Map_Syria.jpg Map of Iron Age Southern Syria and Canaan: https://audio.ancientworldpodcast.com/Map_Canaan.jpg Regional Kings List: https://audio.ancientworldpodcast.com/C27_Kings_List.pdf Episode Images: https://audio.ancientworldpodcast.com/C28_Images.pdf References and Further Reading: https://audio.ancientworldpodcast.com/C28_References.pdf Please contact email@example.com if you would like to advertise on this podcast. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices
Dr. Stephen Hargarten is a Professor of Emergency Medicine, Associate Dean for Global Health, Director of the Global Health Pathway, and Director of the Comprehensive Injury Center at the Medical College of Wisconsin. His research interests reflect an intersection of injury and violence prevention and health policy to address the burden of this biosocial disease. He was the founding President of the Society for the Advancement of Violence and Injury Research and has served on the Violence and Injury Prevention Mentoring Committee for the World Health Organization. In his conversation with Amelia and Kirk, he makes a compelling argument for considering firearm injury as a disease and a public health crisis. They discuss state and federal policies that can and do affect this primarily political disease. Dr. Hargarten also explains the use of a biopsychosocial model for healing from firearm injury and calls for medical educators to include firearm injury mechanisms, prevention and treatment in curricula. Selected publications are included below. Commentary: Moving Emergency Medicine Toward the Biopsychosocial Disease Model (Hargarten S.) Annals of Emergency Medicine. November 2019;74(5):S52-S54 SCOPUS ID: 2-s2.0-85073691318 11/01/2019 Gun Violence Education in Medical School: A Call to Action (Barron A, Hargarten S, Webb T.) Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 2022;34(3):295-300 SCOPUS ID: 2-s2.0-85104939062 01/01/2022 A scoping review of patterns, motives, and risk and protective factors for adolescent firearm carriage (Oliphant SN, Mouch CA, Rowhani-Rahbar A, Hargarten S, Jay J, Hemenway D, Zimmerman M, Carter PM.) Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 15 August 2019;42(4):763-810 SCOPUS ID: 2-s2.0-85069995818 08/15/2019
Saluting Science's Silly Side, VirtuallyIn science, there are some traditions: Every October, the Nobel Prize committee announces the winners of that year's awards, which are presented in Sweden in December. And every September for the past 33 years, a different committee has awarded the Ig Nobel Prizes in Cambridge, Massachusetts. And every year, on the day after Thanksgiving, Science Friday plays highlights from the awards ceremony. The Ig Nobel awards are a salute to achievements that, in the words of the organizers, “make people laugh, then think.” They are presented by the editors of the science humor magazine Annals of Improbable Research to 10 lucky(?) winners for unusual achievements in science, medicine, and other fields. This year's ceremony was held virtually, with a webcast taking the place of the traditional raucous ceremony in Harvard's Sanders Theater. However, it still contained many elements of the in-person Igs, from flying paper airplanes to the participation of real Nobel Laureates in the ceremony. This year's awards included prizes for explaining why many scientists like to lick rocks, for re-animating dead spiders to use as mechanical gripping tools, and for using cadavers to explore whether there is an equal number of hairs in each of a person's two nostrils. SciFri producer Charles Bergquist joins Ira to discuss highlights from this year's ceremony.Stop Flushing Your Health Data Down The ToiletYou could be flushing important information about your health right down the toilet—quite literally. Pee and poop can tell you a lot about your health, so what if your waste…didn't go to waste? What if, instead, it could tell you more about your health? Like number one, it can catch a condition like diabetes early. Or number two, check out what's going on in your gut microbiome.That's the goal of the smart toilet—a device that gets all up in your business to tell you more about your health. Ira talks with the inventor of the PH Smart Toilet, Dr. Seung-min Park, instructor of urology at Stanford's School of Medicine in California, about how the toilet works, how it can be used to catch diseases early on, and the ethical implications of such a device.To stay updated on all things science, sign up for Science Friday's newsletters. Transcripts for each segment will be available after the show airs on sciencefriday.com.
Episode 239 – Jesus Beyond the Bible Welcome to Anchored by Truth brought to you by Crystal Sea Books. In John 14:6, Jesus said, “I am the way, the truth, and the life.” The goal of Anchored by Truth is to encourage everyone to grow in the Christian faith by anchoring themselves to the secure truth found in the inspired, inerrant, and infallible word of God. Script Notes: But you, O Bethlehem Ephrathah, are only a small village among all the people of Judah. Yet a ruler of Israel, whose origins are in the distant past, will come from you on my behalf. Micha, Chapter 5, verse 2, New Living Translation Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the reign of King Herod. The Gospel of Matthew, Chapter 2, verse 1, New Living Translation ******** VK: Hi! I’m Victoria K. Welcome to Anchored by Truth brought to you by Crystal Sea Books. I’m here today with RD Fierro, author founder of Crystal Sea Books, and part-time barista. He turns on the coffee maker and puts in those little cups. Today on Anchored by Truth, as we approach Thanksgiving and Christmas, we are continuing our series where we focus on the earthly birth and life of Jesus. In today’s culture, it seems as though just about everybody has heard about Jesus, but fewer and fewer people actually know much about him. Do you agree with that RD? RD: Yes. Jesus’ name is certainly well known in modern culture but unfortunately there is as much or more misinformation that circulates about him than there is actual fact. I’m afraid that more people get there information about Jesus more by watching television specials or dramatized movies than they do from reading the Bible or studying the many fine, well-documented books and articles that have been produced by excellent Christian scholars through the years. That’s the bad news. The good news is that for those who are truly interested in knowing the actual, historical Jesus it’s probably easier today than any time in history to get accurate information. But you do have to be careful about the sources you use. VK: So, today we want to continue to provide the listeners to Anchored by Truth with a head start on doing their own study about Jesus. As you have so often said, Jesus is the centerpiece of both the Bible and the plan of redemption. So, to be confident not only in our own faith but to help those who are still looking for anchors for their own lives it’s imperative we know the real Jesus of the Bible. But before we get too deep into our discussion how about telling us a little about the Christmas poem that we’re going to continue today? RD: I’d love to. As I mentioned in an earlier episode of Anchored by Truth, years ago when I worked in one of those big state agency buildings that are so common here I wanted to give Christmas presents to some of my co-workers but doing that in a state agency can sometimes be tricky. So, I decided that one present I could give was a little entertainment so I wrote this piece that was inspired by some of things that used to entertain the kids of my generation: Christmas poems and the short serial stories you used to see in the movie theaters before the main feature. Each of those film pieces would always leave you hanging so you had to come back every week to see what happened. So, I wrote a Christmas story in six parts and each part left you wondering what would come next. That story became The Golden Tree: Komari’s Quest. It was about a group of koala bears who had gone on a quest to the far north to find their creator that they called The Great While Koala Bear. The bears never found their creator but they did find a golden tree in the artic that made a valley a perfect place for them to live. Well, later on I created a new story that I called The Golden Tree: Eagle Enigma and we’ve followed that up now with another Golden Tree story – the Frost Lion. In part one of Frost Lion that we heard on our last episode we’ve learned that there are two young bears confronting a dilemma they believe might threaten their village. From a vantage point at the top of a tall hill near their town they have seen a strange shape out on the distant snow – but they don’t know who or what the shape is. VK: Alright then. So, let’s continue with the story. Here’s part two of Crystal Seas’ Christmas epic poem: The Golden Tree: The Frost Lion. ---- The Golden Tree: The Frost Lion – Part 2 VK: The drama is now building. What we’ve heard is that bears have enjoyed the peace and plenty in the valley for generations but now a new bear from a strange land is in their midst – and that bear is very near death. Worse this new bear has a friend who is still lost in the deep winter snow and may already have died. So, the bears are learning - just like in the real world – that there are always unexpected events in this world that may require us to respond. And it may take real courage to confront those events … RD: And commitment and sacrifice... VK: And it’s hard to have those virtues if we don’t know why we’ve been sent on our own quests, isn’t it? I mean, God’s grace has saved us just like the Golden Tree saved the bears. But as the Apostle Paul said to the Philippians they had to. “work hard to show the results of [their] salvation, obeying God with deep reverence and fear. For God is working in [them and us], giving [them and us]the desire and the power to do what pleases him.” God’s grace saves us but our sanctification requires effort on our part. RD: Right. The old song there’s no other way to be happy in Jesus than to “trust and obey.” Part of that obedience is to be able to tell others why we believe that Jesus was qualified to be our savior. And that starts with us being assured that Jesus was a real, historical figure – not a myth or some kind of pious concoction. In our day and age one of the semi-criticisms that’s hurled against the Christian faith is that the Jesus that Christians worship is either a mythological figure or – if he even existed – that we can’t trust the gospel accounts for information about him. VK: But the truth is that Jesus was a real person. And we see that from passages like the ones we used for our opening scriptures. In these passages we can see that the Bible tells us specific facts about Jesus like where he was born – in Bethlehem – and when – during the reign of a king named Herod. But beyond even what scripture tells us Jesus life is a fact that is even confirmed by sources outside the Bible isn’t it? And that’s what you wanted to focus on today, right – the fact that we have historical sources besides the Bible that confirm Jesus’ historicity and even confirm many of the details contained in the gospels about his life, death, and circumstances? RD: Right. In some earlier episodes of Anchored by Truth we’ve discussed the fact that you can use the existence of the physical universe and apply logic and reason to come to the conclusion that there is a self-existent being responsible for the creation of the universe and of living creatures. But that line of reasoning can only carry you so far in an understanding of God and it would give us almost no information about other attributes that are essential parts of the Christian faith such as the plan of redemption or Jesus’ role in it. For that, we need a special revelation from that self-existent being – God – and fortunately we have that in the Bible. But we need to be persuaded that that revelation is true and reliable and once again logic, reason, and evidence can play a role in validating the Bible’s claim that it is the inspired Word of God. And that’s where extra biblical sources can be helpful. Such sources don’t add anything to the Bible, but they can add to our individual confidence that the Bible is describing history accurately when it speaks of historical events. VK: So, today you want to take a brief look at some other historical sources that also confirm that Jesus was a real historical figure. You know when you think about it, it’s remarkable that there would be any other surviving sources outside the Bible who would mention Jesus. In his day and time – if Jesus hadn’t been the Son of God – he would have been just another obscure and unimportant itinerant preacher that had a brief public ministry in a distant Roman province. He never led an army, held a prominent government or political position, or even wrote a book. Plus, his public ministry only lasted about 3 years and he didn’t travel all that widely. His public ministry was all conducted within 100 miles of his home. And he died the death of a common criminal. So, if Jesus wasn’t who he claimed to be – the Son of the Almighty God – he should have faded from the pages of history as just another local crank. But he didn’t. He’s mentioned by some of the most important historians of his age, men who had far more earthly distinction that he did. Where do you want to start? RD: Let’s start by talking about a few examples of well-known Roman historians who are widely regarded as having written important histories of the Roman Empire and conquests. The examples that we’re going to use today came from an article available on the website coldcasechristianity.com entitled “is there any evidence for Jesus outside the Bible.” We’ll put a link to the article on the notes that accompany the podcast version of this show. But these examples are all widely known and can be found in any number of historical reference sources. So the first example we want to use is a quote from Cornelius Tacitus was well known for his analysis and examination of historical documents and is among the most trusted of ancient historians. He was a senator under Emperor Vespasian and was also proconsul of Asia. In his “Annals’ of 116 AD, he describes the Roman Emperor Nero’s response to the great fire in Rome and Nero’s claim that the Christians were to blame: “Consequently, to get rid of the report, Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus, and a most mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judea, the first source of the evil, but even in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their centre and become popular.” So, in this account, Tacitus confirms that there was a man who lived in Judea, was known as Christ, was crucified under Pontius Pilate, and who had followers who called themselves by his name and were persecuted for following him. VK: Well, this account is helpful because it directly confirms a number of details directly about Jesus. But it’s also important for another reason, isn’t it? A few episodes ago we talked about the fact that Luke and the other gospel writers were meticulous when it came to their historical recording and reporting. So much so that they got some obscure details right, even when other ancient historians got them wrong. So, this quote from Tacitus helps illustrate that point too, doesn’t it. RD: Very good. That’s pretty impressive. You noticed that Tacitus called Pontius Pilate the procurator of Judea not the prefect. VK: Thank you. I try. RD: And you’re absolutely right. As good a historian as Tacitus was he was human and in this case he did make a mistake. He got Pilate’s title wrong. For many years there were questions about the existence and the actual title of Pontius Pilate—the Roman governor who presided over the trial of Jesus. Later Roman writers, as well as almost all Bible reference works, referred to Pilate as the “procurator” of Judea but Luke and the other gospel writers called Pilate a “governor;” not a procurator. The fact that “governor” was the correct title was confirmed in 1961, when a two by three foot stone was discovered that had a Latin inscription. The translation of the inscription reads as follows: Pontius Pilate, Prefect of Judea, has presented the Tiberieum to the Caesareans. This find was not only archaeological confirmation for the existence of Pilate but it was also confirmation that Pilate was the Prefect, or governor, of Judea. VK: In fact, we now know that the title “Procurator” was not used at the time of Jesus’ trial for the Roman governors. This title only came into usage at a later time, during the reign of the emperor Claudius, A.D. 41-54. During Claudius’ reign the title of the Roman governors shifted from Prefect to Procurator. So although Tacitus was correct about the title in use for the Roman governor of Judea at the time he wrote – about 60 years later - strictly speaking that was not Pilate’s actual title when he supervised the trial and execution of Jesus. Pilate was a prefect, a governor, not a procurator – a fact the Bible writers got right. So, who’s next on the list of extra-Biblical writers? RD: Well, before we close for today we should probably take a quick look at one of the most famous of the ancient historians, Josephus, because he lived so close to the time of Jesus and during the period of early church’s formation. Josephus lived from 37 AD to 101 AD. The most widely accepted year for the crucifixion is 33 AD so he was born just four years after the crucifixion. He wrote an extensive history of the Jews in 93 AD called “the Antiquities of the Jews.” So today when you see people referring to it you often just hear people call it “Antiquities.” Josephus wrote about Jesus in more detail than any other non-biblical historian and Josephus himself was a really interesting character. He was a consultant for Jewish rabbis and became a Galilean military commander by the age of sixteen. He was an eyewitness to much of what he recorded in the first century A.D. As a Jewish military leader he initially fought against the Romans but later surrendered and he eventually became an adviser to the Roman emperor Vespasian. Under Vespasian, Josephus was allowed to write a history of the Jews. This history includes three passages about Christians, one in which he describes the death of John the Baptist, one in which he mentions the execution of James (and describes him as the brother of Jesus the Christ), and a final passage which describes Jesus as a wise man and the messiah. There is some legitimate controversy about the writing of Josephus, because of the timing of the discovery of his writing but why don’t you read a conservative scholarly reconstruction of one of Josephus’ most famous passages. VK: “Now around this time lived Jesus, a wise man. For he was a worker of amazing deeds and was a teacher of people who gladly accept the truth. He won over both many Jews and many Greeks. Pilate, when he heard him accused by the leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, (but) those who had first loved him did not cease (doing so). To this day the tribe of Christians named after him has not disappeared.” RD: Now there are some other ancient versions of Josephus’ writing which are even more explicit about the nature of Jesus’ miracles, life and his status as the Christ, but from even this conservative version we can conclude: Jesus lived in Palestine, was a wise man and a teacher, worked amazing deeds, was accused by the Jews, crucified under Pilate and had followers called Christians. Josephus’ observations are particularly compelling because at the time he wrote he was very close in terms of timing to when Jesus lived. Even though he wasn’t like the apostles who actually walked with Jesus he could see around him the effect of the early church’s spreading and he may even have had the opportunity to talk to Jews who had been in and around Judea when Jesus had his public ministry. VK: Well, those two examples are a good introduction to the fact that Jesus’ earthly life has confirmation outside the Bible. Next time we can take up a few more examples but before we close for today a few general observations would seem to be in order. And you said that the early church itself is a confirmation that Jesus was a real, historical figure? RD: Exactly. VK: I’m surprised you didn’t say what you do in some of the Life Lessons with a Laugh - exactamundo … RD: Ok. Exactamundo. Anyway, there is no dispute that in the first century AD Christians and the Christian church began to be an issue within the Roman Empire. They were so widely known that the emperor Nero blamed the great fire of Rome on them. Well, it would be impossible to explain the spread of a movement if there wasn’t something or someone who started the movement. Remember that the Romans weren’t known for being timid administrators of their provincial empire and in the first century AD they certainly weren’t friendly to Christians. So, something remarkable must have happened in the early part of the first century AD in Judea that animated so many people to continue carrying the same message throughout the empire despite the official opposition they encountered everywhere. There are two simple reasons for this phenomena. First, they were persuaded something truly remarkable had happened. A dead man had risen from the grave and walked around for 40 days. And second, they had a source of support and strength – the Holy Spirit – who sustained them as they carried their message to a world that needed it but didn’t want it. VK: Well, all that makes perfect sense. As Paul said to the Romans the same power that raised Jesus from the dead also empowers us and gives us the ability to carry on in his name. Sounds like a perfect time to go to prayer. Since we’re approaching Thanksgiving how about if today we listen to a prayer for that special day when we turn our attention to the goodness that God has shown to us. ---- Prayer for Thanksgiving – VK: We’d like to remind our audience that a lot of our radio episodes are linked together in series of topics so if they missed any episodes or if they just want to hear one again, all of these episodes are available on your favorite podcast app. To find them just search on “Anchored by Truth by Crystal Sea Books.” We hope you’ll be with us next time as we continue our discussion of the reality of Jesus’ life. We hope you’ll take some time to encourage some friends to tune in too, or listen to the podcast version of this show. Also, we’d to remind listeners that copies of The Golden Tree: Komari’s Quest are available from our website. If you’d like to hear more, try out crystalseabooks.com where “We’re not famous but our Boss is!” (Bible Quotes from the New Living Translation) Micha, Chapter 5, verse 2, New Living Translation The Gospel of Matthew, Chapter 2, verse 1, New Living Translation (Sources used for this episode or other in this series) https://coldcasechristianity.com/writings/is-there-any-evidence-for-jesus-outside-the-bible/ https://www.reasonablefaith.org/writings/popular-writings/jesus-of-nazareth/the-evidence-for-jesus/ https://alwaysbeready.com/extrabiblical-historical-sources-corroborate-the-bible/ https://crossexamined.org/why-should-we-trust-the-extra-biblical-references-to-jesus/
Uma pesquisa publicada em 2018 no Annals of Internal Medicine traça o cenário de que o câncer já ultrapassou as doenças cardíacas como a principal causa de morte em países de alta renda e pode escalar ao patamar de doença que mais mata no mundo em poucas décadas. Também é fato que as inovações desenvolvidas para combater diferentes tipos de câncer, têm evoluído em grande medida. Na dianteira da revolução do tratamento do câncer hematológico está a terapia celular chamada CAR-T. A tecnologia consiste em usar as próprias células de defesa do paciente – no caso os linfócitos T – para combater a doença. Modificadas geneticamente, essas células são programadas para reconhecer e atacar os tumores. Embora tenham demonstrado resultados notáveis, a democratização do acesso requer uma abordagem multidisciplinar que envolva esforços de pesquisa, desenvolvimento, produção, distribuição e educação. Neste podcast a Diretora Executiva da ORIGIN Health, Camila Pepe, conversa com o ex-diretor presidente da Agência Nacional de Saúde (ANS), Rogério Scarabel; a presidente da Associação Brasileira de Linfoma e Leucemia (ABRALE), Catherine Moura e o presidente da Aliança para Saúde Populacional (ASAP), Claudio Tafla sobre os desafios para garantir acesso. Este podcast é um oferecimento da Gilead Sciences e Kite Oncology. --- Send in a voice message: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/mittechreviewbrasil/message
Though western science has long rejected the idea of an immaterial self, modern research into near-death experiences, or NDEs, has now proven that many occur after the point of bodily death, and thus cannot be produced in the brain. Whether they are evidence of the soul, or some other undiscovered phenomenon, NDEs have put Western materialist scientists on the defensive, and led many researchers to embrace bold new theories of consciousness. Support us on Patreon: https://patreon.com/user?u=3375417 Donate on Paypal: https://ThinkAnomalous.com/support.html Website: https://ThinkAnomalous.com Full transcript & audio: https://ThinkAnomalous.com/near-death-experiences.html Facebook: https://facebook.com/ThinkAnomalous Twitter: https://twitter.com/Think_Anomalous Instagram: https://instagram.com/Think.Anomalous Check out more from our illustrator, V.R. Laurence: https://vrlaurence.com Think Anomalous is created by Jason Charbonneau. Illustration by V.R. Laurence (https://vrlaurence.com). Research and draft written by Barry Bates. Music by Josh Chamberland. Animation by Brendan Barr. Sound design by Will Mountain and Josh Chamberland. Sources: Corazza, Ornella. Near-Death Experiences: Exploring the Mind-Body Connection. London: Routledge, 2008. Du Monchaux, Pierre-Jean. Anecdotes de Médicine… Lille: Chez J. B. Henry, 1766. Egger, Victor. "Le moi des mourants." Revue Philosophique XLI (1896): 26–38. University of Virginia School of Medicine. “Faculty and Staff- Division of Perceptual Studies.” Accessed November 11, 2023. van der Sluijs, Marinus. “Three Ancient Reports of Near-Death Experiences: Bremmer Revisited.” Journal of Near-Death Studies 27, no. 4 (Summer 2009): 225-26. van Lommel, Pim. Endless consciousness: a concept based on scientific studies on near – death experience In Psychological Scientific Perspectives on Out-of-Body and Near-Death Experiences. New York, NY, USA: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2009. van Lommel, Pim. “Near-death experiences: the experience of the self as real and not as an illusion.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1234 (2011): 19–28. Wahbeh, Helané, Dean Radin, Cedric Cannard, and Arnaud Delorme. “What if consciousness is not an emergent property of the brain? Observational and empirical challenges to materialistic models.” Frontiers 13 (September 7, 2022). This video uses sound effects downloaded from stockmusic.com.
Extra Credit [MCP] The Three Musketeers (2011) Homework [Fonso] When Evil Lurks (2023) Extras: [Fonso] Spider-Man: Across the Spider-Verse (2023) [Fonso] Donnie Brasco (1997) [MCP] Shrek (2001) [MCP] Spider-Man: Across the Spider-Verse (2023) Next Episode: Homework [Harley] The Killer (2023) Extra Credit [Fonso] Van Helsing (2004)
Listen to this episode on Spotify or Apple Podcasts Let's face it the New Testament probably calls Jesus God (or god) a couple of times and so do early Christian authors in the second century. However, no one offers much of an explanation for what they mean by the title. Did early Christians think Jesus was God because he represented Yahweh? Did they think he was God because he shared the same eternal being as the Father? Did they think he was a god because that's just what they would call any immortalized human who lived in heaven? In this presentation I focus on the question from the perspective of Greco-Roman theology. Drawing on the work of David Litwa, Andrew Perriman, Barry Blackburn, and tons of ancient sources I seek to show how Mediterranean converts to Christianity would have perceived Jesus based on their cultural and religious assumptions. This presentation is from the 3rd Unitarian Christian Alliance Conference on October 20, 2023 in Springfield, OH. Here is the original pdf of this paper. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c5Z3QbQ7dHc —— Links —— See more scholarly articles by Sean Finnegan Get the transcript of this episode Support Restitutio by donating here Join our Restitutio Facebook Group and follow Sean Finnegan on Twitter @RestitutioSF Leave a voice message via SpeakPipe with questions or comments and we may play them out on the air Intro music: Good Vibes by MBB Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0) Free Download / Stream: Music promoted by Audio Library. Who is Sean Finnegan? Read his bio here Introduction When early Christian authors called Jesus “god” (or “God”) what did they mean? Modern apologists routinely point to pre-Nicene quotations in order to prove that early Christians always believed in the deity of Christ, by which they mean that he is of the same substance (homoousios) as the Father. However, most historians agree that Christians before the fourth century simply didn't have the cognitive categories available yet to think of Christ in Nicene or Chalcedonian ways. If this consensus is correct, it behooves us to consider other options for defining what early Christian authors meant. The obvious place to go to get an answer to our initial question is the New Testament. However, as is well known, the handful of instances in which authors unambiguously applied god (θεός) to Christ are fraught with textual uncertainty, grammatical ambiguity, and hermeneutical elasticity. What's more, granting that these contested texts all call Jesus “god” provides little insight into what they might mean by that phrase. Turning to the second century, the earliest handful of texts that say Jesus is god are likewise textually uncertain or terse. We must wait until the second half of the second century and beyond to have more helpful material to examine. We know that in the meanwhile some Christians were saying Jesus was god. What did they mean? One promising approach is to analyze biblical texts that call others gods. We find helpful parallels with the word god (אֱלֹהִים) applied to Moses (Exod 7.1; 4.16), judges (Exod 21.6; 22.8-9), kings (Is 9.6; Ps 45.6), the divine council (Ps 82.1, 6), and angels (Ps 8.6). These are texts in which God imbues his agents with his authority to represent him in some way. This rare though significant way of calling a representative “god,” continues in the NT with Jesus' clever defense to his accusers in John 10.34-36. Lexicons have long recognized this “Hebraistic” usage and recent study tools such as the New English Translation (NET) and the Zondervan Illustrated Bible Background Commentary also note this phenomenon. But, even if this agency perspective is the most natural reading of texts like Heb 1.8, later Christians, apart from one or two exceptions appear to be ignorant of this usage. This interpretation was likely a casualty of the so-called parting of the ways whereby Christianity transitioned from a second-temple-Jewish movement to a Gentile-majority religion. As such, to grasp what early postapostolic Christians believed, we must turn our attention elsewhere. Michael Bird is right when he says, “Christian discourses about deity belong incontrovertibly in the Greco-Roman context because it provided the cultural encyclopedia that, in diverse ways, shaped the early church's Christological conceptuality and vocabulary.” Learning Greco-Roman theology is not only important because that was the context in which early Christians wrote, but also because from the late first century onward, most of our Christian authors converted from that worldview. Rather than talking about the Hellenization of Christianity, we should begin by asking how Hellenists experienced Christianization. In other words, Greco-Roman beliefs about the gods were the default lens through which converts first saw Christ. In order to explore how Greco-Roman theology shaped what people believed about Jesus as god, we do well to begin by asking how they defined a god. Andrew Perriman offers a helpful starting point. “The gods,” he writes, “are mostly understood as corporeal beings, blessed with immortality, larger, more beautiful, and more powerful than their mortal analogues.” Furthermore, there were lots of them! The sublunar realm was, in the words of Paula Fredriksen, “a god-congested place.” What's more, “[S]harp lines and clearly demarcated boundaries between divinity and humanity were lacking." Gods could appear as people and people could ascend to become gods. Comprehending what Greco-Roman people believed about gods coming down and humans going up will occupy the first part of this paper. Only once we've adjusted our thinking to their culture, will we walk through key moments in the life of Jesus of Nazareth to hear the story with ancient Mediterranean ears. Lastly, we'll consider the evidence from sources that think of Jesus in Greco-Roman categories. Bringing this all together we'll enumerate the primary ways to interpret the phrase “Jesus is god” available to Christians in the pre-Nicene period. Gods Coming Down and Humans Going Up The idea that a god would visit someone is not as unusual as it first sounds. We find plenty of examples of Yahweh himself or non-human representatives visiting people in the Hebrew Bible. One psalmist even referred to angels or “heavenly beings” (ESV) as אֱלֹהִים (gods). The Greco-Roman world too told stories about divine entities coming down to interact with people. Euripides tells about the time Zeus forced the god Apollo to become a human servant in the house of Admetus, performing menial labor as punishment for killing the Cyclopes (Alcestis 1). Baucis and Philemon offered hospitality to Jupiter and Mercury when they appeared in human form (Ovid, Metamorphoses 8.26-34). In Homer's Odyssey onlookers warn Antinous for flinging a stool against a stranger since “the gods do take on the look of strangers dropping in from abroad” (17.534-9). Because they believed the boundary between the divine realm and the Earth was so permeable, Mediterranean people were always on guard for an encounter with a god in disguise. In addition to gods coming down, in special circumstances, humans could ascend and become gods too. Diodorus of Sicily demarcated two types of gods: those who are “eternal and imperishable, such as the sun and the moon” and “the other gods…terrestrial beings who attained to immortal honour” (The Historical Library of Diodorus the Sicilian 6.1). By some accounts, even the Olympian gods, including Kronos and Uranus were once mortal men. Among humans who could become divine, we find several distinguishable categories, including heroes, miracle workers, and rulers. We'll look at each briefly before considering how the story of Jesus would resonate with those holding a Greco-Roman worldview. Deified Heroes Cornutus the Stoic said, “[T]he ancients called heroes those who were so strong in body and soul that they seemed to be part of a divine race.” (Greek Theology 31) At first this statement appears to be a mere simile, but he goes on to say of Heracles (Hercules), the Greek hero par excellence, “his services had earned him apotheosis” (ibid.). Apotheosis (or deification) is the process by which a human ascends into the divine realm. Beyond Heracles and his feats of strength, other exceptional individuals became deified for various reasons. Amphiarus was a seer who died in the battle at Thebes. After opening a chasm in the earth to swallow him in battle, “Zeus made him immortal” (Apollodorus, Library of Greek Mythology 3.6). Pausanias says the custom of the inhabitants of Oropos was to drop coins into Amphiarus' spring “because this is where they say Amphiarus rose up as a god” (Guide to Greece 1.34). Likewise, Strabo speaks about a shrine for Calchas, a deceased diviner from the Trojan war (Homer, Illiad 1.79-84), “where those consulting the oracle sacrifice a black ram to the dead and sleep in its hide” (Strabo, Geography 6.3.9). Though the great majority of the dead were locked away in the lower world of Hades, leading a shadowy pitiful existence, the exceptional few could visit or speak from beyond the grave. Lastly, there was Zoroaster the Persian prophet who, according to Dio Chrysostom, was enveloped by fire while he meditated upon a mountain. He was unharmed and gave advice on how to properly make offerings to the gods (Dio Chrysostom, Discourses 36.40). The Psuedo-Clementine Homilies include a story about a lightning bolt striking and killing Zoroaster. After his devotees buried his body, they built a temple on the site, thinking that “his soul had been sent for by lightning” and they “worshipped him as a god” (Homily 9.5.2). Thus, a hero could have extraordinary strength, foresight, or closeness to the gods resulting in apotheosis and ongoing worship and communication. Deified Miracle Workers Beyond heroes, Greco-Roman people loved to tell stories about deified miracle workers. Twice Orpheus rescued a ship from a storm by praying to the gods (Diodorus of Sicily 4.43.1f; 48.5f). After his death, surviving inscriptions indicate that he both received worship and was regarded as a god in several cities. Epimenides “fell asleep in a cave for fifty-seven years” (Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers 1.109). He also predicted a ten-year period of reprieve from Persian attack in Athens (Plato Laws 1.642D-E). Plato called him a divine man (θεῖος ἀνήρ) (ibid.) and Diogenes talked of Cretans sacrificing to him as a god (Diogenes, Lives 1.114). Iamblichus said Pythagoras was the son of Apollo and a mortal woman (Life of Pythagoras 2). Nonetheless, the soul of Pythagoras enjoyed multiple lives, having originally been “sent to mankind from the empire of Apollo” (Life 2). Diogenes and Lucian enumerate the lives the pre-existent Pythagoras led, including Aethalides, Euphorbus, Hermotimus, and Pyrrhus (Diogenes, Life of Pythagoras 4; Lucian, The Cock 16-20). Hermes had granted Pythagoras the gift of “perpetual transmigration of his soul” so he could remember his lives while living or dead (Diogenes, Life 4). Ancient sources are replete with Pythagorean miracle stories. Porphyry mentions several, including taming a bear, persuading an ox to stop eating beans, and accurately predicting a catch of fish (Life of Pythagoras 23-25). Porphyry said Pythagoras accurately predicted earthquakes and “chased away a pestilence, suppressed violent winds and hail, [and] calmed storms on rivers and on seas” (Life 29). Such miracles, argued the Pythagoreans made Pythagoras “a being superior to man, and not to a mere man” (Iamblichus, Life 28). Iamblichus lays out the views of Pythagoras' followers, including that he was a god, a philanthropic daemon, the Pythian, the Hyperborean Apollo, a Paeon, a daemon inhabiting the moon, or an Olympian god (Life 6). Another pre-Socratic philosopher was Empedocles who studied under Pythagoras. To him sources attribute several miracles, including stopping a damaging wind, restoring the wind, bringing dry weather, causing it to rain, and even bringing someone back from Hades (Diogenes, Lives 8.59). Diogenes records an incident in which Empedocles put a woman into a trance for thirty days before sending her away alive (8.61). He also includes a poem in which Empedocles says, “I am a deathless god, no longer mortal, I go among you honored by all, as is right” (8.62). Asclepius was a son of the god Apollo and a human woman (Cornutus, Greek Theology 33). He was known for healing people from diseases and injuries (Pindar, Pythian 3.47-50). “[H]e invented any medicine he wished for the sick, and raised up the dead” (Pausanias, Guide to Greece 2.26.4). However, as Diodorus relates, Hades complained to Zeus on account of Asclepius' diminishing his realm, which resulted in Zeus zapping Asclepius with a thunderbolt, killing him (4.71.2-3). Nevertheless, Asclepius later ascended into heaven to become a god (Hyginus, Fables 224; Cicero, Nature of the Gods 2.62). Apollonius of Tyana was a famous first century miracle worker. According to Philostratus' account, the locals of Tyana regard Apollonius to be the son of Zeus (Life 1.6). Apollonius predicted many events, interpreted dreams, and knew private facts about people. He rebuked and ridiculed a demon, causing it to flee, shrieking as it went (Life 2.4). He even once stopped a funeral procession and raised the deceased to life (Life 4.45). What's more he knew every human language (Life 1.19) and could understand what sparrows chirped to each other (Life 4.3). Once he instantaneously transported himself from Smyrna to Ephesus (Life 4.10). He claimed knowledge of his previous incarnation as the captain of an Egyptian ship (Life 3.23) and, in the end, Apollonius entered the temple of Athena and vanished, ascending from earth into heaven to the sound of a choir singing (Life 8.30). We have plenty of literary evidence that contemporaries and those who lived later regarded him as a divine man (Letters 48.3) or godlike (ἰσόθεος) (Letters 44.1) or even just a god (θεός) (Life 5.24). Deified Rulers Our last category of deified humans to consider before seeing how this all relates to Jesus is rulers. Egyptians, as indicated from the hieroglyphs left in the pyramids, believed their deceased kings to enjoy afterlives as gods. They could become star gods or even hunt and consume other gods to absorb their powers. The famous Macedonian conqueror, Alexander the Great, carried himself as a god towards the Persians though Plutarch opines, “[he] was not at all vain or deluded but rather used belief in his divinity to enslave others” (Life of Alexander 28). This worship continued after his death, especially in Alexandria where Ptolemy built a tomb and established a priesthood to conduct religious honors to the deified ruler. Even the emperor Trajan offered a sacrifice to the spirit of Alexander (Cassius Dio, Roman History 68.30). Another interesting example is Antiochus I of Comagene who called himself “Antiochus the just [and] manifest god, friend of the Romans [and] friend of the Greeks.” His tomb boasted four colossal figures seated on thrones: Zeus, Heracles, Apollo, and himself. The message was clear: Antiochus I wanted his subjects to recognize his place among the gods after death. Of course, the most relevant rulers for the Christian era were the Roman emperors. The first official Roman emperor Augustus deified his predecessor, Julius Caesar, celebrating his apotheosis with games (Suetonius, Life of Julius Caesar 88). Only five years after Augustus died, eastern inhabitants of the Roman Empire at Priene happily declared “the birthday of the god Augustus” (ἡ γενέθλιος ἡμέρα τοῦ θεοῦ) to be the start of their provincial year. By the time of Tacitus, a century after Augustus died, the wealthy in Rome had statues of the first emperor in their gardens for worship (Annals 1.73). The Roman historian Appian explained that the Romans regularly deify emperors at death “provided he has not been a despot or a disgrace” (The Civil Wars 2.148). In other words, deification was the default setting for deceased emperors. Pliny the Younger lays it on pretty thick when he describes the process. He says Nero deified Claudius to expose him; Titus deified Vespasian and Domitian so he could be the son and brother of gods. However, Trajan deified Nerva because he genuinely believed him to be more than a human (Panegyric 11). In our little survey, we've seen three main categories of deified humans: heroes, miracle workers, and good rulers. These “conceptions of deity,” writes David Litwa, “were part of the “preunderstanding” of Hellenistic culture.” He continues: If actual cases of deification were rare, traditions of deification were not. They were the stuff of heroic epic, lyric song, ancient mythology, cultic hymns, Hellenistic novels, and popular plays all over the first-century Mediterranean world. Such discourses were part of mainstream, urban culture to which most early Christians belonged. If Christians were socialized in predominantly Greco-Roman environments, it is no surprise that they employed and adapted common traits of deities and deified men to exalt their lord to divine status. Now that we've attuned our thinking to Mediterranean sensibilities about gods coming down in the shape of humans and humans experiencing apotheosis to permanently dwell as gods in the divine realm, our ears are attuned to hear the story of Jesus with Greco-Roman ears. Hearing the Story of Jesus with Greco-Roman Ears How would second or third century inhabitants of the Roman empire have categorized Jesus? Taking my cue from Litwa's treatment in Iesus Deus, I'll briefly work through Jesus' conception, transfiguration, miracles, resurrection, and ascension. Miraculous Conception Although set within the context of Jewish messianism, Christ's miraculous birth would have resonated differently with Greco-Roman people. Stories of gods coming down and having intercourse with women are common in classical literature. That these stories made sense of why certain individuals were so exceptional is obvious. For example, Origen related a story about Apollo impregnating Amphictione who then gave birth to Plato (Against Celsus 1.37). Though Mary's conception did not come about through intercourse with a divine visitor, the fact that Jesus had no human father would call to mind divine sonship like Pythagoras or Asclepius. Celsus pointed out that the ancients “attributed a divine origin to Perseus, and Amphion, and Aeacus, and Minos” (Origen, Against Celsus 1.67). Philostratus records a story of the Egyptian god Proteus saying to Apollonius' mother that she would give birth to himself (Life of Apollonius of Tyana 1.4). Since people were primed to connect miraculous origins with divinity, typical hearers of the birth narratives of Matthew or Luke would likely think that this baby might be either be a descended god or a man destined to ascend to become a god. Miracles and Healing As we've seen, Jesus' miracles would not have sounded unbelievable or even unprecedent to Mediterranean people. Like Jesus, Orpheus and Empedocles calmed storms, rescuing ships. Though Jesus provided miraculous guidance on how to catch fish, Pythagoras foretold the number of fish in a great catch. After the fishermen painstakingly counted them all, they were astounded that when they threw them back in, they were still alive (Porphyry, Life 23-25). Jesus' ability to foretell the future, know people's thoughts, and cast out demons all find parallels in Apollonius of Tyana. As for resurrecting the dead, we have the stories of Empedocles, Asclepius, and Apollonius. The last of which even stopped a funeral procession to raise the dead, calling to mind Jesus' deeds in Luke 7.11-17. When Lycaonians witnessed Paul's healing of a man crippled from birth, they cried out, “The gods have come down to us in the likeness of men” (Acts 14.11). Another time when no harm befell Paul after a poisonous snake bit him on Malta, Gentile onlookers concluded “he was a god” (Acts 28.6). Barry Blackburn makes the following observation: [I]n view of the tendency, most clearly seen in the Epimenidean, Pythagorean, and Apollonian traditions, to correlate impressive miracle-working with divine status, one may justifiably conclude that the evangelical miracle traditions would have helped numerous gentile Christians to arrive at and maintain belief in Jesus' divine status. Transfiguration Ancient Mediterranean inhabitants believed that the gods occasionally came down disguised as people. Only when gods revealed their inner brilliant natures could people know that they weren't mere humans. After his ship grounded on the sands of Krisa, Apollo leaped from the ship emitting flashes of fire “like a star in the middle of day…his radiance shot to heaven” (Homeric Hymns, Hymn to Apollo 440). Likewise, Aphrodite appeared in shining garments, brighter than a fire and shimmering like the moon (Hymn to Aphrodite 85-89). When Demeter appeared to Metaneira, she initially looked like an old woman, but she transformed herself before her. “Casting old age away…a delightful perfume spread…a radiance shone out far from the goddess' immortal flesh…and the solid-made house was filled with a light like the lightning-flash” (Hymn to Demeter 275-280). Homer wrote about Odysseus' transformation at the golden wand of Athena in which his clothes became clean, he became taller, and his skin looked younger. His son, Telemachus cried out, “Surely you are some god who rules the vaulting skies” (Odyssey 16.206). Each time the observers conclude the transfigured person is a god. Resurrection & Ascension In defending the resurrection of Jesus, Theophilus of Antioch said, “[Y]ou believe that Hercules, who burned himself, lives; and that Aesculapius [Asclepius], who was struck with lightning, was raised” (Autolycus 1.13). Although Hercules' physical body burnt, his transformed pneumatic body continued on as the poet Callimachus said, “under a Phrygian oak his limbs had been deified” (Callimachus, Hymn to Artemis 159). Others thought Hercules ascended to heaven in his burnt body, which Asclepius subsequently healed (Lucian, Dialogue of the Gods 13). After his ascent, Diodorus relates how the people first sacrificed to him “as to a hero” then in Athens they began to honor him “with sacrifices like as to a god” (The Historical Library 4.39). As for Asclepius, his ascension resulted in his deification as Cyprian said, “Aesculapius is struck by lightning, that he may rise into a god” (On the Vanity of Idols 2). Romulus too “was torn to pieces by the hands of a hundred senators” and after death ascended into heaven and received worship (Arnobius, Against the Heathen 1.41). Livy tells of how Romulus was “carried up on high by a whirlwind” and that immediately afterward “every man present hailed him as a god and son of a god” (The Early History of Rome 1.16). As we can see from these three cases—Hercules, Asclepius, and Romulus—ascent into heaven was a common way of talking about deification. For Cicero, this was an obvious fact. People “who conferred outstanding benefits were translated to heaven through their fame and our gratitude” (Nature 2.62). Consequently, Jesus' own resurrection and ascension would have triggered Gentiles to intuit his divinity. Commenting on the appearance of the immortalized Christ to the eleven in Galilee, Wendy Cotter said, “It is fair to say that the scene found in [Mat] 28:16-20 would be understood by a Greco-Roman audience, Jew or Gentile, as an apotheosis of Jesus.” Although I beg to differ with Cotter's whole cloth inclusion of Jews here, it's hard to see how else non-Jews would have regarded the risen Christ. Litwa adds Rev 1.13-16 “[W]here he [Jesus] appears with all the accoutrements of the divine: a shining face, an overwhelming voice, luminescent clothing, and so on.” In this brief survey we've seen that several key events in the story of Jesus told in the Gospels would have caused Greco-Roman hearers to intuit deity, including his divine conception, miracles, healing ministry, transfiguration, resurrection, and ascension. In their original context of second temple Judaism, these very same incidents would have resonated quite differently. His divine conception authenticated Jesus as the second Adam (Luke 3.38; Rom 5.14; 1 Cor 15.45) and God's Davidic son (2 Sam 7.14; Ps 2.7; Lk 1.32, 35). If Matthew or Luke wanted readers to understand that Jesus was divine based on his conception and birth, they failed to make such intentions explicit in the text. Rather, the birth narratives appear to have a much more modest aim—to persuade readers that Jesus had a credible claim to be Israel's messiah. His miracles show that “God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power…for God was with him” (Acts 10.38; cf. Jn 3.2; 10.32, 38). Rather than concluding Jesus to be a god, Jewish witnesses to his healing of a paralyzed man “glorified God, who had given such authority to men” (Mat 9.8). Over and over, especially in the Gospel of John, Jesus directs people's attention to his Father who was doing the works in and through him (Jn 5.19, 30; 8.28; 12.49; 14.10). Seeing Jesus raise someone from the dead suggested to his original Jewish audience that “a great prophet has arisen among us” (Lk 7.16). The transfiguration, in its original setting, is an eschatological vision not a divine epiphany. Placement in the synoptic Gospels just after Jesus' promise that some there would not die before seeing the kingdom come sets the hermeneutical frame. “The transfiguration,” says William Lane, “was a momentary, but real (and witnessed) manifestation of Jesus' sovereign power which pointed beyond itself to the Parousia, when he will come ‘with power and glory.'” If eschatology is the foreground, the background for the transfiguration was Moses' ascent of Sinai when he also encountered God and became radiant. Viewed from the lenses of Moses' ascent and the eschaton, the transfiguration of Jesus is about his identity as God's definitive chosen ruler, not about any kind of innate divinity. Lastly, the resurrection and ascension validated Jesus' messianic claims to be the ruler of the age to come (Acts 17.31; Rom 1.4). Rather than concluding Jesus was deity, early Jewish Christians concluded these events showed that “God has made him both Lord and Christ” (Acts 2.36). The interpretative backgrounds for Jesus' ascension were not stories about Heracles, Asclepius, or Romulus. No, the key oracle that framed the Israelite understanding was the messianic psalm in which Yahweh told David's Lord to “Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool” (Psalm 110.1). The idea is of a temporary sojourn in heaven until exercising the authority of his scepter to rule over earth from Zion. Once again, the biblical texts remain completely silent about deification. But even if the original meanings of Jesus' birth, ministry, transfiguration, resurrection, and ascension have messianic overtones when interpreted within the Jewish milieu, these same stories began to communicate various ideas of deity to Gentile converts in the generations that followed. We find little snippets from historical sources beginning in the second century and growing with time. Evidence of Belief in Jesus' as a Greco-Roman Deity To begin with, we have two non-Christian instances where Romans regarded Jesus as a deity within typical Greco-Roman categories. The first comes to us from Tertullian and Eusebius who mention an intriguing story about Tiberius' request to the Roman senate to deify Christ. Convinced by “intelligence from Palestine of events which had clearly shown the truth of Christ's divinity” Tiberius proposed the matter to the senate (Apology 5). Eusebius adds that Tiberius learned that “many believed him to be a god in rising from the dead” (Church History 2.2). As expected, the senate rejected the proposal. I mention this story, not because I can establish its historicity, but because it portrays how Tiberius would have thought about Jesus if he had heard about his miracles and resurrection. Another important incident is from one of the governor Pliny the Younger's letters to the emperor Trajan. Having investigated some people accused of Christianity, he found “they had met regularly before dawn on a fixed day to chant verses alternately amongst themselves in honour of Christ as if to a god” (Letter 96). To an outside imperial observer like Pliny, the Christians believed in a man who had performed miracles, defeated death, and now lived in heaven. Calling him a god was just the natural way of talking about such a person. Pliny would not have thought Jesus was superior to the deified Roman emperors much less Zeus or the Olympic gods. If he believed in Jesus at all, he would have regarded him as another Mediterranean prophet who escaped Hades to enjoy apotheosis. Another interesting text to consider is the Infancy Gospel of Thomas. This apocryphal text tells the story of Jesus' childhood between the ages of five and twelve. Jesus is impetuous, powerful, and brilliant. Unsure to conclude that Jesus was “either god or angel,” his teacher remands him to Joseph's custody (7). Later, a crowd of onlookers ponders whether the child is a god or a heavenly messenger after he raises an infant from the dead (17). A year later Jesus raised a construction man who had fallen to his death back to life (18). Once again, the crowd asked if the child was from heaven. Although some historians are quick to assume the lofty conceptions of Justin and his successors about the logos were commonplace in the early Christianity, Litwa points out, “The spell of the Logos could only bewitch a very small circle of Christian elites… In IGT, we find a Jesus who is divine according to different canons, the canons of popular Mediterranean theology.” Another important though often overlooked scholarly group of Christians in the second century was led by a certain Theodotus of Byzantium. Typically referred to by their heresiological label “Theodotians,” these dynamic monarchians lived in Rome and claimed that they held to the original Christology before it had been corrupted under Bishop Zephyrinus (Eusebius, Church History 5.28). Theodotus believed in the virgin birth, but not in his pre-existence or that he was god/God (Pseudo-Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies 7.35.1-2; 10.23.1-2). He thought that Jesus was not able to perform any miracles until his baptism when he received the Christ/Spirit. Pseudo-Hippolytus goes on to say, “But they do not want him to have become a god when the Spirit descended. Others say that he became a god after he rose from the dead.” This last tantalizing remark implies that the Theodotians could affirm Jesus as a god after his resurrection though they denied his pre-existence. Although strict unitarians, they could regard Jesus as a god in that he was an ascended immortalized being who lived in heaven—not equal to the Father, but far superior to all humans on earth. Justin Martyr presents another interesting case to consider. Thoroughly acquainted with Greco-Roman literature and especially the philosophy of Plato, Justin sees Christ as a god whom the Father begot before all other creatures. He calls him “son, or wisdom, or angel, or god, or lord, or word” (Dialogue with Trypho 61). For Justin Christ is “at the same time angel and god and lord and man” (59). Jesus was “of old the Word, appearing at one time in the form of fire, at another under the guise of incorporeal beings, but now, at the will of God, after becoming man for mankind” (First Apology 63). In fact, Justin is quite comfortable to compare Christ to deified heroes and emperors. He says, “[W]e propose nothing new or different from that which you say about the so-called sons of Jupiter [Zeus] by your respected writers… And what about the emperors who die among you, whom you think worthy to be deified?” (21). He readily accepts the parallels with Mercury, Perseus, Asclepius, Bacchus, and Hercules, but argues that Jesus is superior to them (22). Nevertheless, he considered Jesus to be in “a place second to the unchanging and eternal God” (13). The Father is “the Most True God” whereas the Son is he “who came forth from Him” (6). Even as lates as Origen, Greco-Roman concepts of deity persist. In responding to Celsus' claim that no god or son of God has ever come down, Origen responds by stating such a statement would overthrow the stories of Pythian Apollo, Asclepius, and the other gods who descended (Against Celsus 5.2). My point here is not to say Origen believed in all the old myths, but to show how Origen reached for these stories as analogies to explain the incarnation of the logos. When Celsus argued that he would rather believe in the deity of Asclepius, Dionysus, and Hercules than Christ, Origen responded with a moral rather than ontological argument (3.42). He asks how these gods have improved the characters of anyone. Origen admits Celsus' argument “which places the forenamed individuals upon an equality with Jesus” might have force, however in light of the disreputable behavior of these gods, “how could you any longer say, with any show of reason, that these men, on putting aside their mortal body, became gods rather than Jesus?” (3.42). Origen's Christology is far too broad and complicated to cover here. Undoubtedly, his work on eternal generation laid the foundation on which fourth century Christians could build homoousion Christology. Nevertheless, he retained some of the earlier subordinationist impulses of his forebearers. In his book On Prayer, he rebukes praying to Jesus as a crude error, instead advocating prayer to God alone (10). In his Commentary on John he repeatedly asserts that the Father is greater than his logos (1.40; 2.6; 6.23). Thus, Origen is a theologian on the seam of the times. He's both a subordinationist and a believer in the Son's eternal and divine ontology. Now, I want to be careful here. I'm not saying that all early Christians believed Jesus was a deified man like Asclepius or a descended god like Apollo or a reincarnated soul like Pythagoras. More often than not, thinking Christians whose works survive until today tended to eschew the parallels, simultaneously elevating Christ as high as possible while demoting the gods to mere demons. Still, Litwa is inciteful when he writes: It seems likely that early Christians shared the widespread cultural assumption that a resurrected, immortalized being was worthy of worship and thus divine. …Nonetheless there is a difference…Jesus, it appears, was never honored as an independent deity. Rather, he was always worshiped as Yahweh's subordinate. Naturally Heracles and Asclepius were Zeus' subordinates, but they were also members of a larger divine family. Jesus does not enter a pantheon but assumes a distinctive status as God's chief agent and plenipotentiary. It is this status that, to Christian insiders, placed Jesus in a category far above the likes of Heracles, Romulus, and Asclepius who were in turn demoted to the rank of δαίμονες [daimons]. Conclusion I began by asking the question, "What did early Christians mean by saying Jesus is god?" We noted that the ancient idea of agency (Jesus is God/god because he represents Yahweh), though present in Hebrew and Christian scripture, didn't play much of a role in how Gentile Christians thought about Jesus. Or if it did, those texts did not survive. By the time we enter the postapostolic era, a majority of Christianity was Gentile and little communication occurred with the Jewish Christians that survived in the East. As such, we turned our attention to Greco-Roman theology to tune our ears to hear the story of Jesus the way they would have. We learned about their multifaceted array of divinities. We saw that gods can come down and take the form of humans and humans can go up and take the form of gods. We found evidence for this kind of thinking in both non-Christian and Christian sources in the second and third centuries. Now it is time to return to the question I began with: “When early Christian authors called Jesus “god” what did they mean?” We saw that the idea of a deified man was present in the non-Christian witnesses of Tiberius and Pliny but made scant appearance in our Christian literature except for the Theodotians. As for the idea that a god came down to become a man, we found evidence in The Infancy Gospel of Thomas, Justin, and Origen. Of course, we find a spectrum within this view, from Justin's designation of Jesus as a second god to Origen's more philosophically nuanced understanding. Still, it's worth noting as R. P. C. Hanson observed that, “With the exception of Athanasius virtually every theologian, East and West, accepted some form of subordinationism at least up to the year 355.” Whether any Christians before Alexander and Athanasius of Alexandria held to the sophisticated idea of consubstantiality depends on showing evidence of the belief that the Son was coequal, coeternal, and coessential with the Father prior to Nicea. (Readers interested in the case for this view should consult Michael Bird's Jesus among the Gods in which he attempted the extraordinary feat of finding proto-Nicene Christology in the first two centuries, a task typically associated with maverick apologists not peer-reviewed historians.) In conclusion, the answer to our driving question about the meaning of “Jesus as god” is that the answer depends on whom we ask. If we ask the Theodotians, Jesus is a god because that's just what one calls an immortalized man who lives in heaven. If we ask those holding a docetic Christology, the answer is that a god came down in appearance as a man. If we ask a logos subordinationist, they'll tell us that Jesus existed as the god through whom the supreme God created the universe before he became a human being. If we ask Tertullian, Jesus is god because he derives his substance from the Father, though he has a lesser portion of divinity. If we ask Athanasius, he'll wax eloquent about how Jesus is of the same substance as the Father equal in status and eternality. The bottom line is that there was not one answer to this question prior to the fourth century. Answers depend on whom we ask and when they lived. Still, we can't help but wonder about the more tantalizing question of development. Which Christology was first and which ones evolved under social, intellectual, and political pressures? In the quest to specify the various stages of development in the Christologies of the ante-Nicene period, this Greco-Roman perspective may just provide the missing link between the reserved and limited way that the NT applies theos to Jesus in the first century and the homoousian view that eventually garnered imperial support in the fourth century. How easy would it have been for fresh converts from the Greco-Roman world to unintentionally mishear the story of Jesus? How easy would it have been for them to fit Jesus into their own categories of descended gods and ascended humans? With the unmooring of Gentile Christianity from its Jewish heritage, is it any wonder that Christologies began to drift out to sea? Now I'm not suggesting that all Christians went through a steady development from a human Jesus to a pre-existent Christ, to an eternal God the Son, to the Chalcedonian hypostatic union. As I mentioned above, plenty of other options were around and every church had its conservatives in addition to its innovators. The story is messy and uneven with competing views spread across huge geographic distances. Furthermore, many Christians probably were content to leave such theological nuances fuzzy, rather than seeking doctrinal precision on Christ's relation to his God and Father. Whatever the case may be, we dare not ignore the influence of Greco-Roman theology in our accounts of Christological development in the Mediterranean world of the first three centuries. Bibliography The Homeric Hymns. Translated by Michael Crudden. New York, NY: Oxford, 2008. Antioch, Theophilus of. To Autolycus. Translated by Marcus Dods. Vol. 2. Ante-Nicene Fathers. Edited by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001. Aphrahat. The Demonstrations. Translated by Ellen Muehlberger. Vol. 3. The Cambridge Edition of Early Christian Writings. Edited by Mark DelCogliano. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge, 2022. Apollodorus. The Library of Greek Mythology. Translated by Robin Hard. Oxford, UK: Oxford, 1998. Appian. The Civil Wars. Translated by John Carter. London, UK: Penguin, 1996. Arnobius. Against the Heathen. Translated by Hamilton Bryce and Hugh Campbell. Vol. 6. Ante-Nicene Fathers. Edited by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1995. Arrian. The Campaigns of Alexander. Translated by Aubrey De Sélincourt. London, UK: Penguin, 1971. Bird, Michael F. Jesus among the Gods. Waco, TX: Baylor, 2022. Blackburn, Barry. Theios Aner and the Markan Miracle Traditions. Tübingen, Germany: J. C. B. Mohr, 1991. Callimachus. Hymn to Artemis. Translated by Susan A. Stephens. Callimachus: The Hymns. New York, NY: Oxford, 2015. Cicero. The Nature of the Gods. Translated by Patrick Gerard Walsh. Oxford, UK: Oxford, 2008. Cornutus, Lucius Annaeus. Greek Theology. Translated by George Boys-Stones. Greek Theology, Fragments, and Testimonia. Atlanta, GA: SBL, 2018. Cotter, Wendy. "Greco-Roman Apotheosis Traditions and the Resurrection Appearances in Matthew." In The Gospel of Matthew in Current Study. Edited by David E. Aune. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001. Cyprian. Treatise 6: On the Vanity of Idols. Translated by Ernest Wallis. Vol. 5. Ante-Nicene Fathers. Edited by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1995. Dittenberger, W. Orientis Graecae Inscriptiones Selectae. Vol. 2. Hildesheim: Olms, 1960. Eusebius. The Church History. Translated by Paul L. Maier. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2007. Fredriksen, Paula. "How High Can Early High Christology Be?" In Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity. Edited by Matthew V. Novenson. Vol. 180.vol. Supplements to Novum Testamentum. Leiden: Brill, 2020. Hanson, R. P. C. Search for a Christian Doctrine of God. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2007. Hart, George. The Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses. 2nd ed. Oxford, UK: Routledge, 2005. Homer. The Odyssey. Translated by Robert Fagles. New York, NY: Penguin, 1997. Iamblichus. Life of Pythagoras. Translated by Thomas Taylor. Iamblichus' Life of Pythagoras. Delhi, IN: Zinc Read, 2023. Justin Martyr. Dialogue with Trypho. Translated by Thomas B. Falls. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2003. Laertius, Diogenes. Life of Pythagoras. Translated by Kenneth Sylvan Guthrie. The Pythagorean Sourcebook and Library. Edited by David R. Fideler. Grand Rapids, MI: Phanes Press, 1988. Laertius, Diogenes. Lives of the Eminent Philosophers. Translated by Pamela Mensch. Edited by James Miller. New York, NY: Oxford, 2020. Lane, William L. The Gospel of Mark. Nicnt, edited by F. F. Bruce Ned B. Stonehouse, and Gordon D. Fee. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1974. Litwa, M. David. Iesus Deus. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2014. Livy. The Early History of Rome. Translated by Aubrey De Sélincourt. London, UK: Penguin, 2002. Origen. Against Celsus. Translated by Frederick Crombie. Vol. 4. The Ante-Nicene Fathers. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2003. Pausanias. Guide to Greece. Translated by Peter Levi. London, UK: Penguin, 1979. Perriman, Andrew. In the Form of a God. Studies in Early Christology, edited by David Capes Michael Bird, and Scott Harrower. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2022. Philostratus. Letters of Apollonius. Vol. 458. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, MA: Harvard, 2006. Plutarch. Life of Alexander. Translated by Ian Scott-Kilvert and Timothy E. Duff. The Age of Alexander. London, UK: Penguin, 2011. Porphyry. Life of Pythagoras. Translated by Kenneth Sylvan Guthrie. The Pythagorean Sourcebook and Library. Edited by David Fideler. Grand Rapids, MI: Phanes Press, 1988. Pseudo-Clement. Recognitions. Translated by Thomas Smith. Vol. 8. Ante Nicene Fathers. Edited by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2003. Pseudo-Hippolytus. Refutation of All Heresies. Translated by David Litwa. Atlanta, GA: SBL, 2016. Pseudo-Thomas. Infancy Gospel of Thomas. Translated by James Orr. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1903. Psuedo-Clement. Homilies. Translated by Peter Peterson. Vol. 8. Ante-Nicene Fathers. Edited by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1897. Siculus, Diodorus. The Historical Library. Translated by Charles Henry Oldfather. Vol. 1. Edited by Giles Laurén: Sophron Editor, 2017. Strabo. The Geography. Translated by Duane W. Roller. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge, 2020. Tertullian. Against Praxeas. Translated by Holmes. Vol. 3. Ante Nice Fathers. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2003. Tertullian. Apology. Translated by S. Thelwall. Vol. 3. Ante-Nicene Fathers, edited by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2003. Younger, Pliny the. The Letters of the Younger Pliny. Translated by Betty Radice. London: Penguin, 1969. End Notes  For the remainder of this paper, I will use the lower case “god” for all references to deity outside of Yahweh, the Father of Christ. I do this because all our ancient texts lack capitalization and our modern capitalization rules imply a theology that is anachronistic and unhelpful for the present inquiry.  Christopher Kaiser wrote, “Explicit references to Jesus as ‘God' in the New Testament are very few, and even those few are generally plagued with uncertainties of either text or interpretation.” Christopher B. Kaiser, The Doctrine of God: A Historical Survey (London: Marshall Morgan & Scott, 1982), 29. Other scholars such as Raymond Brown (Jesus: God and Man), Jason David BeDuhn (Truth in Translation), and Brian Wright (“Jesus as θεός: A Textual Examination” in Revisiting the Corruption of the New Testament) have expressed similar sentiments.  John 20.28; Hebrews 1.8; Titus 2.13; 2 Peter 1.1; Romans 9.5; and 1 John 5.20.  See Polycarp's Epistle to the Philippians 12.2 where a manuscript difference determines whether or not Polycarp called Jesus god or lord. Textual corruption is most acute in Igantius' corpus. Although it's been common to dismiss the long recension as an “Arian” corruption, claiming the middle recension to be as pure and uncontaminated as freshly fallen snow upon which a foot has never trodden, such an uncritical view is beginning to give way to more honest analysis. See Paul Gilliam III's Ignatius of Antioch and the Arian Controversy (Leiden: Brill, 2017) for a recent treatment of Christological corruption in the middle recension.  See the entries for אֱלֹהִיםand θεός in the Hebrew Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (HALOT), the Brown Driver Briggs Lexicon (BDB), Eerdmans Dictionary, Kohlenberger/Mounce Concise Hebrew-Aramaic Dictionary of the Old Testament, the Bauer Danker Arndt Gingrich Lexicon (BDAG), Friberg Greek Lexicon, and Thayer's Greek Lexicon.  See notes on Is 9.6 and Ps 45.6.  ZIBBC: “In what sense can the king be called “god”? By virtue of his divine appointment, the king in the ancient Near East stood before his subjects as a representative of the divine realm. …In fact, the term “gods“ (ʾelōhı̂m) is used of priests who functioned as judges in the Israelite temple judicial system (Ex. 21:6; 22:8-9; see comments on 58:1; 82:6-7).” John W. Hilber, “Psalms,” in The Minor Prophets, Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, vol. 5 of Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary: Old Testament. ed. John H. Walton (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009), 358.  Around a.d. 340, Aphrahat of Persia advised his fellow Christians to reply to Jewish critics who questioned why “You call a human being ‘God'” (Demonstrations 17.1). He said, “For the honored name of the divinity is granted event ot rightoues human beings, when they are worthy of being called by it…[W]hen he chose Moses, his friend and his beloved…he called him “god.” …We call him God, just as he named Moses with his own name…The name of the divinity was granted for great honor in the world. To whom he wishes, God appoints it” (17.3, 4, 5). Aphrahat, The Demonstrations, trans., Ellen Muehlberger, vol. 3, The Cambridge Edition of Early Christian Writings (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge, 2022), 213-15. In the Clementine Recognitions we find a brief mention of the concept: “Therefore the name God is applied in three ways: either because he to whom it is given is truly God, or because he is the servant of him who is truly; and for the honour of the sender, that his authority may be full, he that is sent is called by the name of him who sends, as is often done in respect of angels: for when they appear to a man, if he is a wise and intelligent man, he asks the name of him who appears to him, that he may acknowledge at once the honour of the sent, and the authority of the sender” (2.42). Pseudo-Clement, Recognitions, trans., Thomas Smith, vol. 8, Ante Nicene Fathers (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2003).  Michael F. Bird, Jesus among the Gods (Waco, TX: Baylor, 2022), 13.  Andrew Perriman, In the Form of a God, Studies in Early Christology, ed. David Capes Michael Bird, and Scott Harrower (Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2022), 130.  Paula Fredriksen, "How High Can Early High Christology Be?," in Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, ed. Matthew V. Novenson, vol. 180 (Leiden: Brill, 2020), 296, 99.  ibid.  See Gen 18.1; Ex 3.2; 24.11; Is 6.1; Ezk 1.28.  Compare the Masoretic Text of Psalm 8.6 to the Septuagint and Hebrews 2.7.  Homer, The Odyssey, trans., Robert Fagles (New York, NY: Penguin, 1997), 370.  Diodorus Siculus, The Historical Library, trans., Charles Henry Oldfather, vol. 1 (Sophron Editor, 2017), 340.  Uranus met death at the brutal hands of his own son, Kronos who emasculated him and let bleed out, resulting in his deification (Eusebius, Preparation for the Gospel 1.10). Later on, after suffering a fatal disease, Kronos himself experienced deification, becoming the planet Saturn (ibid.). Zeus married Hera and they produced Osiris (Dionysus), Isis (Demeter), Typhon, Apollo, and Aphrodite (ibid. 2.1).  Lucius Annaeus Cornutus, Greek Theology, trans., George Boys-Stones, Greek Theology, Fragments, and Testimonia (Atlanta, GA: SBL, 2018), 123.  Apollodorus, The Library of Greek Mythology, trans., Robin Hard (Oxford, UK: Oxford, 1998), 111.  Pausanias, Guide to Greece, trans., Peter Levi (London, UK: Penguin, 1979), 98.  Strabo, The Geography, trans., Duane W. Roller (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge, 2020), 281.  Psuedo-Clement, Homilies, trans., Peter Peterson, vol. 8, Ante-Nicene Fathers (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1897). Greek: “αὐτὸν δὲ ὡς θεὸν ἐθρήσκευσαν” from Jacques Paul Migne, Patrologia Graeca, taken from Accordance (PSCLEMH-T), OakTree Software, Inc., 2018, Version 1.1.  See Barry Blackburn, Theios Aner and the Markan Miracle Traditions (Tübingen, Germany: J. C. B. Mohr, 1991), 32.  Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Eminent Philosophers, trans., Pamela Mensch (New York, NY: Oxford, 2020), 39.  Iamblichus, Life of Pythagoras, trans., Thomas Taylor, Iamblichus' Life of Pythagoras (Delhi, IN: Zinc Read, 2023), 2.  Diogenes Laertius, Life of Pythagoras, trans., Kenneth Sylvan Guthrie, The Pythagorean Sourcebook and Library (Grand Rapids, MI: Phanes Press, 1988), 142.  See the list in Blackburn, 39. He corroborates miracle stories from Diogenus Laertius, Iamblichus, Apollonius, Nicomachus, and Philostratus.  Porphyry, Life of Pythagoras, trans., Kenneth Sylvan Guthrie, The Pythagorean Sourcebook and Library (Grand Rapids, MI: Phanes Press, 1988), 128-9.  Iamblichus, 68.  What I call “resurrection” refers to the phrase, “Thou shalt bring back from Hades a dead man's strength.” Diogenes Laertius 8.2.59, trans. R. D. Hicks.  Laertius, "Lives of the Eminent Philosophers," 306. Two stories of his deification survive: in one Empedocles disappears in the middle of the night after hearing an extremely loud voice calling his name. After this the people concluded that they should sacrifice to him since he had become a god (8.68). In the other account, Empedocles climbs Etna and leaps into the fiery volcanic crater “to strengthen the rumor that he had become a god” (8.69).  Pausanias, 192. Sextus Empiricus says Asclepius raised up people who had died at Thebes as well as raising up the dead body of Tyndaros (Against the Professors 1.261).  Cicero adds that the Arcadians worship Asclepius (Nature 3.57).  In another instance, he confronted and cast out a demon from a licentious young man (Life 4.20).  The phrase is “περὶ ἐμοῦ καὶ θεοῖς εἴρηται ὡς περὶ θείου ἀνδρὸς.” Philostratus, Letters of Apollonius, vol. 458, Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge, MA: Harvard, 2006).  See George Hart, The Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, 2nd ed. (Oxford, UK: Routledge, 2005), 3.  Plutarch, Life of Alexander, trans., Ian Scott-Kilvert and Timothy E. Duff, The Age of Alexander (London, UK: Penguin, 2011), 311. Arrian includes a story about Anaxarchus advocating paying divine honors to Alexander through prostration. The Macedonians refused but the Persian members of his entourage “rose from their seats and one by one grovelled on the floor before the King.” Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander, trans., Aubrey De Sélincourt (London, UK: Penguin, 1971), 222.  Translation my own from “Ἀντίοχος ὁ Θεὸς Δίκαιος Ἐπιφανὴς Φιλορωμαῖος Φιλέλλην.” Inscription at Nemrut Dağ, accessible at https://www.tertullian.org/rpearse/mithras/display.php?page=cimrm32. See also https://zeugma.packhum.org/pdfs/v1ch09.pdf.  Greek taken from W. Dittenberger, Orientis Graecae Inscriptiones Selectae, vol. 2 (Hildesheim: Olms, 1960), 48-60. Of particular note is the definite article before θεός. They didn't celebrate the birthday of a god, but the birthday of the god.  Appian, The Civil Wars, trans., John Carter (London, UK: Penguin, 1996), 149.  M. David Litwa, Iesus Deus (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2014), 20.  ibid.  Blackburn, 92-3.  The Homeric Hymns, trans., Michael Crudden (New York, NY: Oxford, 2008), 38.  "The Homeric Hymns," 14.  Homer, 344.  Theophilus of Antioch, To Autolycus, trans., Marcus Dods, vol. 2, Ante-Nicene Fathers (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001).  Callimachus, Hymn to Artemis, trans., Susan A. Stephens, Callimachus: The Hymns (New York, NY: Oxford, 2015), 119.  Siculus, 234.  Cyprian, Treatise 6: On the Vanity of Idols, trans., Ernest Wallis, vol. 5, Ante-Nicene Fathers (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1995).  Arnobius, Against the Heathen, trans., Hamilton Bryce and Hugh Campbell, vol. 6, Ante-Nicene Fathers (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1995).  Livy, The Early History of Rome, trans., Aubrey De Sélincourt (London, UK: Penguin, 2002), 49.  Cicero, The Nature of the Gods, trans., Patrick Gerard Walsh (Oxford, UK: Oxford, 2008), 69.  Wendy Cotter, "Greco-Roman Apotheosis Traditions and the Resurrection Appearances in Matthew," in The Gospel of Matthew in Current Study, ed. David E. Aune (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001), 149.  Litwa, 170.  William L. Lane, The Gospel of Mark, Nicnt, ed. F. F. Bruce Ned B. Stonehouse, and Gordon D. Fee (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1974).  “Recent commentators have stressed that the best background for understanding the Markan transfiguration is the story of Moses' ascent up Mount Sinai (Exod. 24 and 34).” Litwa, 123.  Tertullian, Apology, trans. S. Thelwall, vol. 3, Ante-Nicene Fathers, ed. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2003).  Eusebius, The Church History, trans. Paul L. Maier (Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2007), 54.  Pliny the Younger, The Letters of the Younger Pliny, trans., Betty Radice (London: Penguin, 1969), 294.  Pseudo-Thomas, Infancy Gospel of Thomas, trans., James Orr (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1903), 25.  Litwa, 83.  For sources on Theodotus, see Pseduo-Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies 7.35.1-2; 10.23.1-2; Pseudo-Tertullian, Against All Heresies 8.2; Eusebius, Church History 5.28.  Pseudo-Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, trans., David Litwa (Atlanta, GA: SBL, 2016), 571.  I took the liberty to decapitalize these appellatives. Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho, trans. Thomas B. Falls (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2003), 244.  Justin Martyr, 241. (Altered, see previous footnote.)  Justin Martyr, 102.  Justin Martyr, 56-7.  Arnobius makes a similar argument in Against the Heathen 1.38-39 “Is he not worthy to be called a god by us and felt to be a god on account of the favor or such great benefits? For if you have enrolled Liber among the gods because he discovered the use of wine, and Ceres the use of bread, Aesculapius the use of medicines, Minerva the use of oil, Triptolemus plowing, and Hercules because he conquered and restrained beasts, thieves, and the many-headed hydra…So then, ought we not to consider Christ a god, and to bestow upon him all the worship due to his divinity?” Translation from Litwa, 105.  Justin Martyr, 46.  Justin Martyr, 39.  Origen, Against Celsus, trans. Frederick Crombie, vol. 4, The Ante-Nicene Fathers (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2003).  Litwa, 173.  I could easily multiply examples of this by looking at Irenaeus, Tertullian, Hippolytus, and many others.  The obvious exception to Hanson's statement were thinkers like Sabellius and Praxeas who believed that the Father himself came down as a human being. R. P. C. Hanson, Search for a Christian Doctrine of God (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2007), xix.  Interestingly, even some of the biblical unitarians of the period were comfortable with calling Jesus god, though they limited his divinity to his post-resurrection life.  Tertullian writes, “[T]he Father is not the same as the Son, since they differ one from the other in the mode of their being. For the Father is the entire substance, but the Son is a derivation and portion of the whole, as He Himself acknowledges: “My Father is greater than I.” In the Psalm His inferiority is described as being “a little lower than the angels.” Thus the Father is distinct from the Son, being greater than the Son” (Against Praxeas 9). Tertullian, Against Praxeas, trans., Holmes, vol. 3, Ante Nice Fathers (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2003).
Die Themen in den Wissensnachrichten: +++ 2023 wohl heißestes Jahr seit 125.000 Jahren +++ Roboter sind Menschen (noch) unterlegen +++ Videocalls wirken anders aufs Hirn als echte Meetings +++**********Weiterführende Quellen zu dieser Folge:Health effects in EU from cooking on gas, TNO Phase II Field Study, 28.09.2023Do robots outperform humans in human-centered domains?, Frontiers in Robotics and AI, 07.11.2023Food without agriculture, Nature Sustainability, 06.11.2023Relationship Between Clinician Language and the Success of Behavioral Weight Loss Interventions, Annals of Internal Medicine, 07.11.2023Separable Processes for Live “In-Person” and Live “Zoom-like” Faces, Imaging Neuroscience, 25.10.2023**********Ihr könnt uns auch auf diesen Kanälen folgen: Tiktok und Instagram.
Happy HalloWEEK, FRIENDS! This week Your Doctor Friends are doling out TWO episodes of spoooooky stories and hair-raising health headlines! Each episode contains a "sharing size" story with a little "fun-sized" article at the end! Today's main topic involves the TERRIFYING California "Skittles Ban"! Spoiler alert, it really doesn't have anything to do with Skittles (thank goodness!), but does involve four different food additives now being banned in California with Gov. Gavin Newsom's "California Food Safety Act". What are these substances? Are they actually harmful to us to ingest? What does the data show? At the end Julie does a deep dive into a certain parasitic fungus that can control the minds of insects to propagate itself! It's the source material for the hit video game and HBO/Max series The Last of Us and the closest thing to zombies we will probably cover on this show :) We hope you enjoyed your Halloween and have a lovely Dia de los Muertos, friends! Resources for this episode include: The New York Times article titled "What to know about the 4 food additives banned by California". A study from Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology about the effects of oral erythrosine on men's thyroid function, as well as pituitary-thyroid function in rats A study from the Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology about toxicity of parabens in adult male rats. A review article from Environmental Health on potential impacts of synthetic food dyes on activity and attention in children. An article from Food Chemistry on potassium bromate. A National Geographic article on how Cordyceps fungus species take over ants' brains. Another awesome National Geographic article entitled "Could a parasitic fungus evolve to control humans?" An Annals of Internal Medicine study on the worsening spread of Candida auris in the US from 2019-2021. The CDC webpage about Candida auris. For more episodes, limited edition merch, or to become a Friend of Your Doctor Friends (and more), follow this link! This includes the famous "Advice from the last generation of doctors that inhaled lead" shirt :) Also, CHECK OUT AMAZING HEALTH PODCASTS on The Health Podcast Network Find us at: Website: yourdoctorfriendspodcast.com Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Call the DOCLINE on 312-380-5005 and leave us a message. We will listen and maybe even respond/play it on the show! (Disclaimer: we will not answer specific medical questions or offer medical advice. Consult your healthcare professional with any and all personal health questions.) Connect with us: @your_doctor_friends (IG) @yourdoctorfriendspodcast1013 (YouTube) @JeremyAllandMD (IG, FB, Twitter) @JuliaBrueneMD (IG) @HealthPodNet (IG)
Dr. Steven J. Spear (DBA MS MS)Principal, HVE LLCSr. Lecturer, MIT Sloan SchoolSr. Fellow, Institute for Healthcare ImprovementCreator, See to Solve Gemba and Real Time Alert SystemsSSpear@MIT.edu www.SeeToSolve.com Steve@HVELLC.comKnowing how to get smarter about what you do and better at doing it, faster than anyone else, is critical, a bona fide source of sustainable competitive advantage.How so? All organizations share a challenge. They're trying to coordinate people—sometimes a few, sometimes many thousands—towards shared purpose, somewhere on the spectrum from upstream conceptualization and discovery, through development, design, and ultimately delivery. The problem is, particularly at the startof any undertaking, no one really knows what to do, how to do it, nor can they do it well. All that has to be invented, created, discovered…figured out. So, those who solve problems faster, win more. After all, if your team and mine chase similar goals (or we face off as adversaries), you succeed (or win) because you come to your moments of test better prepared than I do. Since knowhow and skills are not innate, you won because you solved your problems, better and faster than I didmine, gaining edges in relevance, reliability, resilience, and agility.Spear's work focuses on the theme of leading complex collaborative situations, imbuing them with powerful problem solving dynamics. The High Velocity Edge earned the Crosby Medal from ASQ. “Fixing Healthcare from the Inside” won a Harvard Business Review McKinsey Award, and five of Spear's articles won Shingo Prizes. “Decoding the DNA of the Toyota Production System” is a leading HBR reprint and part of the “lean” canon. He's written for medical professionals and educators in Annals of Internal Medicine, Academic Medicine, and Health Services Research, for public school superintendents in Academic Administrator, and for the general public in the New York Times, the Boston Globe, Fortune, and USA Today. High velocity learning concepts have been tested in practice, helping building internal capability for accelerated improvement and innovation at Alcoa—which generated recurring savings in the $100s of millions, Beth Israel Deaconess, a pharma company—with compressions by half in a key drug development phase, Intel, Intuit, Pittsburgh hospitals, Memorial Sloan Kettering, Mass General, Novartis, Pratt and Whitney—which won the F-35 engine contract with its pilot, DTE Energy, US Synthetic, and the US Army's Rapid Equipping Force. The Chief of Naval Operations made high velocity learning a service wide initiative, and Spear was one of a few outside advisors to the Navy's internal review of 2017's Pacific collisions. He was also an advisor to Newport News Shipbuilding bout introducing innovative systems on the Gerald Ford, the first in a new generation of aircraft carriers. The See to Solve suite of apps has been developed to support introducing and sustaining high velocity learning behaviors.At MIT, Spear teaches Leaders for Global Operations and Executive Education students, has advised dozens of theses, and is principal investigator for research titled “Making Critical Decisions with Hostile Data.” Spear's work history includes Prudential-Bache Capital Funding, the US Congress Office of Technology Assessment, the LongTerm Credit Bank of Japan, and the University of Tokyo. His doctorate is from Harvard, his masters in mechanicalengineering and in management are from MIT, and he majored in economics, at Princeton, to earn his bachelors.Spear lives in Brookline with his wife Miriam, an architect, and their three children, where he is on the board of the Maimonides School.Link to claim CME credit:
On this month's episode of the Annals of Emergency Medicine podcast, Ryan and Rory are joined by guest host Danya Khoujah to discuss the pediatric bougie, out-of-hospital management of COPD, the efficacy of CPR on a mattress vs the floor, and much more.
Synopsis: Matti'el of Arpad turns his back on the Treaty of Katikka and allies with Sarduri II of Urartu. The usurpation of Tiglath-pileser III heralds an Assyrian resurgence and the kingdom of Arpad's destruction. “Matti'el the son of Attar-shumki (II) fomented a rebellion against Assyria and violated his loyalty oath. To the kings of Hatti and Urartu he sent hostile messages against Assyria and made the lands hostile. Sarduri of Urartu, Sulumal of Malatya and Tarhulara of Gurgum came to his aid.” – The Annals of Tiglath-pileser III Map of the Iron Age Near East: https://audio.ancientworldpodcast.com/Map_Near_East.jpg Map of Iron Age Northern Syria: https://audio.ancientworldpodcast.com/Map_Syria.jpg Map of Iron Age Southern Syria and Canaan: https://audio.ancientworldpodcast.com/Map_Canaan.jpg Regional Kings List: https://audio.ancientworldpodcast.com/C25_Kings_List.pdf Episode Images: https://audio.ancientworldpodcast.com/C25_Images.pdf References and Further Reading: https://audio.ancientworldpodcast.com/C25_References.pdf Please contact email@example.com if you would like to advertise on this podcast. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices
Late Classical Chinese Thought (Oxford University Press, 2023) is Chris Fraser's topically organized study of the Warring States period of Chinese philosophy, the third century BCE. In addition to well-known texts like the Zhuangzi, Xunzi, and Mencius, Fraser's book introduces readers to Lu's Annals, the Guanzi, the Hanfeizi, the Shangjun Shu, and excerpts from the Mawangdui silk manuscripts. Beginning with a chapter on "The Way," or the dao, Late Classical Chinese Thought explores topics in metaphysics, metaethics, ethics, political philosophy, epistemology, and philosophy of language and logic. By focusing on topics rather than texts, the book aims to show how philosophical discourse happened in the philosophically productive period of the third century. Malcolm Keating is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Yale-NUS College. His research focuses on Sanskrit works of philosophy in Indian traditions, in the areas of language and epistemology. He is the author of Language, Meaning, and Use in Indian Philosophy (Bloomsbury Press, 2019) and host of the podcast Sutras & Stuff. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices
Late Classical Chinese Thought (Oxford University Press, 2023) is Chris Fraser's topically organized study of the Warring States period of Chinese philosophy, the third century BCE. In addition to well-known texts like the Zhuangzi, Xunzi, and Mencius, Fraser's book introduces readers to Lu's Annals, the Guanzi, the Hanfeizi, the Shangjun Shu, and excerpts from the Mawangdui silk manuscripts. Beginning with a chapter on "The Way," or the dao, Late Classical Chinese Thought explores topics in metaphysics, metaethics, ethics, political philosophy, epistemology, and philosophy of language and logic. By focusing on topics rather than texts, the book aims to show how philosophical discourse happened in the philosophically productive period of the third century. Malcolm Keating is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Yale-NUS College. His research focuses on Sanskrit works of philosophy in Indian traditions, in the areas of language and epistemology. He is the author of Language, Meaning, and Use in Indian Philosophy (Bloomsbury Press, 2019) and host of the podcast Sutras & Stuff. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/intellectual-history
Late Classical Chinese Thought (Oxford University Press, 2023) is Chris Fraser's topically organized study of the Warring States period of Chinese philosophy, the third century BCE. In addition to well-known texts like the Zhuangzi, Xunzi, and Mencius, Fraser's book introduces readers to Lu's Annals, the Guanzi, the Hanfeizi, the Shangjun Shu, and excerpts from the Mawangdui silk manuscripts. Beginning with a chapter on "The Way," or the dao, Late Classical Chinese Thought explores topics in metaphysics, metaethics, ethics, political philosophy, epistemology, and philosophy of language and logic. By focusing on topics rather than texts, the book aims to show how philosophical discourse happened in the philosophically productive period of the third century. Malcolm Keating is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Yale-NUS College. His research focuses on Sanskrit works of philosophy in Indian traditions, in the areas of language and epistemology. He is the author of Language, Meaning, and Use in Indian Philosophy (Bloomsbury Press, 2019) and host of the podcast Sutras & Stuff. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/east-asian-studies
Late Classical Chinese Thought (Oxford University Press, 2023) is Chris Fraser's topically organized study of the Warring States period of Chinese philosophy, the third century BCE. In addition to well-known texts like the Zhuangzi, Xunzi, and Mencius, Fraser's book introduces readers to Lu's Annals, the Guanzi, the Hanfeizi, the Shangjun Shu, and excerpts from the Mawangdui silk manuscripts. Beginning with a chapter on "The Way," or the dao, Late Classical Chinese Thought explores topics in metaphysics, metaethics, ethics, political philosophy, epistemology, and philosophy of language and logic. By focusing on topics rather than texts, the book aims to show how philosophical discourse happened in the philosophically productive period of the third century. Malcolm Keating is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Yale-NUS College. His research focuses on Sanskrit works of philosophy in Indian traditions, in the areas of language and epistemology. He is the author of Language, Meaning, and Use in Indian Philosophy (Bloomsbury Press, 2019) and host of the podcast Sutras & Stuff. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/new-books-network
Late Classical Chinese Thought (Oxford University Press, 2023) is Chris Fraser's topically organized study of the Warring States period of Chinese philosophy, the third century BCE. In addition to well-known texts like the Zhuangzi, Xunzi, and Mencius, Fraser's book introduces readers to Lu's Annals, the Guanzi, the Hanfeizi, the Shangjun Shu, and excerpts from the Mawangdui silk manuscripts. Beginning with a chapter on "The Way," or the dao, Late Classical Chinese Thought explores topics in metaphysics, metaethics, ethics, political philosophy, epistemology, and philosophy of language and logic. By focusing on topics rather than texts, the book aims to show how philosophical discourse happened in the philosophically productive period of the third century. Malcolm Keating is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Yale-NUS College. His research focuses on Sanskrit works of philosophy in Indian traditions, in the areas of language and epistemology. He is the author of Language, Meaning, and Use in Indian Philosophy (Bloomsbury Press, 2019) and host of the podcast Sutras & Stuff. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices Support our show by becoming a premium member! https://newbooksnetwork.supportingcast.fm/philosophy
Containing Matters of the Community. Timestamps: introductions and recent reads (0:00) personal histories with fandom (35:26) 1930s fandom history and fanzine excerpts (49:24) Sam Moskowitz - "Why Doesn't Our Ship Move" (1937) (1:48:44) James Blish - "Pursuit into Nowhere: Adopted from the Annals of Space Patrol" (1936) (1:57:49) Ralph Milne Farley - "The Rexmel" (1935) (2:09:12) Clark Ashton Smith - "The Primal City" (1934) (2:15:12) George Hamm - "Cluck Rogers in Astounding" (1936) (2:47:21) Ruth Berman - "Star Drek" (1968) (2:55:31) Bibliography: Cowan, Zagria - "Donald A Wollheim/Darrell G Raynor (1914-1990) science fiction writer and editor, trans memoirist - Part 1" https://zagria.blogspot.com/2023/05/donald-wollheimdarrell-g-raynor-1914.html Davin, Eric Leif - "Pioneers of Wonder: Conversations With the Founders of Science Fiction" (1999) The Eldritch Dark: The Sanctum of Clark Ashton Smith http://www.eldritchdark.com/ FANAC Fan History - "Early Star Trek Fandom - Ruth Berman and Devra Langsam, Fan History Zoom" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EHIpNXq6wSo FANAC - "Chronological List of Fanzines on Fanac.org" https://fanac.org/fanzines/chronological_listing_of_fanzines.html Fancyclopedia 3 https://fancyclopedia.org/Fancyclopedia_3 Fancyclopedia 3 - "First Convention" https://fancyclopedia.org/First_Convention Moskowitz, Sam - "Immortal Storm: A History of Science Fiction Fandom" (1954) Pocket 2000 bookstore https://www.facebook.com/p/Pocket-2000-libreria-100058006428228/ Profondo Rosso store http://www.profondorossostore.com/en/ Speer, Jack - "Up To Now" (1939) Music: Wagner, Ferdinand - "Little Jupiter; Polka schnell" (1881) https://www.loc.gov/item/sm1881.10566/ (interlude 2) Bayes, Nora and Norworth, Jack - "Falling Star" (1909) https://www.loc.gov/item/ihas.200004367/ (interlude 7)
Dr. Jeff Ratliff talks with Dr. Gregg Day about the adaption of the STAM3P screening scores in clinical practice to minimize diagnosis delays and missed opportunities for treatment in patients with suspected rapidly progressive dementia. Read the related article in Annals of Neurology. Visit NPUb.org/Podcast for associated article links.
Coated vs uncoated ASA, a new trial in CAD, conflicts of interest, first AF in the hospital, and changing HTN scoring and CHADSVASC are the topics John Mandrola, MD, covers in this week's podcast. This podcast is intended for healthcare professionals only. To read a partial transcript or to comment, visit: https://www.medscape.com/twic I. ASA No Benefit of Enteric-Coated Aspirin vs Uncoated in CVD https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/997119 - JAMA Cardiology: Coated vs Uncoated ASA https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamacardiology/fullarticle/2809795 - ADAPTABLE https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa2102137 II. RECHARGE - Revascularization Choices Among Under-Represented Groups Evaluation (The RECHARGE Program) https://www.pcori.org/research-results/2023/revascularization-choices-among-under-represented-groups-evaluation-recharge-program - Gaudino/Stone: Reconsidering Coronary Revascularization Trials III. Conflicts of Interest - Financial Conflicts of Interest in Public Comments on Medicare National Coverage Determinations of Medical Devices https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2808721 IV. First AF in the Hospital Decoding AFib Recurrence: PCPs' Role in Personalized Care https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/997011 - Annals of Internal Medicine: AF Recurrence https://doi.org/10.7326/M23-1411 V. Changing CHADSVASC Score - JAMA Network Open: HTN Guidelines and CHADSVASC Up-Scoring https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2809933 You may also like: Medscape editor-in-chief Eric Topol, MD, and master storyteller and clinician Abraham Verghese, MD, on Medicine and the Machine https://www.medscape.com/features/public/machine The Bob Harrington Show with Stanford University Chair of Medicine, Robert A. Harrington, MD. https://www.medscape.com/author/bob-harrington Questions or feedback, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
This week you get TWO entrees with a little trip to the dessert cart! Julie and Jeremy picked some juicy stories from health headlines, strained out the inedible parts, and left you the sweet nectar. Let's gobble up the "brain nutrition" that helps YOU feel more empowered to appraise health stories in the news. This week's HEALTH HEADLINES include:Why do women pay more out-of-pocket for healthcare in the US? Julie breaks down a Deloitte analysis, and teaches Jeremy about the PINK TAX, and how it's EVERYWHERE (including in our insurance healthcare costs).Do LED light masks actually work? Do they result in younger-looking skin, less wrinkles, and fewer acne breakouts? Or are they just a scary cross-between-Jason-and-Ironman looking facial accessory??Our "Dessert Cart" contains quick bites about blood tests for long COVID, expiration dates for COVID tests, and cannabis-related car crashes and ER visits. Resources for today's topics include:Deloitte's analysis- "Hiding in plain sight: The health care gender toll." The CDC's Summary Health Statistics: National Health Interview Survey 2018.A 2019 Harvard Health Article- "Mars vs Venus: The gender gap in health."The Hysteria Podcast on Crooked Media (Sept 28 Episode features the Deloitte Analysis)(lol not scientific, but funny) A HuffPo Listicle about THE PINK TAX.American Society of Plastic Surgeons website on "What is LED light therapy and what are the benefits?"Harvard Health Article- "LED lights: Are they a cure for your skin woes?"Annals of Family Medicine article- "Blue-Light Therapy for Acne Vulgaris: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis".Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews- "Light therapies for acne."An article from Photomedicine and Laser Surgery on red-light therapy for facial skin. A Healthline article- "LED Light Therapy for Skin: What to Know."Healio article- "Traffic injury ED visits involving cannabis grow over recent years."For more episodes, limited edition merch, or to become a Friend of Your Doctor Friends (and more), follow
In this episode I talk with Dr. Mark Pimentel, a leader in the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) world. We talk about what his team is doing to push research forward for SIBO and IBS, new developments in SIBO, breath testing and gasses produced, as well as things that will be coming out soon for treatment. In this episode, we cover: What is SIBO [4:29] What the team is working on [5:46] Keeping an open mind as a scientist [9:02] The controversy of breath testing [10:01] Hydrogen sulfide [13:24] This episode is sponsored by FODZYME, the world's first enzyme blend that targets FODMAPs, gas-causing carbohydrates and common gut triggers. Mixing FODZYME with your food allows the enzymes to integrate and break down the FODMAPs lactose, GOS, and fructan, before they can affect your gut. Through a unique formula and powder form for maximum efficacy, FODZYME can help you reduce overall FODMAP load, support better digestion and enable nutritional diversity for optimal health. Say goodbye to digestion drama with the help of FODZYME. Learn more at fodzyme.com and use code GUTSHOW at checkout to save 20% off any single order Mentioned in this episode: REIMAGINE Study: https://csmast.com/current-research/ Breath testing for SIBO and IMO: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10496284/ Research articles from the MAST team: https://csmast.com/scientific-articles/ Indian consensus statements on IBS: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36961659/ Join the MASTER Method Membership: https://www.ibsmastermethod.com/master-method About our guest: Mark Pimentel, MD, is a Professor of Medicine at Cedars-Sinai. Dr. Pimentel is also the Executive Director of the Medically Associated Science and Technology (MAST) program at Cedars-Sinai, an enterprise of physicians and researchers dedicated to the study of the gut microbiome in order to develop effective diagnostic tools and therapies to improve patient care. Dr. Pimentel is also a Professor of Medicine at the Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA.) As a physician and researcher, Dr. Pimentel has served as a principal investigator or co-investigator for numerous basic science, translational and clinical investigations of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and the relationship between gut flora composition and human disease. This research led to the first ever blood tests for IBS, ibs-smartTM, the only licensed and patented serologic diagnostic for irritable bowel syndrome. The test measures the levels of two validated IBS biomarkers, anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin. A pioneering expert in IBS, Dr. Pimentel's work has been published in the New England Journal of Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, American Journal of Physiology, American Journal of Medicine, American Journal of Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases and Sciences, among others. Dr. Pimentel has presented at national and international medical conferences and advisory boards. He is a diplomate of the American Board of Internal Medicine (Gastroenterology,) a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and a member of the American Gastroenterological Association, the American College of Gastroenterology, and the American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society. Learn more about Dr. Pimentel's work: https://www.cedars-sinai.org/research/areas/science-tech.html Twitter: https://twitter.com/MASTprogram Instagram: @mastprogram Connect with Erin & the Gutivate team: IG: @erinjudge.rd or @gutivate Website: www.gutivate.com Schedule a consult: bit.ly/gutivateconsult FREE: IBS Fundamentals Mini Course: https://www.ibsmastermethod.com/ibs-fundamentals-sign-up Join The GUT Community: The Facebook group for those with IBS and digestive health conditions to connect, encourage one another, and dive deeper into the topics we cover on The Gut Show. Join here: https://www.facebook.com/groups/thegutcommunity Track your symptoms & understand your body better: My Gut Journal is a 90 day gut tracker to build awareness in your mind & body. Get yours at https://gutivate.com/store/mygutjournal
Get ready for an exciting journey with Hedva Baronholtz-Levy, a board certified pharmacotherapy specialist and geriatric specialist pharmacist with a fearless spirit and a story that's sure to inspire. Listen in as Hedva shares her personal and professional journey, from following her husband across cities to establishing her own practice. We discuss her bold approach to pharmacy and how it led to the creation of her senior care pharmacy practice, which marked a turning point in her career. In 1995, Hedva founded a unique senior care pharmacy practice where she provides in-home, one-on-one medication consultations. Through these individualised encounters, she promotes the safe and effective use of medications by educating patients and communicating with their physicians to identify and correct medication-related problems. This episode is not just about Hedva's life story; it's also about the role of pharmacists in the wider medical field. We chat about her passion for drug information and editing, her work with the Pan American Health Organisation, and her internship with the Annals of Pharmacotherapy. Hedva also shares her insights on the importance of publishing and expanding knowledge in the field of pharmacy. Join us as we talk about the balance between technical and lay writing in the world of pharmacy publishing, and how Hedva successfully wrote and published her own book, Maybe It's Your Medications. Hedva's experience of managing her practice alongside other projects, potential opportunities for collaboration, and the importance of self-care are also explored. We wrap up the episode reflecting on her accomplishments and future plans. Tune in to be inspired by Hedva's journey and gain insights into the dynamic world of pharmacy. PARTNERSHIPS: The Naked Pharmacy is offering my podcast listeners a 20% discount on all their products. Use discount code PD20 at checkout to receive the offer. SUPPORT THE PODCAST: As I continue to grow and evolve this podcast, I am committed to bringing you inspiring and empowering content. But in order to do that, I need your support. I've set up a Buy Me a Coffee donation page where you have the opportunity to donate a coffee (£5). You'll be helping us invest in the infrastructure, equipment, and team needed to take Pharmacist Diaries to the next level. With your help, we can continue to inspire and empower pharmacists around the world, and create a community that supports and uplifts one another. CONNECT WITH HEDVA: LinkedIn: Hedva Barenholtz-Levy Website Publications FILMED AND EDITED BY: Sunjay VyasFollow me on My Website, YouTube, Instagram, Facebook, LinkedIn, and/or Twitter. Feel free to subscribe to the podcast on your favourite podcast platform so you can be notified when a new episode is released or leave a review on apple podcasts. If you have any suggestions for guests you want me to talk to or if you'd like to come on yourself, please feel free to contact me via social media, or email at email@example.com.
My guest today is Dr. Peng Peng, co-author of a recently-published meta-analysis that examined the role of strategy instruction with struggling readers in grades 3-12. The analysis sought to understand which strategies, and which strategy combinations, are most important to prioritize in a time-crunched intervention setting. Later, I'm joined by my colleague Elisha Li for a conversation about practical takeaways for the classroom. ****Read a full transcript of this episode, and learn more about the show at https://www.jenniferserravallo.com/podcast More about Peng Peng's research on working memoryMore on the Effectiveness of Multi Stratergy ReadingDr. Kintsch's ReadingComprehension Model****More about Dr. Peng Peng:Dr. Peng Peng's research aims to bridge cognitive psychology and special education. He is interested in embedding high-level cognitive skills training into academic instructions for children with severe learning difficulties. In particular, he has been working on projects to design instruction that can incorporate cognitive strategy, meta-cognition, and reading skills. Another line of his research is meta-analysis that examines reading and mathematics learning across cultures and languages. Currently, he is working on several meta projects to investigate the bidirectional relation (and mechanism) between general cognition and learning during development.Dr. Peng Peng's work has been published in journals including Psychological Bulletin, Review of Educational Research, Journal of Educational Psychology, Journal of Learning Disabilities, Educational Psychology Review, Learning and Individual Differences, Exceptional Children, Scientific Studies of Reading, Child Development Perspectives, Journal of Special Education, Learning Disability Quarterly, and Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. He is the recipient of 2018 Early Career Award from International Dyslexia Association, the associate editor of Reading and Writing, and serves on the editorial board of Psychological Bulletin, Review of Educational Research, Journal of Educational Psychology, Journal of Learning Disabilities, Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, and Annals of Dyslexia.Special thanks to Alex Van Rose for audio editing this episode. Support this show: https://www.buymeacoffee.com/TotheClassroom (https://www.buymeacoffee.com/TotheClassroom) Support the show
Surgical residency is hard. In some ways, intern year may be the hardest. We've been there. We're a group of surgical residents formally known as the Collaboration of Surgical Education Fellows (CoSEF), a multi-institutional organization of surgical education research fellows working together to foster peer mentorship, networking, and scholarly collaboration. We've collectively reflected on our experiences as surgical interns across the country. Join Drs. Ananya Anand, Joe L'Huillier, and Rebecca Moreci as they discuss three tips for thriving as a surgical intern. Hosts: –Dr. Ananya Anand, Stanford University, @AnanyaAnandMD –Dr. Joseph L'Huillier, University at Buffalo, @JoeLHuillier101 –Dr. Rebecca Moreci, Louisiana State University, @md_moreci –COSEF: @surgedfellows Learning Objectives: Listeners will: – List CoSEF's three tips for thriving as a surgical intern – Challenge their definition of patient ownership – Recall the “Golden Rule” of treating others how you want to be treated – Appreciate the importance of self-care in surgical residency References: L'Huillier, Joseph C. MD; Lund, Sarah MD; Anand, Ananya MD; Jensen, Rachel M. MD; Williamson, Andrea J.H. MD; Clanahan, Julie M. MD, MHPE; Moreci, Rebecca MD; Gates, Rebecca S. MD, MMHPE. Thriving as a Surgical Intern: Three Tips From the Collaboration of Surgical Education Fellows (CoSEF). Annals of Surgery Open 4(3):p e306, September 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/AS9.0000000000000306 Please visit https://behindtheknife.org to access other high-yield surgical education podcasts, videos and more. If you liked this episode, check out our recent episodes here: https://behindtheknife.org/listen/ Ad referenced in episode: https://jomi.com/
Hospitals are hazardous pl