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Welcome to the Nothing Shocking Podcast 2.0 reboot episode 208 with our guest Tom Werman, producer and author. In this episode we discuss his book, Turn It Up! Making Hit Records in Glory Days of Rock and Metal, and more! Please like our Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/nothingshockingpodcast/ Follow us on twitter at https://twitter.com/hashtag/noshockpod. Libsyn website: https://nothingshocking.libsyn.com For more info on the Hong Kong Sleepover: https://thehongkongsleepover.bandcamp.com Help support the podcast and record stores by shopping at Ragged Records. http://www.raggedrecords.org
Jesse Colin Young is an American singer and songwriter. He was a founding member and lead singer of the 1960s group the Youngbloods. After their dissolution in 1972, Young embarked on a solo career, releasing a series of albums through Warner Bros. Records, including Song for Juli (1973), Light Shine (1974), Songbird (1975) and the live album On the Road (1976). Young continued to release music in the 1980s with Elektra Records and Cypress Records before deciding to release music through his personal label, Ridgetop Music, in 1993. After the Mount Vision Fire in 1995, Young relocated with his family to a coffee plantation in Hawaii, periodically releasing music. Young received a diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease in 2012 and decided to retire from music. He began performing again in 2016 with his son Tristan, releasing a new album Dreamers in 2019 through BMG.
We're back! First of all, our deepest apologies for being away for so long. We've been very busy with life, and we finally got a chance to sit down and record an episode! We reach back into the 90s for an oldie but goodie, and also a strange genre blend of breakbeat, opera and metal. Thank you so much for your patience!Our Songs for This Week:Smoke and Ashes by Tracy Chapman, from her 1995 album New Beginning released via Elektra Records.Paranoid Bulldozer Italiano by Igorrr, from their 2020 album Spirituality and Distortion released via Metal Blade Records.Support the show
As a collector of mokuhanga, I am constantly exploring the reasons behind my love of collecting mokuhanga and why I make it and educate myself about it; it seems to be layered, even for my modest collection. So it is always fascinating to speak to someone who has been collecting for many years, with a deep understanding of why they collect and how they do. I speak with mokuhanga collector Darrel C. Karl about his collection of prints, paintings and scrolls. It's one to admire. Collecting for years now, Darrel was kind enough to speak to me about his collection, how he began it, his love of preparatory drawings, collecting ukiyo-e, shin hanga, and we discussed in length his blogs, Eastern Impressions and Modern Japanese Theatre Art Prints. Please follow The Unfinished Print and my own mokuhanga work on Instagram @andrezadoroznyprints or email me at firstname.lastname@example.org Notes: may contain a hyperlink. Simply click on the highlighted word or phrase. Artists works follow after the note. Pieces are mokuhanga unless otherwise noted. Dimensions are given if known. Darrel C. Karl - Eastern Impressions & Modern Japanese Theatre Art Prints. Hashiguchi Goyō (1880-1921) - a woodblock print designer who also worked, albeit shortly, with Watanabe Shōzaburō. In his short life Goyō designed some of the most iconic woodblock prints ever made. “Kamisuki” 1920, and “Woman Applying Powder” 1918. Woman Applying Make-up (Hand Mirror) 1970's/80's reprint Ishikawa Toraji (1875-1964) -trained initially as a painter, having travelled to Europe and The States early in his professional life. Painted primarily landscapes while exhibiting at the fine art exhibitions in Japan Bunten and Teiten. Famous for designing Ten Types of Female Nudes from 1934-35. He finished his career as a painter and educator. Morning from Ten Types of Female Nudes (1934) Charles W. Bartlett (1860-1940) - was a British painter, watercolorist and printmaker. Travelling the world in 1913, Bartlett ended up in Japan two years later. Having entered Japan, Bartlett already had a reputation as an artist. Bartlett's wife, Kate, had struck up a friendship with printmaker and watercolorist Elizabeth Keith. Watanabe Shōzaburō was acutely aware of foreign artists coming to Japan, having worked with Fritz Capelari and Helen Hyde. Watanabe published 38 designs with Charles Bartlett. Bartlett's themes were predominantly of his travels. Udaipur (1916) 8" x 11" Paul Binnie - is a Scottish painter and mokuhanga printmaker based in San Diego, USA. Having lived and worked in Japan in the 1990s, studying with printmaker Seki Kenji whilst there, Paul has successfully continued to make mokuhanga and his paintings to this day. You can find Paul's work at Scholten Gallery in Manhattan, and Saru Gallery in The Netherlands. Butterly Bow (2005) 15" x 11" Yamakawa Shuhō (1898-1944) - was a Nihon-ga painter and printmaker. His prints were published by Watanabe Shōzaburō and he created the Blue Collar Society in 1939 with Itō Shinsui. Made famous for his bijin-ga prints. Dusk (1928) 14.3" x 9.5" Red Collar (1928) Otojirō Kawakami (1864-1911) - was a Japanese actor and comedian. His wife was geisha, and actress Sadayako (Sada Yakko). Impressions - is a biannual magazine published by The Japanese Art Society of America. Andon - is a biannual magazine published by The Society of Japanese Art. Gallaudet University - is a private federally charted university located in Washington D.C., USA for the deaf and hard of hearing. More info can be found here. National Museum of Asian Art - is a museum within the Smithsonian group museums and was the first fine art museum by The Smithsonian in 1923. More info can be found, here. Vincent Hack (1913-2001) - was an American printmaker and Colonel in the United States Army. He produced mokuhanga from ca. 1950-1960. He studied in the Yoshida atelier while living in Tokyo. More information about VIncent Hack can be found in Eastern Impressions, here. Chinese beauty and Dragon (not dated) Elizabeth Keith (1887-1956) - was a Scottish born printmaker, watercolorist, and painter. She travelled extensively before living in Japan from 1915-1924. In 1917 she was introduced to print published Watanabe Shōzaburō and by 1919 after some work with Watanabe's skilled artisans Keith started to see some of her designs printed. Over 100 prints were published of Keith's designs. More information can be found, here. Little Pavillion, Coal Oil, Peking (1935) Lillian May Miller (1895-1943) - was a Japan born American printmaker. Studying under painter Kanō Tomonobu (1853-1912). Miller began carving and printing her own prints by 1925 having studied under Nishimura Kumakichi. Rain Blossoms (1928) 10" x 15" Nöel Nouët (1885-1969) - was a French painter, illustrator and designer who designed prints for Doi Hangaten between 1935 and 1938 when Nouët was teaching in Shizuoka City, Shizuoka, Japan. Haruna Lake (1938) Helen Hyde (1868-1919) - was an American etcher, and printmaker who studied in Japan with artists such as Emil Orlik (1870-1932). Hyde was influenced by French Japonisme and lived in Japan from 1903-1913. A Japanese Madonna (1900) 14.5" x 3" Kataoka Gadō V (1910-1993) - was a Kabuki actor who specialized in female roles or onnagata in Japanese. He became Kitaoka Nizaemon XIV posthumously. Natori Shunsen (1886-1960) - was a Nihon-ga painter and woodblock print designer who worked with Watanabe Shōzaburō. Shunsen's prints focused on kabuki actors, mainly ōkubi-e , large head prints. Ichikawa Ennosuke as Kakudayu (1928) 15" x 10" Kabuki-za - is the main theatre in Tōkyō which shows kabuki performances. It was opened in 1889 and has been rebuilt several times in its history. Kabuki Costume - is a book written by Ruth M. Shaver with illustrations by Sōma Akira and Ōta Gakkō (1892-1975). It is an in-depth book about the costuming in kabuki theatre. It was published by Charles E. Tuttle in 1966. Ōta Gakkō - was an artist and designer who also designed woodblock prints in the 1950's. Ichikawa Jukai III (1886-1971) as Shirai Gonpachi from Figures of the Modern Stage: no. 3 (1954) Tsuruya Kōkei - is a mokuhanga artist who lives and works in Tokyo, Japan. His prints have focused on kabuki actors; in the 1980s, he was commissioned to produce kabuki portraits by the Kabuki-za theatre in Tokyo. Recently, he has focused on cats and the masters of mokuhanga such as Hokusai (1760-1849). He printed on very thin gampi paper. Five Styles of Banzai-Ukiyoe / Katsushika Hokusai (2017) Yamamura Toyonari (1885-1942) - also known as Kōka, is a painter, and print designer known for his theatrical prints, actor prints, landscapes and beautiful women. He studied under printmaker Ogata Gekkō (1859-1920). Toyonari worked with carvers and printers to create his prints such as those at Watanabe's studio and also printed and carved his own prints. February/Winter Sky (1924) 16.35" x 10.5" Sekino Jun'ichirō (1914-1988) - was a mokuhanga printmaker who helped establish the sōsaku hanga, creative print movement in Japan. His themes were of landscapes, animals and the abstract. Sekino exhibited and became a member with Nihon Hanga Kyōkai and studied with Ōnchi Kōshirō (1891-1955) and Maekawa Senpan (1888-1960). Woman In A Snowy Village (1946) 13" x 10" Bertha Lum (1869-1954) - was born in Iowa. Having begun travelling to Japan in 1903, Bertha Lum noticed the decline of the Japanese woodblock print in Japan in the early 20th Century, deciding to take up the medium. Lum began making woodblock prints after learning in Japan from an unknown teacher during her first trip to Japan. Japan, Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904), and China influenced Bertha Lum's prints. Lum's work focused on these themes through an American lens. Winter (1909) 8" x 14" Waseda University - is a private research university located in Tōkyō, Japan. It was established in 1882. Waseda has one of the largest woodblock print databases in the world, and are free to use. More information can be found, here. Scholten Japanese Art - is a mokuhanga-focused art gallery in midtown Manhattan. René Scholten, an avid collector of the Japanese print, founded it. You can find more info here. Katherine Martin is the managing director of Scholten Japanese Art. Katherine has written extensively for the gallery and conducted lectures about Japanese prints. Her interview with The Unfinished Print can be found, here. Utagawa Kunisada III (1848–1920) - was a ukiyo-e print designer from the Utagawa school of mokuhanga. Kunisada III's print designs were designed during the transformation of the Edo Period (1603-1868) into the Meiji Period (1868-1912) of Japanese history, where his prints showed the technological, architectural and historical changes in Japan's history. Kataoka Jūzō I as Hanako from the play Yakko Dōjōji at the Kabuki-za (1906). chūban - 10.4” x 7.5” senjafuda - are the votive slips Claire brings up in her interview. These were hand printed slips pasted by the worshipper onto the Buddhist temple of their choosing. These slips had many different subjects such as ghosts, Buddhist deities, and written characters. Japan Experience has bit of history of senjafuda, here. Shintomi-za -built in 1660 and also known as the Morita-za was a kabuki theatre located in the Kobiki-chō area of Tokyo, today the Ginza District. It was famous for taking risks with its productions. Meiji-za - was a kabuki-specific theatre built in 1873 and underwent several name changes until finally being named the Meiji-za in 1893. The theatre continues to this day. Imperial Theatre - is the first Western theatre to be built in Japan in 1911 and is located in Marunouchi, Chiyoda, Tokyo. It continues to show Western operas and plays. The John F. Kennedy Center For The Performing Arts - was built in 1971, and named after the 35th President of the United States, John F. Kennedy. The theatre is located in Washington D.C. and hosts many different types of theatre, dance, orchestras and music. More information can be found, here. The Subscription List - also known as Kanjichō in Japanese, is a kabuki play derived from the noh play Ataka. The modern version of this play was first staged in 1840. It is performed as the 18 Famous Plays as performed by the Danjurō family of actors. The Subscription List designed by Toyohara Kunichika (1835-1900) Utagawa Kuniyoshi (1798-1861) - is considered one of the last “masters” of the ukiyo-e genre of Japanese woodblock printmaking. His designs range from landscapes, samurai and Chinese military heroes, as well as using various formats for his designs such as diptychs and triptychs. Waseda University - is a private research university located in Tōkyō, Japan. It was established in 1882. Waseda has one of the largest woodblock print databases in the world, and are free to use. More information can be found, here. Yoshida Hiroshi (1876-1950) - a watercolorist, oil painter, and woodblock printmaker. Is associated with the resurgence of the woodblock print in Japan, and in the West. It was his early relationship with Watanabe Shōzaburō, having his first seven prints printed by the Shōzaburō atelier. This experience made Hiroshi believe that he could hire his own carvers and printers and produce woodblock prints, which he did in 1925. Kiso River (1927) Toyohara Chikanobu (1838-1912) - was a painter and designer of mokuhanga. He was a samurai during the final years of the Tokugawa shogunate rule in Japan. As Chikanobu began to look more to art as a living, he studied under Utagawa Kuniyoshi where he learned Western painting and drawing techniques. He also studied under Utagawa Kunisada and Toyohara Kunichika. His print designs were of many different types of themes but Chikanobu is well known for his war prints (sensō-e), kabuki theatre prints, current events and beautiful women. Enpo- Jidai Kagami (1897) 32 Aspects of Women - is a series of prints designed by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1839-1892). It was his first series of bijin-ga designs. shin hanga - is a style of Japanese woodblock printmaking which began during the end of the ukiyo-e period of Japanese printmaking, in the early 20th Century. Focusing on the foreign demand for “traditional” Japanese imagery and motifs such as castles, bridges, famous landscapes, bamboo forests, to name just a few. Shin hanga was born in 1915 by Watanabe Shōzaburō (1885-1962) when he found Austrian artist Frtiz Capelari (1884-1950) and commissioned Capelari to design some prints for Watanabe's feldgling printing house . From there shin-hanga evolved into its own distinct “new” style of Japanese woodblock printing. It lasted as this distinct style until its innevitable decline after the Second World War (1939-1945). Onchi Kōshirō (1891-1955) - originally designing poetry and books Onchi became on of the most I important sōsaku hanga artists and promotor of the medium. His works are saught after today. More info, here. Composition in Red and Brown (1950) 19" x 15" Saru Gallery - is a mokuhanga gallery, from ukiyo-e to modern prints, and is located in Uden, The Netherlands. Their website can be found, here. ukiyo-e - is a multi colour woodblock print generally associated with the Edo Period (1603-1867) of Japan. What began in the 17th Century as prints of only a few colours, evolved into an elaborate system of production and technique into the Meiji Period (1868-1912). With the advent of photography and other forms of printmaking, ukiyo-e as we know it today, ceased production by the late 19th Century. surimono (摺物)- are privately commissioned woodblock prints, usually containing specialty techniques such as mica, and blind embossing. Below is Heron and Iris, (ca. 1770's) by Andō Hiroshige (1797-1858). This print is from David Bull's reproduction of that work. You can find more info about that project, here. Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849) - is one of the most famous Japanese artists to have ever lived. Hokusai was an illustrator, painter and woodblock print designer. His work can be found on paper, wood, silk, and screen. His woodblock print design for Under The Wave off Kanagawa (ca. 1830-32) is beyond famous. His work, his manga, his woodblocks, his paintings, influence artists from all over the world. Poem by Sōsei Hōshi, from the series One Hundred Poems Explained by the Nurse. Taishō period (1912–26)s reproduction. Kitagawa Utamaro (1753-1806) - was a painter and ukiyo-e designer during the Edo Period of Japan. His portraits of women are his most famous designs. After getting into trouble with the shogunate during the early 19th Century with some offensive images of deceased shogun Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536/37-1598), Utamaro was jailed and passed away shortly after that. The Courtesan Umegawa and Chubei of the Courier Firm Tokyo University of the Arts (Geidai) - founded during the merger of the Tokyo Fine Arts School and the Tokyo Music School in 1949, TUA offers Masters's and Doctorate degrees in various subjects such as sculpture, craft and design as well as music and film. It has multiple campuses throughout the Kantō region of Japan. More information regarding the school and its programs can be found here. Honolulu Museum of Art - dedicated to art and education focusing on arts from around the world and Hawaiian culture itself. More info, here. Taishō Period (1912-1926) - a short lived period of Japanese modern history but an important one in world history. This is where the militarism of fascist Japan began to take seed, leading to The Pacific War (1931-1945). More info can be found, here. Enami Shirō (1901-2000) - was a printmaker who is associated with ephemeral prints such as greeting cards. Also created his own larger format prints during the burgeoning sōsaku hanga movement of the early to mid Twentieth Century. The Benkei Moat (1931) 12.5" x 9" Kitano Tsunetomi (1880-1947) - was an illustrator, Nihon-ga painter, carver and print designer. Lived and worked in Osaka where he apprenticed carving with Nishida Suketaro. Founded the Taishō Art Society and the Osaka Art Society. Painted and created prints of beautiful women as well as mokuhanga for magazines such as Dai Osaka. The most famous of his prints and paintings is Sagimusume, The Heron Maiden. Umekawa - Complete Works of Chikamatsu (1923) Hamada Josen (1875 - ?) - was a painter and mokuhanga designer and studied with Tomioka Eisen (1864-1905). Designed bijin, shunga, and landscapes after the Great Kantō Earthquake of 1923. Designed prints for Collection of New Ukiyo-e Style Beauties (1924). December - Clear Weather After Snow from the series New Ukiyo-e Beauties (1924) 17.50" x 11.12" Ikeda Shoen (1886-1917) - was a Nihon-ga painter who's paintings also became mokuhanga prints. Her paintings are quite rare because of her early death. School Girls Going Home (1900) 13" x 9" Igawa Sengai (1876-1961) - was a painter, illustrator and print designer. After serving in the Russo-Japanese war (1904-1905), he joined the Miyako Shinbun in Nagoya City. Designing prints in the 1926 he designed prints for Collected Prints of the Taishō Earthquake and in the 1930's he designed propaganda prints for the Japanese war effort. His contribution to the 1924 Collection of New Ukiyo-e Style Beauties (1924). April - Rain of Blossoms (1924) from New Ukiyo-e Beauties. Asian Art Museum San Fransisco - with over 18,000 pieces of art the Asian Art Museum of San Fransisco has one of the largest collections of Asian art in the United States. More information can be found, here. Freer Gallery of Art - is a museum within the Smithsonian group of museums in Washington D.C, with a collection of Chinese paintings, Indian sculpture; Islamic painting and metalware; Japanese lacquer; Korean ceramics. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery - is a museum within the Smithsonian group of museums in Washington D.C. It's collection contains some important Chinese jades and bronzes. Yoshida Hiroshi: The Outskirts of Agra Number 3 from the series India and Southeast Asia (1932) Yoshida Hiroshi: Cave of Komagatake from the series Southern Japan Alps (1928) © Popular Wheat Productions opening and closing musical credit - The Crystal Ship by The Doors from their self-titled album The Doors (1967). Release by Elektra Records. logo designed and produced by Douglas Batchelor and André Zadorozny Disclaimer: Please do not reproduce or use anything from this podcast without shooting me an email and getting my express written or verbal consent. I'm friendly :) Слава Українi If you find any issue with something in the show notes please let me know. ***The opinions expressed by guests in The Unfinished Print podcast are not necessarily those of André Zadorozny and of Popular Wheat Productions.***
Episode 169 of A History of Rock Music in Five Hundred Songs looks at “Piece of My Heart" and the short, tragic life of Janis Joplin. Click the full post to read liner notes, links to more information, and a transcript of the episode. Patreon backers also have a half-hour bonus episode available, on "Spinning Wheel" by Blood, Sweat & Tears. Tilt Araiza has assisted invaluably by doing a first-pass edit, and will hopefully be doing so from now on. Check out Tilt's irregular podcasts at http://www.podnose.com/jaffa-cakes-for-proust and http://sitcomclub.com/ Resources There are two Mixcloud mixes this time. As there are so many songs by Big Brother and the Holding Company and Janis Joplin excerpted, and Mixcloud won't allow more than four songs by the same artist in any mix, I've had to post the songs not in quite the same order in which they appear in the podcast. But the mixes are here — one, two . For information on Janis Joplin I used three biographies -- Scars of Sweet Paradise by Alice Echols, Janis: Her Life and Music by Holly George-Warren, and Buried Alive by Myra Friedman. I also referred to the chapter '“Being Good Isn't Always Easy": Aretha Franklin, Janis Joplin, Dusty Springfield, and the Color of Soul' in Just Around Midnight: Rock and Roll and the Racial Imagination by Jack Hamilton. Some information on Bessie Smith came from Bessie Smith by Jackie Kay, a book I can't really recommend given the lack of fact-checking, and Bessie by Chris Albertson. I also referred to Blues Legacies and Black Feminism: Gertrude “Ma” Rainey, Bessie Smith, and Billie Holiday by Angela Y. Davis And the best place to start with Joplin's music is this five-CD box, which contains both Big Brother and the Holding Company albums she was involved in, plus her two studio albums and bonus tracks. Patreon This podcast is brought to you by the generosity of my backers on Patreon. Why not join them? Transcript Before I start, this episode contains discussion of drug addiction and overdose, alcoholism, mental illness, domestic abuse, child abandonment, and racism. If those subjects are likely to cause you upset, you may want to check the transcript or skip this one rather than listen. Also, a subject I should probably say a little more about in this intro because I know I have inadvertently caused upset to at least one listener with this in the past. When it comes to Janis Joplin, it is *impossible* to talk about her without discussing her issues with her weight and self-image. The way I write often involves me paraphrasing the opinions of the people I'm writing about, in a mode known as close third person, and sometimes that means it can look like I am stating those opinions as my own, and sometimes things I say in that mode which *I* think are obviously meant in context to be critiques of those attitudes can appear to others to be replicating them. At least once, I have seriously upset a fat listener when talking about issues related to weight in this manner. I'm going to try to be more careful here, but just in case, I'm going to say before I begin that I think fatphobia is a pernicious form of bigotry, as bad as any other form of bigotry. I'm fat myself and well aware of how systemic discrimination affects fat people. I also think more generally that the pressure put on women to look a particular way is pernicious and disgusting in ways I can't even begin to verbalise, and causes untold harm. If *ANYTHING* I say in this episode comes across as sounding otherwise, that's because I haven't expressed myself clearly enough. Like all people, Janis Joplin had negative characteristics, and at times I'm going to say things that are critical of those. But when it comes to anything to do with her weight or her appearance, if *anything* I say sounds critical of her, rather than of a society that makes women feel awful for their appearance, it isn't meant to. Anyway, on with the show. On January the nineteenth, 1943, Seth Joplin typed up a letter to his wife Dorothy, which read “I wish to tender my congratulations on the anniversary of your successful completion of your production quota for the nine months ending January 19, 1943. I realize that you passed through a period of inflation such as you had never before known—yet, in spite of this, you met your goal by your supreme effort during the early hours of January 19, a good three weeks ahead of schedule.” As you can probably tell from that message, the Joplin family were a strange mixture of ultraconformism and eccentricity, and those two opposing forces would dominate the personality of their firstborn daughter for the whole of her life. Seth Joplin was a respected engineer at Texaco, where he worked for forty years, but he had actually dropped out of engineering school before completing his degree. His favourite pastime when he wasn't at work was to read -- he was a voracious reader -- and to listen to classical music, which would often move him to tears, but he had also taught himself to make bathtub gin during prohibition, and smoked cannabis. Dorothy, meanwhile, had had the possibility of a singing career before deciding to settle down and become a housewife, and was known for having a particularly beautiful soprano voice. Both were, by all accounts, fiercely intelligent people, but they were also as committed as anyone to the ideals of the middle-class family even as they chafed against its restrictions. Like her mother, young Janis had a beautiful soprano voice, and she became a soloist in her church choir, but after the age of six, she was not encouraged to sing much. Dorothy had had a thyroid operation which destroyed her singing voice, and the family got rid of their piano soon after (different sources say that this was either because Dorothy found her daughter's singing painful now that she couldn't sing herself, or because Seth was upset that his wife could no longer sing. Either seems plausible.) Janis was pushed to be a high-achiever -- she was given a library card as soon as she could write her name, and encouraged to use it, and she was soon advanced in school, skipping a couple of grades. She was also by all accounts a fiercely talented painter, and her parents paid for art lessons. From everything one reads about her pre-teen years, she was a child prodigy who was loved by everyone and who was clearly going to be a success of some kind. Things started to change when she reached her teenage years. Partly, this was just her getting into rock and roll music, which her father thought a fad -- though even there, she differed from her peers. She loved Elvis, but when she heard "Hound Dog", she loved it so much that she tracked down a copy of Big Mama Thornton's original, and told her friends she preferred that: [Excerpt: Big Mama Thornton, "Hound Dog"] Despite this, she was still also an exemplary student and overachiever. But by the time she turned fourteen, things started to go very wrong for her. Partly this was just down to her relationship with her father changing -- she adored him, but he became more distant from his daughters as they grew into women. But also, puberty had an almost wholly negative effect on her, at least by the standards of that time and place. She put on weight (which, again, I do not think is a negative thing, but she did, and so did everyone around her), she got a bad case of acne which didn't ever really go away, and she also didn't develop breasts particularly quickly -- which, given that she was a couple of years younger than the other people in the same classes at school, meant she stood out even more. In the mid-sixties, a doctor apparently diagnosed her as having a "hormone imbalance" -- something that got to her as a possible explanation for why she was, to quote from a letter she wrote then, "not really a woman or enough of one or something." She wondered if "maybe something as simple as a pill could have helped out or even changed that part of me I call ME and has been so messed up.” I'm not a doctor and even if I were, diagnosing historical figures is an unethical thing to do, but certainly the acne, weight gain, and mental health problems she had are all consistent with PCOS, the most common endocrine disorder among women, and it seems likely given what the doctor told her that this was the cause. But at the time all she knew was that she was different, and that in the eyes of her fellow students she had gone from being pretty to being ugly. She seems to have been a very trusting, naive, person who was often the brunt of jokes but who desperately needed to be accepted, and it became clear that her appearance wasn't going to let her fit into the conformist society she was being brought up in, while her high intelligence, low impulse control, and curiosity meant she couldn't even fade into the background. This left her one other option, and she decided that she would deliberately try to look and act as different from everyone else as possible. That way, it would be a conscious choice on her part to reject the standards of her fellow pupils, rather than her being rejected by them. She started to admire rebels. She became a big fan of Jerry Lee Lewis, whose music combined the country music she'd grown up hearing in Texas, the R&B she liked now, and the rebellious nature she was trying to cultivate: [Excerpt: Jerry Lee Lewis, "Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin' On"] When Lewis' career was derailed by his marriage to his teenage cousin, Joplin wrote an angry letter to Time magazine complaining that they had mistreated him in their coverage. But as with so many people of her generation, her love of rock and roll music led her first to the blues and then to folk, and she soon found herself listening to Odetta: [Excerpt: Odetta, "Muleskinner Blues"] One of her first experiences of realising she could gain acceptance from her peers by singing was when she was hanging out with the small group of Bohemian teenagers she was friendly with, and sang an Odetta song, mimicking her voice exactly. But young Janis Joplin was listening to an eclectic range of folk music, and could mimic more than just Odetta. For all that her later vocal style was hugely influenced by Odetta and by other Black singers like Big Mama Thornton and Etta James, her friends in her late teens and early twenties remember her as a vocal chameleon with an achingly pure soprano, who would more often than Odetta be imitating the great Appalachian traditional folk singer Jean Ritchie: [Excerpt: Jean Ritchie, "Lord Randall"] She was, in short, trying her best to become a Beatnik, despite not having any experience of that subculture other than what she read in books -- though she *did* read about them in books, devouring things like Kerouac's On The Road. She came into conflict with her mother, who didn't understand what was happening to her daughter, and who tried to get family counselling to understand what was going on. Her father, who seemed to relate more to Janis, but who was more quietly eccentric, put an end to that, but Janis would still for the rest of her life talk about how her mother had taken her to doctors who thought she was going to end up "either in jail or an insane asylum" to use her words. From this point on, and for the rest of her life, she was torn between a need for approval from her family and her peers, and a knowledge that no matter what she did she couldn't fit in with normal societal expectations. In high school she was a member of the Future Nurses of America, the Future Teachers of America, the Art Club, and Slide Rule Club, but she also had a reputation as a wild girl, and as sexually active (even though by all accounts at this point she was far less so than most of the so-called "good girls" – but her later activity was in part because she felt that if she was going to have that reputation anyway she might as well earn it). She also was known to express radical opinions, like that segregation was wrong, an opinion that the other students in her segregated Texan school didn't even think was wrong, but possibly some sort of sign of mental illness. Her final High School yearbook didn't contain a single other student's signature. And her initial choice of university, Lamar State College of Technology, was not much better. In the next town over, and attended by many of the same students, it had much the same attitudes as the school she'd left. Almost the only long-term effect her initial attendance at university had on her was a negative one -- she found there was another student at the college who was better at painting. Deciding that if she wasn't going to be the best at something she didn't want to do it at all, she more or less gave up on painting at that point. But there was one positive. One of the lecturers at Lamar was Francis Edward "Ab" Abernethy, who would in the early seventies go on to become the Secretary and Editor of the Texas Folklore Society, and was also a passionate folk musician, playing double bass in string bands. Abernethy had a great collection of blues 78s. and it was through this collection that Janis first discovered classic blues, and in particular Bessie Smith: [Excerpt: Bessie Smith, "Black Mountain Blues"] A couple of episodes ago, we had a long look at the history of the music that now gets called "the blues" -- the music that's based around guitars, and generally involves a solo male vocalist, usually Black during its classic period. At the time that music was being made though it wouldn't have been thought of as "the blues" with no modifiers by most people who were aware of it. At the start, even the songs they were playing weren't thought of as blues by the male vocalist/guitarists who played them -- they called the songs they played "reels". The music released by people like Blind Lemon Jefferson, Son House, Robert Johnson, Kokomo Arnold and so on was thought of as blues music, and people would understand and agree with a phrase like "Lonnie Johnson is a blues singer", but it wasn't the first thing people thought of when they talked about "the blues". Until relatively late -- probably some time in the 1960s -- if you wanted to talk about blues music made by Black men with guitars and only that music, you talked about "country blues". If you thought about "the blues", with no qualifiers, you thought about a rather different style of music, one that white record collectors started later to refer to as "classic blues" to differentiate it from what they were now calling "the blues". Nowadays of course if you say "classic blues", most people will think you mean Muddy Waters or John Lee Hooker, people who were contemporary at the time those white record collectors were coming up with their labels, and so that style of music gets referred to as "vaudeville blues", or as "classic female blues": [Excerpt: Mamie Smith, "Crazy Blues"] What we just heard was the first big blues hit performed by a Black person, from 1920, and as we discussed in the episode on "Crossroads" that revolutionised the whole record industry when it came out. The song was performed by Mamie Smith, a vaudeville performer, and was originally titled "Harlem Blues" by its writer, Perry Bradford, before he changed the title to "Crazy Blues" to get it to a wider audience. Bradford was an important figure in the vaudeville scene, though other than being the credited writer of "Keep A-Knockin'" he's little known these days. He was a Black musician and grew up playing in minstrel shows (the history of minstrelsy is a topic for another day, but it's more complicated than the simple image of blackface that we are aware of today -- though as with many "more complicated than that" things it is, also the simple image of blackface we're aware of). He was the person who persuaded OKeh records that there would be a market for music made by Black people that sounded Black (though as we're going to see in this episode, what "sounding Black" means is a rather loaded question). "Crazy Blues" was the result, and it was a massive hit, even though it was marketed specifically towards Black listeners: [Excerpt: Mamie Smith, "Crazy Blues"] The big stars of the early years of recorded blues were all making records in the shadow of "Crazy Blues", and in the case of its very biggest stars, they were working very much in the same mould. The two most important blues stars of the twenties both got their start in vaudeville, and were both women. Ma Rainey, like Mamie Smith, first performed in minstrel shows, but where Mamie Smith's early records had her largely backed by white musicians, Rainey was largely backed by Black musicians, including on several tracks Louis Armstrong: [Excerpt: Ma Rainey, "See See Rider"] Rainey's band was initially led by Thomas Dorsey, one of the most important men in American music, who we've talked about before in several episodes, including the last one. He was possibly the single most important figure in two different genres -- hokum music, when he, under the name "Georgia Tom" recorded "It's Tight Like That" with Tampa Red: [Excerpt: Tampa Red and Georgia Tom, "It's Tight Like That"] And of course gospel music, which to all intents and purposes he invented, and much of whose repertoire he wrote: [Excerpt: Mahalia Jackson, "Take My Hand, Precious Lord"] When Dorsey left Rainey's band, as we discussed right back in episode five, he was replaced by a female pianist, Lil Henderson. The blues was a woman's genre. And Ma Rainey was, by preference, a woman's woman, though she was married to a man: [Excerpt: Ma Rainey, "Prove it on Me"] So was the biggest star of the classic blues era, who was originally mentored by Rainey. Bessie Smith, like Rainey, was a queer woman who had relationships with men but was far more interested in other women. There were stories that Bessie Smith actually got her start in the business by being kidnapped by Ma Rainey, and forced into performing on the same bills as her in the vaudeville show she was touring in, and that Rainey taught Smith to sing blues in the process. In truth, Rainey mentored Smith more in stagecraft and the ways of the road than in singing, and neither woman was only a blues singer, though both had huge success with their blues records. Indeed, since Rainey was already in the show, Smith was initially hired as a dancer rather than a singer, and she also worked as a male impersonator. But Smith soon branched out on her own -- from the beginning she was obviously a star. The great jazz clarinettist Sidney Bechet later said of her "She had this trouble in her, this thing that would not let her rest sometimes, a meanness that came and took her over. But what she had was alive … Bessie, she just wouldn't let herself be; it seemed she couldn't let herself be." Bessie Smith was signed by Columbia Records in 1923, as part of the rush to find and record as many Black women blues singers as possible. Her first recording session produced "Downhearted Blues", which became, depending on which sources you read, either the biggest-selling blues record since "Crazy Blues" or the biggest-selling blues record ever, full stop, selling three quarters of a million copies in the six months after its release: [Excerpt: Bessie Smith, "Downhearted Blues"] Smith didn't make royalties off record sales, only making a flat fee, but she became the most popular Black performer of the 1920s. Columbia signed her to an exclusive contract, and she became so rich that she would literally travel between gigs on her own private train. She lived an extravagant life in every way, giving lavishly to her friends and family, but also drinking extraordinary amounts of liquor, having regular affairs, and also often physically or verbally attacking those around her. By all accounts she was not a comfortable person to be around, and she seemed to be trying to fit an entire lifetime into every moment. From 1923 through 1929 she had a string of massive hits. She recorded material in a variety of styles, including the dirty blues: [Excerpt: Bessie Smith, "Empty Bed Blues] And with accompanists like Louis Armstrong: [Excerpt: Bessie Smith with Louis Armstrong, "Cold in Hand Blues"] But the music for which she became best known, and which sold the best, was when she sang about being mistreated by men, as on one of her biggest hits, "'Tain't Nobody's Biz-Ness if I Do" -- and a warning here, I'm going to play a clip of the song, which treats domestic violence in a way that may be upsetting: [Excerpt: Bessie Smith, "'Tain't Nobody's Biz-Ness if I Do"] That kind of material can often seem horrifying to today's listeners -- and quite correctly so, as domestic violence is a horrifying thing -- and it sounds entirely too excusing of the man beating her up for anyone to find it comfortable listening. But the Black feminist scholar Angela Davis has made a convincing case that while these records, and others by Smith's contemporaries, can't reasonably be considered to be feminist, they *are* at the very least more progressive than they now seem, in that they were, even if excusing it, pointing to a real problem which was otherwise left unspoken. And that kind of domestic violence and abuse *was* a real problem, including in Smith's own life. By all accounts she was terrified of her husband, Jack Gee, who would frequently attack her because of her affairs with other people, mostly women. But she was still devastated when he left her for a younger woman, not only because he had left her, but also because he kidnapped their adopted son and had him put into a care home, falsely claiming she had abused him. Not only that, but before Jack left her closest friend had been Jack's niece Ruby and after the split she never saw Ruby again -- though after her death Ruby tried to have a blues career as "Ruby Smith", taking her aunt's surname and recording a few tracks with Sammy Price, the piano player who worked with Sister Rosetta Tharpe: [Excerpt: Ruby Smith with Sammy Price, "Make Me Love You"] The same month, May 1929, that Gee left her, Smith recorded what was to become her last big hit, and most well-known song, "Nobody Knows You When You're Down and Out": [Excerpt: Bessie Smith, "Nobody Knows You When You're Down and Out"] And that could have been the theme for the rest of her life. A few months after that record came out, the Depression hit, pretty much killing the market for blues records. She carried on recording until 1931, but the records weren't selling any more. And at the same time, the talkies came in in the film industry, which along with the Depression ended up devastating the vaudeville audience. Her earnings were still higher than most, but only a quarter of what they had been a year or two earlier. She had one last recording session in 1933, produced by John Hammond for OKeh Records, where she showed that her style had developed over the years -- it was now incorporating the newer swing style, and featured future swing stars Benny Goodman and Jack Teagarden in the backing band: [Excerpt: Bessie Smith, "Gimme a Pigfoot"] Hammond was not hugely impressed with the recordings, preferring her earlier records, and they would be the last she would ever make. She continued as a successful, though no longer record-breaking, live act until 1937, when she and her common-law husband, Lionel Hampton's uncle Richard Morgan, were in a car crash. Morgan escaped, but Smith died of her injuries and was buried on October the fourth 1937. Ten thousand people came to her funeral, but she was buried in an unmarked grave -- she was still legally married to Gee, even though they'd been separated for eight years, and while he supposedly later became rich from songwriting royalties from some of her songs (most of her songs were written by other people, but she wrote a few herself) he refused to pay for a headstone for her. Indeed on more than one occasion he embezzled money that had been raised by other people to provide a headstone. Bessie Smith soon became Joplin's favourite singer of all time, and she started trying to copy her vocals. But other than discovering Smith's music, Joplin seems to have had as terrible a time at university as at school, and soon dropped out and moved back in with her parents. She went to business school for a short while, where she learned some secretarial skills, and then she moved west, going to LA where two of her aunts lived, to see if she could thrive better in a big West Coast city than she did in small-town Texas. Soon she moved from LA to Venice Beach, and from there had a brief sojourn in San Francisco, where she tried to live out her beatnik fantasies at a time when the beatnik culture was starting to fall apart. She did, while she was there, start smoking cannabis, though she never got a taste for that drug, and took Benzedrine and started drinking much more heavily than she had before. She soon lost her job, moved back to Texas, and re-enrolled at the same college she'd been at before. But now she'd had a taste of real Bohemian life -- she'd been singing at coffee houses, and having affairs with both men and women -- and soon she decided to transfer to the University of Texas at Austin. At this point, Austin was very far from the cultural centre it has become in recent decades, and it was still a straitlaced Texan town, but it was far less so than Port Arthur, and she soon found herself in a folk group, the Waller Creek Boys. Janis would play autoharp and sing, sometimes Bessie Smith covers, but also the more commercial country and folk music that was popular at the time, like "Silver Threads and Golden Needles", a song that had originally been recorded by Wanda Jackson but at that time was a big hit for Dusty Springfield's group The Springfields: [Excerpt: The Waller Creek Boys, "Silver Threads and Golden Needles"] But even there, Joplin didn't fit in comfortably. The venue where the folk jams were taking place was a segregated venue, as everywhere around Austin was. And she was enough of a misfit that the campus newspaper did an article on her headlined "She Dares to Be Different!", which read in part "She goes barefooted when she feels like it, wears Levi's to class because they're more comfortable, and carries her Autoharp with her everywhere she goes so that in case she gets the urge to break out into song it will be handy." There was a small group of wannabe-Beatniks, including Chet Helms, who we've mentioned previously in the Grateful Dead episode, Gilbert Shelton, who went on to be a pioneer of alternative comics and create the Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers, and Shelton's partner in Rip-Off Press, Dave Moriarty, but for the most part the atmosphere in Austin was only slightly better for Janis than it had been in Port Arthur. The final straw for her came when in an annual charity fundraiser joke competition to find the ugliest man on campus, someone nominated her for the "award". She'd had enough of Texas. She wanted to go back to California. She and Chet Helms, who had dropped out of the university earlier and who, like her, had already spent some time on the West Coast, decided to hitch-hike together to San Francisco. Before leaving, she made a recording for her ex-girlfriend Julie Paul, a country and western musician, of a song she'd written herself. It's recorded in what many say was Janis' natural voice -- a voice she deliberately altered in performance in later years because, she would tell people, she didn't think there was room for her singing like that in an industry that already had Joan Baez and Judy Collins. In her early years she would alternate between singing like this and doing her imitations of Black women, but the character of Janis Joplin who would become famous never sang like this. It may well be the most honest thing that she ever recorded, and the most revealing of who she really was: [Excerpt: Janis Joplin, "So Sad to Be Alone"] Joplin and Helms made it to San Francisco, and she started performing at open-mic nights and folk clubs around the Bay Area, singing in her Bessie Smith and Odetta imitation voice, and sometimes making a great deal of money by sounding different from the wispier-voiced women who were the norm at those venues. The two friends parted ways, and she started performing with two other folk musicians, Larry Hanks and Roger Perkins, and she insisted that they would play at least one Bessie Smith song at every performance: [Excerpt: Janis Joplin, Larry Hanks, and Roger Perkins, "Black Mountain Blues (live in San Francisco)"] Often the trio would be joined by Billy Roberts, who at that time had just started performing the song that would make his name, "Hey Joe", and Joplin was soon part of the folk scene in the Bay Area, and admired by Dino Valenti, David Crosby, and Jerry Garcia among others. She also sang a lot with Jorma Kaukonnen, and recordings of the two of them together have circulated for years: [Excerpt: Janis Joplin and Jorma Kaukonnen, "Nobody Knows You When You're Down and Out"] Through 1963, 1964, and early 1965 Joplin ping-ponged from coast to coast, spending time in the Bay Area, then Greenwich Village, dropping in on her parents then back to the Bay Area, and she started taking vast quantities of methamphetamine. Even before moving to San Francisco she had been an occasional user of amphetamines – at the time they were regularly prescribed to students as study aids during exam periods, and she had also been taking them to try to lose some of the weight she always hated. But while she was living in San Francisco she became dependent on the drug. At one point her father was worried enough about her health to visit her in San Francisco, where she managed to fool him that she was more or less OK. But she looked to him for reassurance that things would get better for her, and he couldn't give it to her. He told her about a concept that he called the "Saturday night swindle", the idea that you work all week so you can go out and have fun on Saturday in the hope that that will make up for everything else, but that it never does. She had occasional misses with what would have been lucky breaks -- at one point she was in a motorcycle accident just as record labels were interested in signing her, and by the time she got out of the hospital the chance had gone. She became engaged to another speed freak, one who claimed to be an engineer and from a well-off background, but she was becoming severely ill from what was by now a dangerous amphetamine habit, and in May 1965 she decided to move back in with her parents, get clean, and have a normal life. Her new fiance was going to do the same, and they were going to have the conformist life her parents had always wanted, and which she had always wanted to want. Surely with a husband who loved her she could find a way to fit in and just be normal. She kicked the addiction, and wrote her fiance long letters describing everything about her family and the new normal life they were going to have together, and they show her painfully trying to be optimistic about the future, like one where she described her family to him: "My mother—Dorothy—worries so and loves her children dearly. Republican and Methodist, very sincere, speaks in clichés which she really means and is very good to people. (She thinks you have a lovely voice and is terribly prepared to like you.) My father—richer than when I knew him and kind of embarrassed about it—very well read—history his passion—quiet and very excited to have me home because I'm bright and we can talk (about antimatter yet—that impressed him)! I keep telling him how smart you are and how proud I am of you.…" She went back to Lamar, her mother started sewing her a wedding dress, and for much of the year she believed her fiance was going to be her knight in shining armour. But as it happened, the fiance in question was described by everyone else who knew him as a compulsive liar and con man, who persuaded her father to give him money for supposed medical tests before the wedding, but in reality was apparently married to someone else and having a baby with a third woman. After the engagement was broken off, she started performing again around the coffeehouses in Austin and Houston, and she started to realise the possibilities of rock music for her kind of performance. The missing clue came from a group from Austin who she became very friendly with, the Thirteenth Floor Elevators, and the way their lead singer Roky Erickson would wail and yell: [Excerpt: The 13th Floor Elevators, "You're Gonna Miss Me (live)"] If, as now seemed inevitable, Janis was going to make a living as a performer, maybe she should start singing rock music, because it seemed like there was money in it. There was even some talk of her singing with the Elevators. But then an old friend came to Austin from San Francisco with word from Chet Helms. A blues band had formed, and were looking for a singer, and they remembered her from the coffee houses. Would she like to go back to San Francisco and sing with them? In the time she'd been away, Helms had become hugely prominent in the San Francisco music scene, which had changed radically. A band from the area called the Charlatans had been playing a fake-Victorian saloon called the Red Dog in nearby Nevada, and had become massive with the people who a few years earlier had been beatniks: [Excerpt: The Charlatans, "32-20"] When their residency at the Red Dog had finished, several of the crowd who had been regulars there had become a collective of sorts called the Family Dog, and Helms had become their unofficial leader. And there's actually a lot packed into that choice of name. As we'll see in a few future episodes, a lot of West Coast hippies eventually started calling their collectives and communes families. This started as a way to get round bureaucracy -- if a helpful welfare officer put down that the unrelated people living in a house together were a family, suddenly they could get food stamps. As with many things, of course, the label then affected how people thought about themselves, and one thing that's very notable about the San Francisco scene hippies in particular is that they are some of the first people to make a big deal about what we now call "found family" or "family of choice". But it's also notable how often the hippie found families took their model from the only families these largely middle-class dropouts had ever known, and structured themselves around men going out and doing the work -- selling dope or panhandling or being rock musicians or shoplifting -- with the women staying at home doing the housework. The Family Dog started promoting shows, with the intention of turning San Francisco into "the American Liverpool", and soon Helms was rivalled only by Bill Graham as the major promoter of rock shows in the Bay Area. And now he wanted Janis to come back and join this new band. But Janis was worried. She was clean now. She drank far too much, but she wasn't doing any other drugs. She couldn't go back to San Francisco and risk getting back on methamphetamine. She needn't worry about that, she was told, nobody in San Francisco did speed any more, they were all on LSD -- a drug she hated and so wasn't in any danger from. Reassured, she made the trip back to San Francisco, to join Big Brother and the Holding Company. Big Brother and the Holding Company were the epitome of San Francisco acid rock at the time. They were the house band at the Avalon Ballroom, which Helms ran, and their first ever gig had been at the Trips Festival, which we talked about briefly in the Grateful Dead episode. They were known for being more imaginative than competent -- lead guitarist James Gurley was often described as playing parts that were influenced by John Cage, but was equally often, and equally accurately, described as not actually being able to keep his guitar in tune because he was too stoned. But they were drawing massive crowds with their instrumental freak-out rock music. Helms thought they needed a singer, and he had remembered Joplin, who a few of the group had seen playing the coffee houses. He decided she would be perfect for them, though Joplin wasn't so sure. She thought it was worth a shot, but as she wrote to her parents before meeting the group "Supposed to rehearse w/ the band this afternoon, after that I guess I'll know whether I want to stay & do that for awhile. Right now my position is ambivalent—I'm glad I came, nice to see the city, a few friends, but I'm not at all sold on the idea of becoming the poor man's Cher.” In that letter she also wrote "I'm awfully sorry to be such a disappointment to you. I understand your fears at my coming here & must admit I share them, but I really do think there's an awfully good chance I won't blow it this time." The band she met up with consisted of lead guitarist James Gurley, bass player Peter Albin, rhythm player Sam Andrew, and drummer David Getz. To start with, Peter Albin sang lead on most songs, with Joplin adding yelps and screams modelled on those of Roky Erickson, but in her first gig with the band she bowled everyone over with her lead vocal on the traditional spiritual "Down on Me", which would remain a staple of their live act, as in this live recording from 1968: [Excerpt: Big Brother and the Holding Company, "Down on Me (Live 1968)"] After that first gig in June 1966, it was obvious that Joplin was going to be a star, and was going to be the group's main lead vocalist. She had developed a whole new stage persona a million miles away from her folk performances. As Chet Helms said “Suddenly this person who would stand upright with her fists clenched was all over the stage. Roky Erickson had modeled himself after the screaming style of Little Richard, and Janis's initial stage presence came from Roky, and ultimately Little Richard. It was a very different Janis.” Joplin would always claim to journalists that her stage persona was just her being herself and natural, but she worked hard on every aspect of her performance, and far from the untrained emotional outpouring she always suggested, her vocal performances were carefully calculated pastiches of her influences -- mostly Bessie Smith, but also Big Mama Thornton, Odetta, Etta James, Tina Turner, and Otis Redding. That's not to say that those performances weren't an authentic expression of part of herself -- they absolutely were. But the ethos that dominated San Francisco in the mid-sixties prized self-expression over technical craft, and so Joplin had to portray herself as a freak of nature who just had to let all her emotions out, a wild woman, rather than someone who carefully worked out every nuance of her performances. Joplin actually got the chance to meet one of her idols when she discovered that Willie Mae Thornton was now living and regularly performing in the Bay Area. She and some of her bandmates saw Big Mama play a small jazz club, where she performed a song she wouldn't release on a record for another two years: [Excerpt: Big Mama Thornton, "Ball 'n' Chain"] Janis loved the song and scribbled down the lyrics, then went backstage to ask Big Mama if Big Brother could cover the song. She gave them her blessing, but told them "don't" -- and here she used a word I can't use with a clean rating -- "it up". The group all moved in together, communally, with their partners -- those who had them. Janis was currently single, having dumped her most recent boyfriend after discovering him shooting speed, as she was still determined to stay clean. But she was rapidly discovering that the claim that San Franciscans no longer used much speed had perhaps not been entirely true, as for example Sam Andrew's girlfriend went by the nickname Speedfreak Rita. For now, Janis was still largely clean, but she did start drinking more. Partly this was because of a brief fling with Pigpen from the Grateful Dead, who lived nearby. Janis liked Pigpen as someone else on the scene who didn't much like psychedelics or cannabis -- she didn't like drugs that made her think more, but only drugs that made her able to *stop* thinking (her love of amphetamines doesn't seem to fit this pattern, but a small percentage of people have a different reaction to amphetamine-type stimulants, perhaps she was one of those). Pigpen was a big drinker of Southern Comfort -- so much so that it would kill him within a few years -- and Janis started joining him. Her relationship with Pigpen didn't last long, but the two would remain close, and she would often join the Grateful Dead on stage over the years to duet with him on "Turn On Your Lovelight": [Excerpt: Janis Joplin and the Grateful Dead, "Turn on Your Lovelight"] But within two months of joining the band, Janis nearly left. Paul Rothchild of Elektra Records came to see the group live, and was impressed by their singer, but not by the rest of the band. This was something that would happen again and again over the group's career. The group were all imaginative and creative -- they worked together on their arrangements and their long instrumental jams and often brought in very good ideas -- but they were not the most disciplined or technically skilled of musicians, even when you factored in their heavy drug use, and often lacked the skill to pull off their better ideas. They were hugely popular among the crowds at the Avalon Ballroom, who were on the group's chemical wavelength, but Rothchild was not impressed -- as he was, in general, unimpressed with psychedelic freakouts. He was already of the belief in summer 1966 that the fashion for extended experimental freak-outs would soon come to an end and that there would be a pendulum swing back towards more structured and melodic music. As we saw in the episode on The Band, he would be proved right in a little over a year, but being ahead of the curve he wanted to put together a supergroup that would be able to ride that coming wave, a group that would play old-fashioned blues. He'd got together Stefan Grossman, Steve Mann, and Taj Mahal, and he wanted Joplin to be the female vocalist for the group, dueting with Mahal. She attended one rehearsal, and the new group sounded great. Elektra Records offered to sign them, pay their rent while they rehearsed, and have a major promotional campaign for their first release. Joplin was very, very, tempted, and brought the subject up to her bandmates in Big Brother. They were devastated. They were a family! You don't leave your family! She was meant to be with them forever! They eventually got her to agree to put off the decision at least until after a residency they'd been booked for in Chicago, and she decided to give them the chance, writing to her parents "I decided to stay w/the group but still like to think about the other thing. Trying to figure out which is musically more marketable because my being good isn't enough, I've got to be in a good vehicle.” The trip to Chicago was a disaster. They found that the people of Chicago weren't hugely interested in seeing a bunch of white Californians play the blues, and that the Midwest didn't have the same Bohemian crowds that the coastal cities they were used to had, and so their freak-outs didn't go down well either. After two weeks of their four-week residency, the club owner stopped paying them because they were so unpopular, and they had no money to get home. And then they were approached by Bob Shad. (For those who know the film Walk Hard: The Dewey Cox Story, the Bob Shad in that film is named after this one -- Judd Apatow, the film's director, is Shad's grandson) This Shad was a record producer, who had worked with people like Big Bill Broonzy, Sarah Vaughan, Dinah Washington, and Billy Eckstine over an eighteen-year career, and had recently set up a new label, Mainstream Records. He wanted to sign Big Brother and the Holding Company. They needed money and... well, it was a record contract! It was a contract that took half their publishing, paid them a five percent royalty on sales, and gave them no advance, but it was still a contract, and they'd get union scale for the first session. In that first session in Chicago, they recorded four songs, and strangely only one, "Down on Me", had a solo Janis vocal. Of the other three songs, Sam Andrew and Janis dueted on Sam's song "Call on Me", Albin sang lead on the group composition "Blindman", and Gurley and Janis sang a cover of "All Is Loneliness", a song originally by the avant-garde street musician Moondog: [Excerpt: Big Brother and the Holding Company, "All is Loneliness"] The group weren't happy with the four songs they recorded -- they had to keep the songs to the length of a single, and the engineers made sure that the needles never went into the red, so their guitars sounded far more polite and less distorted than they were used to. Janis was fascinated by the overdubbing process, though, especially double-tracking, which she'd never tried before but which she turned out to be remarkably good at. And they were now signed to a contract, which meant that Janis wouldn't be leaving the group to go solo any time soon. The family were going to stay together. But on the group's return to San Francisco, Janis started doing speed again, encouraged by the people around the group, particularly Gurley's wife. By the time the group's first single, "Blindman" backed with "All is Loneliness", came out, she was an addict again. That initial single did nothing, but the group were fast becoming one of the most popular in the Bay Area, and almost entirely down to Janis' vocals and on-stage persona. Bob Shad had already decided in the initial session that while various band members had taken lead, Janis was the one who should be focused on as the star, and when they drove to LA for their second recording session it was songs with Janis leads that they focused on. At that second session, in which they recorded ten tracks in two days, the group recorded a mix of material including one of Janis' own songs, the blues track "Women is Losers", and a version of the old folk song "the Cuckoo Bird" rearranged by Albin. Again they had to keep the arrangements to two and a half minutes a track, with no extended soloing and a pop arrangement style, and the results sound a lot more like the other San Francisco bands, notably Jefferson Airplane, than like the version of the band that shows itself in their live performances: [Excerpt: Big Brother and the Holding Company, "Coo Coo"] After returning to San Francisco after the sessions, Janis went to see Otis Redding at the Fillmore, turning up several hours before the show started on all three nights to make sure she could be right at the front. One of the other audience members later recalled “It was more fascinating for me, almost, to watch Janis watching Otis, because you could tell that she wasn't just listening to him, she was studying something. There was some kind of educational thing going on there. I was jumping around like the little hippie girl I was, thinking This is so great! and it just stopped me in my tracks—because all of a sudden Janis drew you very deeply into what the performance was all about. Watching her watch Otis Redding was an education in itself.” Joplin would, for the rest of her life, always say that Otis Redding was her all-time favourite singer, and would say “I started singing rhythmically, and now I'm learning from Otis Redding to push a song instead of just sliding over it.” [Excerpt: Otis Redding, "I Can't Turn You Loose (live)"] At the start of 1967, the group moved out of the rural house they'd been sharing and into separate apartments around Haight-Ashbury, and they brought the new year in by playing a free show organised by the Hell's Angels, the violent motorcycle gang who at the time were very close with the proto-hippies in the Bay Area. Janis in particular always got on well with the Angels, whose drugs of choice, like hers, were speed and alcohol more than cannabis and psychedelics. Janis also started what would be the longest on-again off-again relationship she would ever have, with a woman named Peggy Caserta. Caserta had a primary partner, but that if anything added to her appeal for Joplin -- Caserta's partner Kimmie had previously been in a relationship with Joan Baez, and Joplin, who had an intense insecurity that made her jealous of any other female singer who had any success, saw this as in some way a validation both of her sexuality and, transitively, of her talent. If she was dating Baez's ex's lover, that in some way put her on a par with Baez, and when she told friends about Peggy, Janis would always slip that fact in. Joplin and Caserta would see each other off and on for the rest of Joplin's life, but they were never in a monogamous relationship, and Joplin had many other lovers over the years. The next of these was Country Joe McDonald of Country Joe and the Fish, who were just in the process of recording their first album Electric Music for the Mind and Body, when McDonald and Joplin first got together: [Excerpt: Country Joe and the Fish, "Grace"] McDonald would later reminisce about lying with Joplin, listening to one of the first underground FM radio stations, KMPX, and them playing a Fish track and a Big Brother track back to back. Big Brother's second single, the other two songs recorded in the Chicago session, had been released in early 1967, and the B-side, "Down on Me", was getting a bit of airplay in San Francisco and made the local charts, though it did nothing outside the Bay Area: [Excerpt: Big Brother and the Holding Company, "Down on Me"] Janis was unhappy with the record, though, writing to her parents and saying, “Our new record is out. We seem to be pretty dissatisfied w/it. I think we're going to try & get out of the record contract if we can. We don't feel that they know how to promote or engineer a record & every time we recorded for them, they get all our songs, which means we can't do them for another record company. But then if our new record does something, we'd change our mind. But somehow, I don't think it's going to." The band apparently saw a lawyer to see if they could get out of the contract with Mainstream, but they were told it was airtight. They were tied to Bob Shad no matter what for the next five years. Janis and McDonald didn't stay together for long -- they clashed about his politics and her greater fame -- but after they split, she asked him to write a song for her before they became too distant, and he obliged and recorded it on the Fish's next album: [Excerpt: Country Joe and the Fish, "Janis"] The group were becoming so popular by late spring 1967 that when Richard Lester, the director of the Beatles' films among many other classics, came to San Francisco to film Petulia, his follow-up to How I Won The War, he chose them, along with the Grateful Dead, to appear in performance segments in the film. But it would be another filmmaker that would change the course of the group's career irrevocably: [Excerpt: Scott McKenzie, "San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Some Flowers in Your Hair)"] When Big Brother and the Holding Company played the Monterey Pop Festival, nobody had any great expectations. They were second on the bill on the Saturday, the day that had been put aside for the San Francisco acts, and they were playing in the early afternoon, after a largely unimpressive night before. They had a reputation among the San Francisco crowd, of course, but they weren't even as big as the Grateful Dead, Moby Grape or Country Joe and the Fish, let alone Jefferson Airplane. Monterey launched four careers to new heights, but three of the superstars it made -- Otis Redding, Jimi Hendrix, and the Who -- already had successful careers. Hendrix and the Who had had hits in the UK but not yet broken the US market, while Redding was massively popular with Black people but hadn't yet crossed over to a white audience. Big Brother and the Holding Company, on the other hand, were so unimportant that D.A. Pennebaker didn't even film their set -- their manager at the time had not wanted to sign over the rights to film their performance, something that several of the other acts had also refused -- and nobody had been bothered enough to make an issue of it. Pennebaker just took some crowd shots and didn't bother filming the band. The main thing he caught was Cass Elliot's open-mouthed astonishment at Big Brother's performance -- or rather at Janis Joplin's performance. The members of the group would later complain, not entirely inaccurately, that in the reviews of their performance at Monterey, Joplin's left nipple (the outline of which was apparently visible through her shirt, at least to the male reviewers who took an inordinate interest in such things) got more attention than her four bandmates combined. As Pennebaker later said “She came out and sang, and my hair stood on end. We were told we weren't allowed to shoot it, but I knew if we didn't have Janis in the film, the film would be a wash. Afterward, I said to Albert Grossman, ‘Talk to her manager or break his leg or whatever you have to do, because we've got to have her in this film. I can't imagine this film without this woman who I just saw perform.” Grossman had a talk with the organisers of the festival, Lou Adler and John Phillips, and they offered Big Brother a second spot, the next day, if they would allow their performance to be used in the film. The group agreed, after much discussion between Janis and Grossman, and against the wishes of their manager: [Excerpt: Big Brother and the Holding Company, "Ball and Chain (live at Monterey)"] They were now on Albert Grossman's radar. Or at least, Janis Joplin was. Joplin had always been more of a careerist than the other members of the group. They were in music to have a good time and to avoid working a straight job, and while some of them were more accomplished musicians than their later reputations would suggest -- Sam Andrew, in particular, was a skilled player and serious student of music -- they were fundamentally content with playing the Avalon Ballroom and the Fillmore and making five hundred dollars or so a week between them. Very good money for 1967, but nothing else. Joplin, on the other hand, was someone who absolutely craved success. She wanted to prove to her family that she wasn't a failure and that her eccentricity shouldn't stop them being proud of her; she was always, even at the depths of her addictions, fiscally prudent and concerned about her finances; and she had a deep craving for love. Everyone who talks about her talks about how she had an aching need at all times for approval, connection, and validation, which she got on stage more than she got anywhere else. The bigger the audience, the more they must love her. She'd made all her decisions thus far based on how to balance making music that she loved with commercial success, and this would continue to be the pattern for her in future. And so when journalists started to want to talk to her, even though up to that point Albin, who did most of the on-stage announcements, and Gurley, the lead guitarist, had considered themselves joint leaders of the band, she was eager. And she was also eager to get rid of their manager, who continued the awkward streak that had prevented their first performance at the Monterey Pop Festival from being filmed. The group had the chance to play the Hollywood Bowl -- Bill Graham was putting on a "San Francisco Sound" showcase there, featuring Jefferson Airplane and the Grateful Dead, and got their verbal agreement to play, but after Graham had the posters printed up, their manager refused to sign the contracts unless they were given more time on stage. The next day after that, they played Monterey again -- this time the Monterey Jazz Festival. A very different crowd to the Pop Festival still fell for Janis' performance -- and once again, the film being made of the event didn't include Big Brother's set because of their manager. While all this was going on, the group's recordings from the previous year were rushed out by Mainstream Records as an album, to poor reviews which complained it was nothing like the group's set at Monterey: [Excerpt: Big Brother and the Holding Company, "Bye Bye Baby"] They were going to need to get out of that contract and sign with somewhere better -- Clive Davis at Columbia Records was already encouraging them to sign with him -- but to do that, they needed a better manager. They needed Albert Grossman. Grossman was one of the best negotiators in the business at that point, but he was also someone who had a genuine love for the music his clients made. And he had good taste -- he managed Odetta, who Janis idolised as a singer, and Bob Dylan, who she'd been a fan of since his first album came out. He was going to be the perfect manager for the group. But he had one condition though. His first wife had been a heroin addict, and he'd just been dealing with Mike Bloomfield's heroin habit. He had one absolutely ironclad rule, a dealbreaker that would stop him signing them -- they didn't use heroin, did they? Both Gurley and Joplin had used heroin on occasion -- Joplin had only just started, introduced to the drug by Gurley -- but they were only dabblers. They could give it up any time they wanted, right? Of course they could. They told him, in perfect sincerity, that the band didn't use heroin and it wouldn't be a problem. But other than that, Grossman was extremely flexible. He explained to the group at their first meeting that he took a higher percentage than other managers, but that he would also make them more money than other managers -- if money was what they wanted. He told them that they needed to figure out where they wanted their career to be, and what they were willing to do to get there -- would they be happy just playing the same kind of venues they were now, maybe for a little more money, or did they want to be as big as Dylan or Peter, Paul, and Mary? He could get them to whatever level they wanted, and he was happy with working with clients at every level, what did they actually want? The group were agreed -- they wanted to be rich. They decided to test him. They were making twenty-five thousand dollars a year between them at that time, so they got ridiculously ambitious. They told him they wanted to make a *lot* of money. Indeed, they wanted a clause in their contract saying the contract would be void if in the first year they didn't make... thinking of a ridiculous amount, they came up with seventy-five thousand dollars. Grossman's response was to shrug and say "Make it a hundred thousand." The group were now famous and mixing with superstars -- Peter Tork of the Monkees had become a close friend of Janis', and when they played a residency in LA they were invited to John and Michelle Phillips' house to see a rough cut of Monterey Pop. But the group, other than Janis, were horrified -- the film barely showed the other band members at all, just Janis. Dave Getz said later "We assumed we'd appear in the movie as a band, but seeing it was a shock. It was all Janis. They saw her as a superstar in the making. I realized that though we were finally going to be making money and go to another level, it also meant our little family was being separated—there was Janis, and there was the band.” [Excerpt: Big Brother and the Holding Company, "Bye Bye Baby"] If the group were going to make that hundred thousand dollars a year, they couldn't remain on Mainstream Records, but Bob Shad was not about to give up his rights to what could potentially be the biggest group in America without a fight. But luckily for the group, Clive Davis at Columbia had seen their Monterey performance, and he was also trying to pivot the label towards the new rock music. He was basically willing to do anything to get them. Eventually Columbia agreed to pay Shad two hundred thousand dollars for the group's contract -- Davis and Grossman negotiated so half that was an advance on the group's future earnings, but the other half was just an expense for the label. On top of that the group got an advance payment of fifty thousand dollars for their first album for Columbia, making a total investment by Columbia of a quarter of a million dollars -- in return for which they got to sign the band, and got the rights to the material they'd recorded for Mainstream, though Shad would get a two percent royalty on their first two albums for Columbia. Janis was intimidated by signing for Columbia, because that had been Aretha Franklin's label before she signed to Atlantic, and she regarded Franklin as the greatest performer in music at that time. Which may have had something to do with the choice of a new song the group added to their setlist in early 1968 -- one which was a current hit for Aretha's sister Erma: [Excerpt: Erma Franklin, "Piece of My Heart"] We talked a little in the last episode about the song "Piece of My Heart" itself, though mostly from the perspective of its performer, Erma Franklin. But the song was, as we mentioned, co-written by Bert Berns. He's someone we've talked about a little bit in previous episodes, notably the ones on "Here Comes the Night" and "Twist and Shout", but those were a couple of years ago, and he's about to become a major figure in the next episode, so we might as well take a moment here to remind listeners (or tell those who haven't heard those episodes) of the basics and explain where "Piece of My Heart" comes in Berns' work as a whole. Bert Berns was a latecomer to the music industry, not getting properly started until he was thirty-one, after trying a variety of other occupations. But when he did get started, he wasted no time making his mark -- he knew he had no time to waste. He had a weak heart and knew the likelihood was he was going to die young. He started an association with Wand records as a songwriter and performer, writing songs for some of Phil Spector's pre-fame recordings, and he also started producing records for Atlantic, where for a long while he was almost the equal of Jerry Wexler or Leiber and Stoller in terms of number of massive hits created. His records with Solomon Burke were the records that first got the R&B genre renamed soul (previously the word "soul" mostly referred to a kind of R&Bish jazz, rather than a kind of gospel-ish R&B). He'd also been one of the few American music industry professionals to work with British bands before the Beatles made it big in the USA, after he became alerted to the Beatles' success with his song "Twist and Shout", which he'd co-written with Phil Medley, and which had been a hit in a version Berns produced for the Isley Brothers: [Excerpt: The Isley Brothers, "Twist and Shout"] That song shows the two elements that existed in nearly every single Bert Berns song or production. The first is the Afro-Caribbean rhythm, a feel he picked up during a stint in Cuba in his twenties. Other people in the Atlantic records team were also partial to those rhythms -- Leiber and Stoller loved what they called the baion rhythm -- but Berns more than anyone else made it his signature. He also very specifically loved the song "La Bamba", especially Ritchie Valens' version of it: [Excerpt: Ritchie Valens, "La Bamba"] He basically seemed to think that was the greatest record ever made, and he certainly loved that three-chord trick I-IV-V-IV chord sequence -- almost but not quite the same as the "Louie Louie" one. He used it in nearly every song he wrote from that point on -- usually using a bassline that went something like this: [plays I-IV-V-IV bassline] He used it in "Twist and Shout" of course: [Excerpt: The Isley Brothers, "Twist and Shout"] He used it in "Hang on Sloopy": [Excerpt: The McCoys, "Hang on Sloopy"] He *could* get more harmonically sophisticated on occasion, but the vast majority of Berns' songs show the power of simplicity. They're usually based around three chords, and often they're actually only two chords, like "I Want Candy": [Excerpt: The Strangeloves, "I Want Candy"] Or the chorus to "Here Comes the Night" by Them, which is two chords for most of it and only introduces a third right at the end: [Excerpt: Them, "Here Comes the Night"] And even in that song you can hear the "Twist and Shout"/"La Bamba" feel, even if it's not exactly the same chords. Berns' whole career was essentially a way of wringing *every last possible drop* out of all the implications of Ritchie Valens' record. And so even when he did a more harmonically complex song, like "Piece of My Heart", which actually has some minor chords in the bridge, the "La Bamba" chord sequence is used in both the verse: [Excerpt: Erma Franklin, "Piece of My Heart"] And the chorus: [Excerpt: Erma Franklin, "Piece of My Heart"] Berns co-wrote “Piece of My Heart” with Jerry Ragavoy. Berns and Ragavoy had also written "Cry Baby" for Garnet Mimms, which was another Joplin favourite: [Excerpt: Garnet Mimms, "Cry Baby"] And Ragavoy, with other collaborators
This week, David Rath joins Jay Jay for week 3 of Record Label Presidents Month on the show! David Rath comes from Roadrunner Records where he spent twenty-one years in the A&R and Creative Departments, having been A&R on albums by Slipknot, Korn, Gojira, Coheed and Cambira, Slash, The Amity Affliction, Trivium, Stone Sour, Dream Theater and Megadeth and where he oversaw music videos from Nickelback, Theory Of A Deadman, Killswitch Engage, Jerry Cantrell and Slipknot. Rath helped guide the label through multiple changes in ownership and management, after which he oversaw the signings of Platinum selling acts Young The Giant and Vance Joy for Atlantic and Elektra Records. As the head of the A&R department at Roadrunner, Rath most recently signed and A&R'd Grammy nominated acts Turnstile and Code Orange, along with White Reaper and Motionless In White who both recently scored #1 Alternative and Active Rock radio hits. In 2022, Dave Rath formed a partnership and new venture with Cees Wessels, the original founder of Roadrunner Records, to launch the rock label Blue Grape Music. The Blue Grape name comes from the influential hardcore/metal merch company formerly owned by Wessels. The new label recently signed pioneering metal outfit Code Orange, along with the Bay area post-punk band Spiritual Cramp, and New Jersey's buzzing hardcore band GEL with releases scheduled for 2023. Blue Grape Music has offices in both New York City and Amsterdam and is presently distributed by The Orchard. Prior to being at Roadrunner Records, Rath, a graduate of Villanova University, was the Director of The Philadelphia Music Conference and drummer for the Columbia Records band Heavens Edge. Jay Jay & David discuss their journeys into the record business, the ins & outs of A&R and the current state of the record label industry. David gets into how working in A&R keeps his ear to what's happening in the music world, & why he finds this to be very important. Don't miss this insightful conversation, only on The Jay Jay French Connection: Beyond the Music! Edited & Produced by Matthew Mallinger
Welcome to the Nothing Shocking Podcast 2.0 reboot episode 200 - Part One with our guest Arion Salazar (Formerly of Third Eye Blind). In this episode we discuss the formation of the band up through the debut album, and more! For more information visit: Arion's Instagram and Facebook Please like our Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/nothingshockingpodcast/ Follow us on twitter at https://twitter.com/hashtag/noshockpod. Libsyn website: https://nothingshocking.libsyn.com For more info on the Hong Kong Sleepover: https://thehongkongsleepover.bandcamp.com Help support the podcast and record stores by shopping at Ragged Records. http://www.raggedrecords.org
No matter where you are in your career, you'll benefit from listening to 3Q. 3Q provides a window into the careers of some of the best in the music business. Every episode is an insider's view of the realities of life as a music executive. Topics include issues of empowerment, uncertainty, trust, finances, etc; issues that will impact you both personally and professionally. The executives we interview represent every aspect of the industry including but not limited to A&R, Marketing, Music Supervision, Artist Management, Promotion, and more. About Nicole: Nicole Plantin was most recently General Manager of award winning television and film producer and director Kenya Barris' joint label venture Khalabo Music/Interscope. Previously she was head of A&R at Rostrum Records, an independent label born in Pittsburgh and known for launching the careers of both Wiz Khalifa and the late Mac Miller. While an undergraduate student at NYU, Plantin cut her teeth in the industry as an intern in the A&R admin department at Elektra Records, then helmed by Sylvia Rhone and whose roster included Busta Rhymes, Missy Elliott and Ol' Dirty Bastard. Nicole's professional journey crystallized at Star Trak in 2001, where she joined president and CEO Rob Walker in managing the day-to-day operations of a label partnership with Arista Records, as well as the management needs of artists and producers like The Neptunes and Kelis. As the A&R coordinator for all of the label's releases, Plantin is credited on notable projects such as Clipse's ‘Hell Hath No Fury', Kelis's ‘Tasty', N*E*R*D's ‘Fly Or Die', and more. Following five successful years at Star Trak, Nicole was enlisted by super producer Rich Harrison to help launch his joint venture with Atlantic/Richcraft Records. Shortly after the label folded, Nicole was offered a role at BMI as the Director of Writer/Publisher Relations in Los Angeles, where she was responsible for discovering new talent such as Jhene Aiko, Schoolboy Q, Nipsey Hussle, Joey Bada$$, T-Minus (Nicki Minaj, Drake), Illangelo (The Wknd) and more, and signing them to their roster—a position that reflects one of the most important parts of her career. As a multidimensional executive with both a flair for tastemaking and a mastery of the business of the music industry, Plantin “connects the dots” in ways that align nurturing artist's creative talents with the promise of success. While at BMI, Plantin brought a much-needed showcase to the west coast with Next Fresh Thing, a series whose stage was graced by L.A.-based artistsMiguel, Dom Kennedy, Big Sean, Priscilla Rhenea (now Muni Long) among others. After five years at BMI, Nicole returned to working on the label side of the business with the desire to work more intimately with artists and their projects. As VP of A&R at Rostrum, Nicole worked alongside President and founder, Benjy Grinberg to oversee the curation and growth of the label as it entered into its next phase. While there, she took on the projects of existing artists Mod Sun and Vali (now Emotional Oranges), and signed a variety of talent reflective of the many diverse sounds emerging from regions throughout the US and the UK. Her signings included DC rapper Inannet James who was deemed “one of the best new talents in hip-hop” and whose album Keep it Clean “one of best projects, front to back of the year” by the lifestyle publication Hypebeast. Other signings included UK R&B singer-songwriter Taliwhoah, DC rapper Kelow Latesha, Atlanta based multi hyphenate Natalie Lauren and Baton Rouge rapper Caleb Brown. Nicole sits on the board of the Recording Academy. In her spare time, Nicole volunteers as a Grammy NEXT and Next Gen Femme mentor, travels and collects art. Nicole is also the creator and host of the podcast Soeur Lab which highlights creative womxn who drive culture and set trends from behind the scenes.
When I was a teenager in Eastern Pennsylvania in the 1960s I was a dedicated reader of Sing Out! Magazine. I couldn't always afford to buy a copy but the music store where I took guitar lessons let me read each new issue as I waited for my bus home. I also loved the reprints from Sing Out! and usually bought those when they came out. They helped me become more aware of the folk music revival and many contemporary artists. I first heard of Woody Guthrie from the pages of those reprints. I had an LP of some of his classic recordings and was aware of Bob Dylan's “Song to Woody” when I read of his passing in the pages of Sing Out! in 1967. “Home in this World,” is a collection of new renditions of some of his Dust Bowl ballads, on Elektra Records. We'll celebrate that recording with selections from the new CD mixed with classic versions of Woody's Songs and songs about him … this week on the Sing Out! Radio Magazine.Pete Seeger / “If I Had A Hammer”(excerpt) / Songs of Hope and Struggle / Smithsonian Folkways Milnes and Hammond / “Sandy River Belle” / Hell Up Coal Holler / ShanachieShovels and Rope / “Dust Bowl Blues” / Home in this World-Woody Guthrie's Dust Bowl Ballads / ElektraWoody Guthrie / “Talking Dust Bowl Blues” / The Ultimate Collection / Not NowJohn McCutcheon / “Ludlow Massacre” / This Land: Woody Guthrie's America / AppalsongsThe Duhks / “Pretty Boy Floyd-Stoney Point” / Your Daughters & Your Sons / Sugar HillRamblin' Jack Elliot / “New York Town” / Jack Elliot Sings Songs of Woody Guthrie / Prestige-FolkloreRy Cooder / “Jesus and Woody” / The Prodigal Son / FantasyMilnes and Hammond / “Red Buck-Jodie-West Fork Girls” / Hell Up Coal Holler / ShanachieWatkins Family Hour / “Blowin' Down this Dusty Road” / Home in this World-Woody Guthrie's Dust Bowl Ballads / ElektraWoody Guthrie w/ Cisco Houston / “Train Ride Medley Part 1&2” / Long Ways to Travel / Smithsonian FolkwaysThe Maddox Brothers & Rose / “Philadelphia Lawyer” / Vol.1 / ArhoolieWill Geer / “Reading Woody Guthrie” / Folkways The Original Vision / Smithsonian FolkwaysPete Seeger / “If I Had A Hammer”(excerpt) / Songs of Hope and Struggle / Smithsonian Folkways
ABOUT DESMOND CHILD AND LIVIN' ON A PRAYER: BIG SONGS, BiG LIFEDesmond Child is the iconic Grammy® Award winning and Emmy nominated songwriter / producer who has contributed to some of the biggest global hits that helped ignite the success of music icons KISS, Bon Jovi, Aerosmith, Alice Cooper, Ricky Martin, Katy Perry, and countless others. Desmond is gearing up for the release of his first-ever memoir, “LIVIN' ON A PRAYER: BIG SONGS BIG LIFE” (out Sept. 19) – his personal story of anguish and struggle that reveals how he climbed his way to the top and beyond amid extraordinary circumstances. Sharing his very intimate and unbelievable journey that shaped him into an artist of international renown, the book features a foreword by Paul Stanley, in collaboration with legendary music biographer David Ritz.Having co-written over 80 Top 40 hits and selling over 500 million records worldwide, Desmond's contributions to the music industry have earned him induction into the Songwriters Hall of Fame, the Latin Songwriters Hall of Fame, and multiple prestigious awards. For over half a century, Desmond has collaborated with the world's most celebrated artists creating timeless classics, such as Bon Jovi's "Livin' On A Prayer" and "You Give Love A Bad Name," as well as Ricky Martin's "Livin' La Vida Loca" and "The Cup Of Life," amongst his vast catalog. But in "LIVIN' ON A PRAYER: BIG SONGS BIG LIFE," Desmond himself takes center stage to share his transformational story of a misfit outsider to cultural pacesetter.In the upcoming title, Desmond recounts his unconventional upbringing as his colorful family fled revolutionary Cuba for Florida in the 1960s and fell into poverty. He details his shocking discovery at age 18 that the man he called "dad" was not his biological father after all, and he courageously bares his soul about navigating the trials of being a Latino gay man in the macho world of Rock 'n' Roll. His is a story of willing himself to succeed and overcoming impossible odds to establish himself as one of the most influential composers and lyricists of all time.In an interview, Desmond can discuss the following:The triumphs, challenges, and lessons he's learned throughout his career * Inspiring others to embrace their own creative pursuits, overcome obstacles, and live their dreams to the fullestRevealing untold stories about the making of the hit songs that have become the soundtrack of our lives.Recounting the magic and inspiration behind each composition, while shedding light on what it's like to collaborate with music legends.Lessons from a maestro with invaluable resources for aspiring artists and industry professionals alike to understand songwriting, production, and the music industryDESMOND CHILD BIOGrammy-winning and Emmy-nominated songwriter Desmond Child is one of music's most prolific and accomplished hitmakers. He's a film, television, theater and music producer, recording artist, performer, and author. His credits appear on more than eighty Billboard Top 40 singles spanning six decades, including "Livin' On A Prayer," "You Give Love A Bad Name," "I Was Made For Lovin' You," "Dude Looks Like A Lady," "How Can We Be Lovers If We Can't Be Friends," "I Hate Myself For Loving You," "Livin' La Vida Loca," "The Cup Of Life," "Waking Up In Vegas," "Kings & Queens" and many more.From Aerosmith to Zedd, his genre-defying collaborations also include KISS, Bon Jovi, Cher, Barbra Streisand, Ricky Martin, Alice Cooper, Joan Jett, Michael Bolton, Katy Perry, Kelly Clarkson, Carrie Underwood, Garth Brooks, Cyndi Lauper, Christina Aguilera, Ava Max, Mickey Mouse and Kermit the Frog, selling over 500 million records worldwide with downloads, YouTube views and streaming plays in the billions.Desmond Child was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2008 and serves on its Board of Directors as well as the Board of ASCAP. In 2018 he received ASCAP's prestigious Founders Award celebrating 40 years as a proud member of ASCAP. In 2012 he also co-founded the Latin Songwriters Hall Of Fame where he serves as Chairman Emeritus. In 2022, he was inducted into the Latin Songwriters Hall Of Fame and "Livin' La Vida Loca" was inducted into the National Archives of the Library of Congress for its cultural significance to America. In 2023, "Livin' On A Prayer" was certified to have reached 1 billion streams on Spotify.Personal HistoryBA in Music Education from New York University 1976AA of Art from Miami Dade Community College 1974Graduated Miami Beach High School 1972Born John Charles Barrett October 28th, 1953Artist HistoryThe single, "Love on a Rooftop" charts Top 40 1990Released, "Discipline" through Elektra Records 19901st Top 40 hit, "Our Love Is Insane" Spring of 1979Musical guest on Saturday Night Live (original cast) Xmas show of 1979First U.S. Tour including legendary performances at The Bottom Line in NYC and The Whisky a Go Go in LA 1979Released first self-titled album, "Desmond Child & Rouge" 1979First signed to Capitol Records with group Desmond Child & Rouge 1978Billboard #1 Hits4th Billboard #1 "Livin' La Vida Loca" 19993rd Billboard #1 "Bad Medicine" Bon Jovi 19882nd Billboard #1 "Livin' On A Prayer" Bon Jovi 19871st Billboard #1 "You Give Love A Bad Name" Bon Jovi 19861st International #1 "I Was Made For Lovin' You" KISS 1979Honors & AwardsASCAP Founders Award 2018Songwriters Hall of Fame Inductee 2008Miami Beach High Wall of Fame (alongside Barbara Walters, Mickey Rourke, Andy Garcia)TAXI Lifetime Achievement Award 2004Emmy Award nomination for "Everyone Matters" The Muppets 2003Latin Grammy Award - Rock Album of the Year Alejandra Guzman 2001NARAS Florida Chapter Heroes Award 2000Grammy Nomination - Best Pop Album, Ricky Martin 2000Grammy Nomination - Record of the Year, "Livin' La Vida Loca" 2000Grammy Nomination - Song of the Year, "Livin' La Vida Loca" 2000Honored with Key Of The City of Miami Beach 1999El Premio Award - Song Of The Year "Livin' La Vida Loca" 1999Official World Cup Song - "La Copa De La Vida", "The Cup Of Life" 1998El Premio Award - Song Of The Year, "La Copa De La Vida", "The Cup Of Life" 1998Songs Recorded By:Aerosmith, Christina Aguilera, Clay Aiken, Animotion, Baha Men, Jimmy Barnes, Robin Beck, Beggars & Thieves, Stephanie Bentley, Petra Berger, Bif Naked, Blackhawk, Michael Bolton, Bon Jovi, Bonfire, Boyzone, Flavio Cesar, Bill Champlin, Chayanne, Judy Cheeks, Cher, Chicago, Kelly Clarkson, Clarence Clemons, Alice Cooper, Carlos Cuevos, Paul Dean, Diana DeGarmo, Desmond Child & Rouge, Dudes of Wrath, Dream Theater, Hilary Duff, Evil Stig, FM, Ellen Foley, Ace Frehley, The Gufs, Haddaway, Hall & Oates, Hanson, Chesney Hawkes, Ty Herndon, INXS, Joan Jett, Cletus T. Judd, KISS, Patti La Belle, Nikki Leonti, La Ley, Dan Lucas, Cyndi Lauper, Mitch Malloy, Amanda Marshall, Ricky Martin, Jesse McCartney, Stephanie McIntosh, Meat Loaf, Megadeth, Mika, Millie, Billie Myers, Alannah Myles, Vince Neil, Ru Paul, Chynna Phillips, Phoenix Down, Iggy Pop, Jason Raize, The Rasmus, RATT, LeAnn Rimes, Kane Roberts, Rosco, Roxette, Jennifer Rush, Richie Sambora, Saraya, Scorpions, Shakira, Sia, Sisqo, Southgang, Billy Squier, Paul Stanley, Barbra Streisand, Swirl 360, 3rd Faze, Bonnie Tyler, Kris Tyler, Carrie Underwood, Steve Vai, Maria Vidal, Anna Vissi, John Waite, Tim Weisberg, Robbie Williams, Peter Wolf and Trisha YearwoodLivin' On A Prayer: Big Songs Big Life available on Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/Livin-Prayer-Big-Songs-Life-ebook/dp/B0BZT9MK68?ref_=ast_author_mpb
Agradece a este podcast tantas horas de entretenimiento y disfruta de episodios exclusivos como éste. ¡Apóyale en iVoox! Colabora Con Biblioteca Del Metal: En Twitter - @Anarkometal72 Y Donanos Unas Propinas En BAT. Para Seguir Con El Proyecto De la Biblioteca Mas Grande Del Metal. Muchisimas Gracias. La Tienda De Biblioteca Del Metal: Encontraras, Ropa, Accesorios,Decoracion, Ect... Todo Relacionado Al Podcats Biblioteca Del Metal Y Al Mundo Del Heavy Metal. Descubrela!!!!!! Ideal Para Llevarte O Regalar Productos Del Podcats De Ivoox. (Por Tiempo Limitado) https://teespring.com/es/stores/biblioteca-del-metal-1 Tracklist: 0:00 Fight Fire With Fire 4:47 Blackened 11:26 Master Of Puppets 20:05 Metal Militia 25:16 Through The Never 29:23 One 37:07 The Four Horsemen 44:20 Welcome Home (Sanitarium) 50:48 Trapped Under Ice 54:54 The Thing That Should Not Be 1:01:31 Holier Than Thou 1:05:22 Creeping Death 1:11:58 Disposable Heroes 1:20:15 Seek and Destroy 1:27:09 Ride The Lightning 1:33:47 Battery 1:39:04 The Call of Ktulu Metallica es una banda estadounidense, originaria de Los Ángeles, pero con base en San Francisco desde febrero de 1983. Fue fundada en 1981 en Los Ángeles por Lars Ulrich y James Hetfield, a los que se les unirían Dave Mustaine y Ron McGovney. Estos dos músicos fueron después sustituidos por el guitarrista Kirk Hammett y el bajista Cliff Burton respectivamente, Dave Mustaine fue despedido un año después de ingresar en la banda debido a su excesiva adicción al alcohol y su actitud violenta, siendo sustituido por Kirk Hammett (exguitarrista de Exodus). Ron renuncia a la banda debido al mal comportamiento de Dave Mustaine, el cual era violento y problemático cuando estaba bajo el efecto del alcohol. El colmo fue cuando Mustaine mojó el bajo de Ron con cerveza, él sin saberlo lo conectó, recibiendo una descarga eléctrica. Es entonces, tras contactar con Cliff Burton que la banda se traslada a San Francisco. (Cabe resaltar que Ron sabía que lo iban a despedir y sustituir por Cliff Burton). Por otra parte, el 27 de septiembre de 1986, fue la muerte de Cliff Burton en un accidente de autobús en Suecia, durante una de sus giras, esto provocó la entrada al grupo de Jason Newsted, quien, tras su abandono quince años más tarde, sería sustituido por el bajista actual, Robert Trujillo. Hasta la fecha, la banda ha editado 10 álbumes de estudio, siendo el último de estos Hardwired to Self Destruct el cual fue lanzado mundialmente el 18 de noviembre del 2016. Las ventas totales de Metallica superan los 120 millones, y se les considera parte de los cuatro grandes del thrash metal, junto con Megadeth, Slayer y Anthrax. Además, el grupo ha conseguido numerosos premios musicales, entre los que destacan nueve Grammys, dos premios otorgados por la cadena musical MTV, dos galardones de la Academia de Música Americana (American Music Awards) y dos premios de la revista Billboard, además de pertenecer desde el año 2009 al Salón de la fama del Rock y poseer una estrella en el Paseo de la Fama de la revista Kerrang! Se considera que la historia de Metallica comenzó en 1980 cuando el joven Lars Ulrich, originario de Gentofte, Dinamarca, se trasladó con su familia a Los Ángeles. Hijo del tenista profesional Torben Ulrich, Ulrich había desarrollado una enorme afición por el heavy metal durante los años 70, cuando la NWOBHM (Nueva Ola de Heavy Metal Británico) tenía gran auge en la escena underground europea. Con su traslado a Estados Unidos, planeado por su padre con el objetivo original de preparar una carrera dentro del tenis profesional, dicha afición de Ulrich se convertiría prácticamente en una obsesión, que se concentraba especialmente en grupos desconocidos de la nueva corriente inglesa. Su prioridad al llegar a Los Ángeles fue la de explotar su capacidad musical junto con otros jóvenes, lo que le llevó en 1981 a publicar un anuncio en la revista Recycler, en el que solicitaba un guitarrista para formar una banda con influencias de las bandas de la NWOBHM, concretamente sus bandas preferidas: Diamond Head, Def Leppard, Iron Maiden y Tygers of Pan Tang. El joven James Hetfield, hijo de un propietario de una compañía de camiones y de una cantante de ópera que educaron a sus hijos en la Ciencia Cristiana, respondió a su anuncio. Comenzaron a ensayar juntos y, aunque al principio a Hetfield no le convencía la forma de tocar de Ulrich, finalmente formaron una banda. La clave de esta unión fue el tema que tenía reservado por parte de su amigo Brian Slagel, fundador de la compañía discográfica, entonces recién creada, Metal Blade Records, en el primer recopilatorio que editaría el sello, titulado Metal Massacre. El nombre del grupo fue idea de un amigo de Lars llamado Ron Quintana, quien tenía "Metalmania" y "Metallica" como posibles nombres para un nuevo fanzine musical, aunque se inclinaba más por el segundo. A Ulrich le gustó tanto "Metallica" que rápidamente le recomendó (a Quintana) que llamara "Metalmania" al fanzine. Así, la banda de Ulrich y Hetfield tomó el nombre Metallica. Ulrich se trasladó al local que Hetfield poseía junto a su amigo Ron McGovney, el cual provenía de una familia acomodada que poseía numerosas propiedades. Hetfield le pidió a McGovney que tocara el bajo en la banda y se ofreció a enseñarle. Al contrario de lo que se rumoreaba, Ron no fue el diseñador del logotipo de la Metallica. En una entrevista de la banda concedida a la cadena ABC, el propio James Hetfiled, afirmó haberlo dibujado el a partir de un simple boceto. Tras incesantes intentos de conseguir un guitarrista solista influido por Motörhead y Iron Maiden, encontraron a Lloyd Grant, un joven guitarrista afroamericano con quien tocaron la primera demo de Metallica, titulada Hit the Lights (1981). Lloyd, que pensaba quedarse poco tiempo más en la banda, fue al poco tiempo sustituido por Dave Mustaine en la guitarra líder, completando así la primera formación de Metallica, ya que en Mustaine encontraron a la persona ideal para cerrar la formación. El primer paso fue la grabación del tema para la primera entrega de Metal Massacre. El elegido sería "Hit the Lights", tema que provenía de la anterior banda de Hetfield, Leather Charm, considerado uno de los primeros temas del thrash metal. El debut de Metallica en directo tendría lugar el 14 de marzo de 1982 en el club Radio City de Anaheim, en una actuación en la que la falta de experiencia sobre el escenario ocasionó serios problemas a la banda. Dos semanas más tarde tendrían la oportunidad de enmendar su error abriendo dos noches seguidas para los ingleses Saxon en el local Whiskey-A-Go-Go de Los Ángeles. Cabe decir que dentro del libreto del álbum de versiones que la banda realizó en 1998 titulado Garage Inc pueden encontrarse reproducidas las notas que el propio Ulrich tomó en aquel momento sobre la marcha de estos dos conciertos, incluyendo los setlists de ambas noches y las impresiones del batería sobre la marcha de las mismas. La decepción que ocasionó a la banda estos dos malos conciertos hizo que se replanteasen la contratación de un vocalista mientras Hetfield y Mustaine fuesen los dos guitarristas de la banda. Para ello se contrató a Sammy Dijon, exvocalista de la banda Ruthless, quien realizó algunas pruebas pero que no fue finalmente admitido en el seno del grupo, por lo que fue despedido. En abril de 1982 se contrató a otro guitarrista, Damien Phillips (de nombre real Brad Parker), para actuar como tal mientras Hetfield se concentraba delante del micrófono, pero también fue despedido después de su primera actuación con la banda debido a la negativa de Mustaine a que hubiese un tercer guitarrista. Posteriormente se barajaron varios cantantes, entre los cuales estaban John Bush, futuro vocalista de Armored Saint, y Jesse Cox de Tygers of Pan Tang. Ninguno fue admitido, motivo por el que Hetfield pasó a encargarse tanto de la segunda guitarra como de la voz desde aquel momento. En un ensayo realizado en la antigua escuela de Lars Ulrich, el vocalista fue Jeff Warner, del que se cuenta que no fue aceptado porque desafinaba demasiado. Con la edición de Metal Massacre en el mes de julio de 1982, el grupo, tras renegar de la versión de "Hit the Lights" aparecida en el mismo por encontrarse completamente desfasada de lo que constituía su nuevo sonido, decidió grabar su primer demo, titulado No Life 'til Leather, primera estrofa de la canción Hit the Lights. Siete temas formarían parte de este demo, entre los que se encuentra una versión mucho más potente y acelerada de "Hit the Lights". Con una agenda de conciertos cada vez más ajustada, Hetfield y Ulrich comenzaron a plantearse la sustitución de McGovney. Años después, este dijo en una entrevista que el resto de la banda le dejaba que se encargara de todo. Es en ese momento cuando empiezan a aparecer los problemas con Dave Mustaine, derivados de un carácter extremadamente violento unido al consumo extremo de alcohol y drogas. Conocedor de la necesidad de Metallica de reclutar un nuevo bajista, Brian Slagel recomienda a Lars y James la banda Trauma, que acababa de editar uno de sus temas en la segunda entrega de Metal Massacre. Hetfield y Ulrich quedarían totalmente impresionados con la destreza y presencia en el escenario de su bajista, Cliff Burton, ofreciéndole inmediatamente el entrar a formar parte de Metallica, lo cual sería inicialmente rechazado por Burton. Aún con McGovney en sus filas, grabarían el 29 de noviembre del mismo año (1982) un demo en directo en el The Waldorf de San Francisco, que recibiría el nombre de Live Metal Up Your Ass y en la que estrenarían el tema "Whiplash", inédito hasta entonces. El concierto tendría como teloneros a Exodus, cuyo guitarrista líder, un joven Kirk Hammett, causaría una gran impresión en James y Lars Ulrich, que ante los crecientes problemas con Mustaine comenzaron a considerarlo como un reemplazo perfecto. Poco tiempo después McGovney decidió dejar Metallica al oír que habían estado estableciendo contactos con Cliff Burton, para incorporarse a Phantasm, al contrario de la creencia popular de que fue despedido. Posteriormente declaró: "Nunca escuché 'Estás despedido' o algo así de parte de ellos. Yo renuncié, aunque es obvio que, aunque no hubiera renunciado, me iban a despedir de todas maneras". Al mismo tiempo, Cliff Burton, quien estaba teniendo problemas con Trauma debido a la dirección que el resto de los integrantes querían tomar con respecto a su música, decidió pasarse a las filas de Metallica. La única condición no negociable que puso el bajista fue que la banda se trasladase a San Francisco, donde los nuevos sonidos relacionados con el thrash comenzaban a generar una legión de seguidores que recibió el nombre de "Bay Area Bangers". En cualquier caso, Hetfield, Ulrich y Mustaine ya estaban pensando en mudarse a San Francisco, puesto que habían observado la energía y el entusiasmo de la escena thrash de esa ciudad, además de porque la escena de Los Ángeles estaba dominada por el cada vez más famoso glam metal, con bandas como Mötley Crüe, Dokken, Quiet Riot, Cinderella y Ratt. A principios de 1983, el mánager y promotor de conciertos Johnny Zazula (con la ayuda de su mujer) se puso en contacto con el grupo para ofrecerles un traslado a Nueva York, con la idea de organizar varios conciertos en la Costa Este y, si todo marchaba bien, grabar un álbum. Tras aceptar la oferta, Metallica inició el viaje el 1 de abril, y tras atravesar todo el país, fijaron su nuevo lugar de residencia en el Music Building de Nueva York, un edificio en el que cohabitaban con varias bandas de rock, entre las que se encontraba Anthrax, iniciando amistad y camaradería entre los dos grupos. A los diez días de su llegada a Nueva York, la situación con Mustaine se hizo insostenible, con lo que Hetfield y Ulrich sorprendieron a un Mustaine recién despierto para anunciarle que estaba fuera del grupo y que en un breve plazo salía el autobús que habían reservado para su vuelta a casa (posteriormente Dave fundaría Megadeth). Los integrantes ya estaban preparados para esto. Le pidieron a Zazula que se pusiese en contacto con el guitarrista de Exodus, Kirk Hammett, para unirse a la banda. Al principio, Kirk creía que la llamada de Zazula era una broma, pero finalmente aceptó. De forma simultánea a la expulsión de Dave, Kirk Hammett dejaba Exodus y se disponía a salir hacia Nueva York, llegando esa misma noche a altas horas de la madrugada. Alumno de Joe Satriani, Hammett introduciría un sonido más melódico, técnico y estilizado en Metallica, que se haría patente a partir del segundo álbum del grupo, puesto que el primero estaba compuesto en su totalidad en el momento de su entrada. El debut del nuevo guitarrista tendría lugar en el neoyorquino "Showplace" abriendo para The Rods. Tras un mes de ensayos, Metallica entraría finalmente el 10 de mayo en los "Music America Studios" para grabar su primer álbum. El tracklisting sería prácticamente igual que el de No Life 'til Leather, incluyendo como novedades el tema "Whiplash", ya aparecido en Live Metal Up Your Ass, y el solo de bajo que Burton solía ejecutar en los conciertos, bajo el nombre de "(Anesthesia) Pulling Teeth". Además, también se incluiría una versión remozada del tema "The Mechanix", añadiendo nuevos riffs y rebautizándola como "The Four Horsemen". La producción correría a cargo de Paul Curcio, propietario de los estudios e ingeniero residente. Su trabajo levantó suspicacias por parte del grupo debido a la diferencia de criterios con respecto al sonido del álbum que quería imprimirle la banda. Tras seis semanas, el primer trabajo de Metallica sería lanzado en el mes de julio bajo el nombre Kill 'em All. Dicho nombre (Mátalos a Todos) provenía de una frase de Cliff Burton a causa del enfado que produjo en el grupo la negativa de diversas distribuidoras de discos a comercializar el álbum con el título que el grupo quería darle, Metal Up Your Ass (Metal por el culo). Zazula, incapaz de encontrar una compañía discográfica interesada en publicar el disco, optó finalmente por la fundación de un sello propio, Megaforce Records. Se consiguió la cifra de 17.000 copias vendidas en las dos primeras semanas, y sobre todo, Kill 'em All contribuyó notablemente a extender la buena reputación de Metallica, recibiendo una avalancha de críticas favorables por parte de la prensa, que ya comenzaba a verlos como los iniciadores de una nueva corriente en el metal. Posteriormente, la cifra de copias vendidas del disco llegaría hasta las 300.000. Como forma de promoción, Zazula organizaría un tour conjunto con Raven, Quiet Riot y Y&T que los llevaría por todo Estados Unidos, constando de 35 fechas y bautizado como Kill 'em All For One Tour (el álbum que Raven se encontraba promocionando se llamaba All For One). Posteriormente, y tras varios conciertos en San Francisco, Nueva York y Boston, y prácticamente coincidiendo con la edición en Europa del sencillo "Jump in the Fire" por parte del sello Music for Nations, el 3 de febrero de 1984 se inició la gira europea Seven Dates of Hell, en la que se encargan de abrir para los ingleses Venom, teniendo como momento cumbre la participación en el Aardshock Festival en Países Bajos, tocando ante más de 5000 personas, la audiencia más grande que habían tenido hasta el momento. Terminada la gira, Metallica entraría el 20 de febrero en los Sweet Silence Studios de Copenhague para la grabación de su segundo álbum, recayendo todo el peso de la producción en el ingeniero residente Flemming Rasmussen, quien ya había trabajado anteriormente con bandas como Mercyful Fate y Rainbow y posteriormente con Sepultura, Danger Danger y Blind Guardian. El ajustado presupuesto del que Zazula disponía se convirtió en el principal problema durante la grabación del álbum, que transcurrió a un ritmo frenético durante menos de un mes, quedando finalizada el 14 de marzo, y viéndose solo interrumpida por el fallido tour Hell On Earth junto a The Rods y Exciter, finalmente cancelado por la escasa venta de entradas. A la considerable evolución mostrada en estos temas se unía el rumor latente de que el grupo estaba trabajando en una balada, lo que provocó cierta agitación dentro del sector más extremo de los fanáticos de la banda. Ride the Lightning, nombre que recibiría finalmente el álbum, supondría un gran cambio en el sonido de la banda, que se adentraba en terrenos mucho más melódicos. Las labores de composición contaron con la colaboración de Burton y Mustaine. También se confirmó el rumor la inclusión de una balada, que recibiría el título de "Fade to Black". Fue escrita por Hetfield inspirándose en el robo de equipo que la banda sufrió el 14 de enero de aquel mismo año (1984),. La primera aparición de la banda en los escenarios tras la grabación tendría lugar en dos sold-out en el londinense Marquee, tras lo cual se harían diversos conciertos en Alemania, Países Bajos y Bélgica. El momento más importante de este tour llegaría el 3 de agosto en el "Roseland" de Nueva York, donde tendrían un primer contacto con el sello Elektra Records, y en el que, tras el concierto, iniciarían las negociaciones con Peter Mensch y Cliff Burnstein de la agencia Q-Prime, la cual finalmente acabaría comprando el contrato de Metallica a Johnny Zazula. Probablemente es este hecho el que fomentaría las conversaciones de la banda con Elektra, que acabaría fichándolos el 12 de septiembre tras firmar un contrato en el que se otorgaba al grupo el control artístico absoluto sobre su carrera. El primer movimiento de Elektra tras reclutar a Metallica sería reeditar Ride the Lightning bajo su sello el 19 de noviembre, a la vez que Music for Nations, con la que Zazula tenía un acuerdo aún vigente tras el fichaje por Elektra, edita en Europa el sencillo "Creeping Death", que contendría la suite The Garage Days Re-visited, formada por las versiones "Am I Evil?" de Diamond Head y "Blitzkrieg" de la banda con el mismo nombre. A su vez, se inicia un nuevo tour europeo, esta vez coordinado por Q-Prime con Robert Allen como mánager de la gira, que dio comienzo en la francesa ciudad de Rusen el 16 de noviembre y finalizó en el London Lyceum de Londres el 20 de diciembre tras haber visitado Francia, Alemania, Dinamarca, Suecia, Suiza, Italia, Finlandia e Inglaterra con un enorme éxito de público. Finalizada la gira europea, y tras un descanso por Navidad, Metallica inició el 11 de enero de 1985 un tour por Estados Unidos y Canadá junto a Armored Saint, Helix y los W.A.S.P. de Blackie Lawless, con quienes la banda tuvo varios roces debido al supuesto ego de dicho frontman. Sería durante esta gira cuando la banda comienza a ser conocida como "Alcohólica" por sus excesos con el alcohol. A esto se uniría el cartel que colocaron en dicho autobús, "No se ría, señor. Su hija probablemente esté dentro", que daba una idea de la actitud desenfadada del grupo. Tras más de tres meses en la carretera, la gira tendría su final en el Starry Night Club de Portland. Pasados dos años de gira, volvieron a los Sweet Silence Studios. De allí surgió Master of Puppets, uno de los discos más alabados dentro del heavy metal, la canción principal homónima está considerada por muchos seguidores de la banda como la mejor de Metallica. El disco ha vendido hasta la fecha más de 7 millones de copias en todo el mundo, a pesar de que solo llegó en su día al puesto 29 del Billboard. La gira de presentación del disco comenzó en verano de 1986 con el guitarrista rítmico John Marshall, ya que Hetfield se había quebrado la muñeca en un accidente de skateboard. En dicha gira, esta vez en Europa y con Hetfield recuperado, el autobús de la gira circulaba por las carreteras suecas a las 6:15 horas de la mañana del 27 de septiembre; Cliff se encontraba durmiendo en la litera asignada a Kirk Hammett (debido a que este último había perdido en una apuesta), y repentinamente el autobús volcó cerca del pueblo de Ljungby, mientras que Hammett, Ulrich y Hetfield no sufrieron daños físicos preocupantes, el autobús cayó sobre el cuerpo del bajista, tras salir despedido por la ventana, causándole la muerte de forma instantánea. Según el conductor, el autobús derrapó debido a las placas de hielo que había en la carretera, lo que ocasionó el vuelco; Hetfield, furioso por lo sucedido, intentó golpear al conductor, siendo detenido por sus compañeros. Posteriormente recorrió una distancia considerable de la carretera buscando las placas, pero no encontró nada. En el funeral de Burton, se escuchó el tema «Orion». Su muerte provocó la suspensión de la gira de la banda y la retirada de los tres miembros restantes para pensar al respecto de su futuro. Finalmente, y después de consultar a los familiares del fallecido bajista, decidieron continuar con la carrera musical de la banda, y reclutaron al bajista Jason Newsted de la banda Flotsam and Jetsam, en lugar de Cliff, puesto para el cual también optó Jeff Pilson entre más de 40 músicos. Al año siguiente la banda volvería a Europa para completar la gira con su nuevo bajista. En su primera actuación con Metallica, Newsted tocó un solo de bajo, lo que provocó un descontento entre los seguidores de la banda, quienes consideraron esto como una falta de respeto hacia Burton. En 1987 lanzarían un gran álbum de versiones de las bandas que les influyeron titulado Garage Days Re-Revisited para introducir a Newsted a los seguidores de la banda. El nombre proviene de las sesiones de grabación de dicho álbum en el garaje de Ulrich. Un año después lanzarían un nuevo disco, titulado ...And Justice for All. Es su álbum más oscuro, con un sonido dominado por ritmos de batería densos y muy acelerados, de gran complejidad. Pese a lo que podría parecer, es un trabajo menos melódico que sus predecesores, con un ambiente negativo, y unas letras más cercanas a la crítica social, política e incluso ecológica ("Blackened"). Destacan los temas "One" (canción con el primer videoclip grabado por la banda, recogiendo escenas de la película Johnny cogió su fusil; con este videoclip, la banda comenzó a ganar fama en el ámbito mainstream, "To Live Is to Die" (dedicado a Cliff Burton basándose en los bocetos de una canción que se encontraba componiendo en la que se oye un poema compuesto por el desaparecido bajista a pesar de ser un tema instrumental), "...And Justice for All" y "Blackened". Esta producción marcó un hito en el equipamiento de las guitarras de Metallica, ya que dejan sus full stacks valvulares Marshall, pasando a utilizar la Mesa Boogie, obteniendo un sonido mucho más agresivo. Algunas de las escasas críticas que recibió al disco se basan en, a pesar de la evolución, la poca calidad en la producción, señalando el "fino zumbido" de las guitarras, el "clickeo" de la batería, y el escaso volumen que tiene el bajo, el cual casi no se percibe siendo imposible de atisbar en muchos momentos. A pesar de estas características, el álbum ha vendido hasta la fecha más de 8 millones de copias, a pesar de tener una promoción casi nula sin ningún tipo de repercusión en canales de televisión como MTV. Gracias a este trabajo, Metallica recibe su primera nominación a los premios Grammy en 1989, en la categoría de Mejor Interpretación Vocal o Instrumental de Hard Rock/Metal. Contra todo pronóstico, el ganador del premio fue el álbum Crest of a Knave de Jethro Tull, quienes no acudieron a la gala. Lars Ulrich se referiría a ellos después de ganar el Grammy en 1992 en la misma categoría por el álbum homónimo de la formación: "Queremos dar las gracias a Jethro Tull por no haber sacado ningún disco este año". Su siguiente trabajo, llamado Metallica pero mejor conocido como The Black Album se publicó en 1991 y contó con la producción de Bob Rock, mejor conocido por su trabajo con Bon Jovi, Tankard y Mötley Crüe, entre otros. Con canciones como "Enter Sandman", "Holier Than Thou", "Sad But True", "The Unforgiven", "Don't Tread On Me", "Through the Never", "My Friend Of Misery", "The God That Failed", "The Struggle Within", "Of Wolf and Man", "Wherever I May Roam" y "Nothing Else Matters", vendió más de 500.000 copias en su primera semana en Estados Unidos, llegando al primer puesto en la lista del Billboard, en parte gracias a su carácter más comercial. Solo en aquel país, la Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) certificó catorce millones de copias vendidas desde su lanzamiento. El nombre popular del disco The Black Album (El álbum negro) proviene de la portada, que solo contiene el logo de Metallica en la esquina superior izquierda y el dibujo de una serpiente en la esquina inferior derecha, todo ello sobre un fondo negro. Hetfield explicó posteriormente esta composición y dijo que la banda quería que la gente se fijase en la música que contenía el álbum, y no en el simbolismo ni en el diseño artístico. La canción "Enter Sandman" ocupa el puesto #408 entre las 500 mejores canciones de todos los tiempos en la lista de Rolling Stone . Posteriormente, la banda realizó la gira Wherever We May Roam Tour, que duró dos años. Luego inició otra junto a Guns N' Roses. El 8 de agosto de 1992 en Montreal, Canadá, durante este tour, la actuación de Metallica terminó abruptamente debido a que, durante la canción "Fade To Black", un fuego artificial explotó debajo de James Hetfield provocándole graves quemaduras. Asimismo, una afección de garganta del vocalista Axl Rose no le permitió tocar a Guns N' Roses. La breve actuación de Metallica y la cancelación del show de Guns N' Roses provocaron la ira de los fanes, que causaron múltiples destrozos y en los incidentes hubo algunos heridos. En 1993, la banda editó el box set Live Shit: Binge and Purge, que contiene tres CD y dos conciertos en vídeo grabados en la Ciudad de México, en Seattle y en San Diego. Originalmente fue lanzado como una caja de cartulina como si fuera equipo de un tour. Aparte de los CD y los DVD, la caja contiene material adicional como un libro a color de setenta y cinco páginas. Su disco homónimo, conocido popularmente como The Black Album marcaría un punto de inflexión en la carrera musical de Metallica, y sus dos discos consecutivos titulados Load (1996) y ReLoad (1997), de estilos idénticos entre sí ya que estaban pensados para formar un mismo álbum doble, están totalmente dominados por un sonido que muchos antiguos seguidores consideraron como más comercial y muy suavizado con letras menos duras, más cercano al metal alternativo que triunfaba en aquella época. Quizás el cambio más llamativo para sus seguidores fue el cambio de imagen: se cortaron las melenas y cambiaron el fácilmente reconocible logotipo que identificaba a Metallica. Esto se vio también reflejado en el cambio de sello discográfico, ya que las relaciones entre Elektra Records y la banda finalizaron después de casi diez años cobrando solo un 14% de los beneficios netos de Metallica, aunque acabarían reanudando su contrato poco después. El éxito de ambos álbumes no fue tan contundente como el del álbum negro. Muchos adolescentes se convirtieron en seguidores de Metallica, al mismo tiempo que muchos de sus antiguos seguidores se veían en gran medida "traicionados" por la nueva dirección tomada por el grupo, lo que desde entonces lleva alimentando una gran polémica.En los premios Grammy entraron por primera vez en la categoría Heavy Rock en vez de Heavy Metal, como ocurría antes del mencionado Load. Ese mismo año la banda finlandesa Apocalyptica debutó con su homenaje a Metallica Plays Metallica by Four Cellos, que era básicamente un álbum con covers de Metallica tocados únicamente con violonchelos. En 1998, realizarían un nuevo trabajo similar a Garage Days Re-Visited titulado Garage Inc., aunque esta vez sería un álbum doble de versiones de temas de estilos bastante diversos que influyeron a la banda en su ya dilatada carrera. Mientras que el primer disco incluía versiones grabadas para el lanzamiento del álbum, el disco dos contenía íntegros el Garage Days Revisited proveniente del sencillo de "Creeping Death", y el Garage Days Re-revisited, además de varias versiones provenientes de caras B y un extracto del concierto de versiones de Motörhead que Metallica dio en el 50 cumpleaños de Lemmy Kilmister el 4 de diciembre de 1995 en el Whiskey-A-Go-Go. La versión "Holy Roller" de Nazareth y "Round and Round" de Ratt resultó ganador de un premio Grammy en la categoría de Mejor Interpretación de Heavy Metal en 2000. Al año siguiente (1999) grabarían en un concierto en directo, titulado S&M, en colaboración con la Orquesta Sinfónica de San Francisco, dirigida por Michael Kamen, quien había hecho los arreglos de orquesta para "Nothing Else Matters" en The Black Album. En este álbum doble se experimenta la mezcla entre música de canciones de Metallica con arreglos orquestales. Además, se presentarían dos nuevos temas especialmente compuestos para la ocasión, "No Leaf Clover" y "- Human", extrayéndose el primero de ellos como segundo sencillo del disco. En abril de 2000, Metallica demandó a Napster, la compañía creadora del programa homónimo que permitía el intercambio de música en formato MP3, por violación de los derechos de autor, pues una versión de la canción todavía en proceso para la película Misión imposible 2, "I Disappear", se escuchaba en la radio estadounidense. Dos semanas después, Dr. Dre también demandaba a la empresa. Napster ya había sido acusada por la RIAA en 1999 de violar leyes de propiedad intelectual y servir de asilo para la piratería musical en internet, además de que algunas universidades habían pedido prohibir el programa, pues disminuía la velocidad de sus redes. Para mayo de 2000, Napster bloqueó las contraseñas de más de 35 mil usuarios proporcionada por Ulrich y que habían obtenido canciones de Metallica. Chuck D., Helix, Motley Crue, Exumer y Courtney Love hablaron a favor de Napster y proclamaron la oportunidad que significaba para consumidores y artistas. Para Chuck D., Napster era una reacción, "el fenómeno musical más grande desde los Beatles", "la industria se ha ufanado en guiar a las audiencias; por primera vez los seguidores de la banda han tenido la tecnología antes que la industria". En su defensa, Napster alegó que servía solo como conducto de la información. En junio de ese año, la RIAA pidió eliminar de Napster todo el contenido perteneciente a las discográficas más importantes. En septiembre del mismo año, Metallica y Dr. Dre enviaron cartas a Harvard, Columbia y otras universidades para que restringieran el acceso al programa. En octubre, Dave Matthews Band se convirtió en el primer grupo en permitir la distribución de una canción vía Napster, con la venia de su compañía. La polémica cesaría en julio de 2001, al aplazar la banda todas las denuncias contra Napster alegando que estaba haciendo más mal que bien a la imagen del grupo. En 2001, el bajista Jason Newsted, quien anteriormente había tenido serias discusiones con los demás integrantes sobre sus proyectos fuera del grupo, abandonaría Metallica alegando desgaste físico y motivos personales. Poco tiempo después, en la controvertida entrevista realizada por Playboy por separado a todos los miembros de la banda varios meses antes, se descubriría que uno de los principales motivos de la marcha del bajista era la rotunda negativa de Hetfield a la publicación del disco de Echobrain, la banda alternativa de Newsted. Tras un largo proceso de selección en busca de sustituto, y en el que se barajaron músicos como Twiggy Ramirez, se contrataría a Robert Trujillo, quien había sido bajista de Suicidal Tendencies, Black Label Society y Ozzy Osbourne en sus actuaciones en directo. Cabe resaltar que Jason Newsted, tras dejar Metallica, perteneció durante un tiempo a la banda de Osbourne, en la que militaba Mike Inez, miembro de Alice in Chains y que también se rumoreó como sustituto. Este mismo año se crea la banda homenaje satírica, Beatallica, la cual fusiona la música de The Beatles y Metallica. Tuvieron un problema legal con Sony, poseedora de los derechos sobre el material de los Beatles, pero fueron ayudados por Lars Ulrich. Antes de la entrada de Trujillo, la banda había grabado el álbum St. Anger, con Bob Rock nuevamente en el puesto de productor. Este último toca el bajo debido a las dificultades para encontrar un nuevo bajista. Como peculiaridades del disco destaca la ausencia absoluta de solos de guitarra, y un sonido de la batería totalmente novedoso e igualmente polémico que radicaba en la caja, la cual tenía un armónico metálico en vez del de madera seca usado hasta entonces. El vídeo de la canción homónima del álbum fue grabado en la prisión de San Quintin.Hubo otras muchas dificultades en la producción del álbum, debidos a motivos como el proceso de rehabilitación de Hetfield, que había comenzado a tener problemas con el alcohol después de un viaje a Siberia donde, según él, su única bebida era el vodka. En el 2004, se lanzaría el documental Some Kind of Monster, que narra la producción del St. Anger en medio de discusiones y problemas luego de la salida de Jason y de la rehabilitación de James Hetfield, de quien ya se conocía su pasión por el alcohol. En el documental hacen aparición Jason Newsted y su banda Echobrain (Lars y Kirk acuden a una de sus presentaciones, se dirigen hacia los camerinos y cuando llegan, Jason ya se había ido) y uno de sus primeros guitarristas del grupo, Dave Mustaine, quien charla con Lars acerca de temas como su estancia en Metallica y su carrera en Megadeth. Dentro del documental, el grupo se apoya de un terapeuta para resolver los problemas previamente mencionados. También se muestran los primeros momentos de Robert Trujillo como bajista de Metallica, incluyendo su audición para entrar al grupo. En el 2006, la banda realizó el tour Escape from the studio 06, en el que tocaron el disco Master of Puppets entero en conmemoración de su vigésimo aniversario. Durante este tour, la banda tocó dos nuevas canciones: "New Song (Death is not the End)" y "The Other New Song (Vultorous)".Estas 2 canciones mencionadas fueron editadas y lanzadas en el álbum Death Magnetic (2008), siendo Death is not the End "The end of the line" y Vultorous "All Nightmare Long". El 4 de diciembre del 2006 fue lanzada una compilación de todos sus vídeos desde 1989 hasta 2004, titulada The Videos. Esta incluye todos sus vídeos desde "One" hasta "Some Kind of Monster" y, como bonus, las dos versiones del vídeo de "One", la versión teatral de "The Unforgiven" de once minutos, el tráiler del documental Some Kind of Monster y además, por primera vez en DVD, la introducción de 2 of One. También Kirk y James aparecieron en el programa Metalocalypse y la banda entera en Los Simpson, quienes además aparecerían en la película Get Thrashed. Un año más tarde, el grupo grabó la versión de Ennio Morricone "The Ecstacy of Gold", el cual apareció en el disco homenaje We All Love Ennio Morricone. Luego, en los meses de junio y julio realizaron la gira Sick Of The Studio 07. La banda comenzó a grabar el álbum Death Magnetic el 14 de marzo de 2007. Este cuenta con Rick Rubin como productor, reemplazando a Bob Rock, que había ocupado dicho puesto desde hace más de 15 años. El álbum es finalmente lanzado el 12 de septiembre de 2008. Se han establecido algunas citas para su gira en 2008, y anteriormente, participaron en el Electric Weekend de Getafe, siendo cabezas de cartel junto con Rage Against the Machine. Además, la banda participó en el álbum homenaje a Iron Maiden Maiden Heaven, interpretando la canción "Remember Tomorrow" junto a bandas como Avenged Sevenfold y Dokken. Metallica en la actualidad, ha vendido más de 100 millones de álbumes y posee una estrella en el paseo de la fama en Hollywood. La página oficial ha confirmado que el grupo ha ocupado un lugar en el Salón de la Fama del Rock, y que fue nominado en dos categorías (Rock Out y Headliner) en los MTV Europe Music Awards así como invitado para tocar en vivo dentro de Los Premios a la Música de Latinoamérica de MTV, los cuales se llevaron a cabo dentro del Auditorio de la Universidad de Guadalajara en Guadalajara, Jalisco, México. En septiembre del 2008 comienzan la gira mundial World Magnetic Tour, visitando países de Europa, América del Norte, América Central, América del Sur, Asia y Oceanía. Esta gira se extendió hasta noviembre del 2010, recaudando millones de dólares y congregando a millones de fanáticos alrededor de todo el mundo, no sin antes prometer James Hetfield que volverían. El 31 de octubre de 2011 lanzan el álbum conceptual Lulu con el cantante de Art Rock y rock alternativo Lou Reed, siendo percibido de mal gusto para muchos de los fanáticos de la banda. El 5 de diciembre de 2011 Metallica realizó 4 conciertos en San Francisco celebrando su trigésimo aniversario como grupo, invitando a artistas como Dave Mustaine, Jason Newsted, entre otros. Metallica anunció para finales del año 2011 que sacarían cuatro canciones inéditas pertenecientes a las grabaciones del disco Death Magnetic. En enero del 2012, después de haber anunciado las cuatro canciones inéditas de las grabaciones de Death Magnetic, se edita un EP titulado "Beyond Magnetic" el cual contiene las cuatro canciones inéditas anunciadas. Este EP en su salida recibió principalmente críticas favorables. El 7 de febrero de 2012, Metallica anunció que comenzaría un nuevo festival de música llamado Orion Music + More , que tuvo lugar los días 23 y 24 de junio de 2012 en Atlantic City. Metallica también confirmó que encabezaría el festival en ambos días y presentaría dos de sus álbumes más aclamados por la crítica en su totalidad: The Black Album en una noche y Ride the Lightning en la otra. En una entrevista de julio de 2012 con la estación de radio canadiense 99.3 The Fox , Ulrich dijo que Metallica no lanzaría su nuevo álbum hasta al menos principios de 2014. En noviembre de 2012, Metallica dejó Warner Bros. Records y lanzó un sello discográfico independiente, Blackened Recordings, que producirá los futuros lanzamientos de la banda. La banda ha adquirido los derechos de todos sus álbumes de estudio, que serán reeditados a través del nuevo sello. Los lanzamientos ennegrecidos se licenciarán a través de la subsidiaria de Warner, Rhino Entertainment en Norteamérica e internacionalmente a través de Universal Music. El 20 de septiembre de 2012, Metallica anunció a través de su sitio web oficial que en diciembre se lanzará un nuevo DVD que contiene imágenes de espectáculos que realizó en Quebec en 2009; los fanáticos tendrían la oportunidad de votar por dos setlists que aparecerían en el DVD. La película, titulada Quebec Magnetic , se estrenó en los Estados Unidos el 10 de diciembre de 2012. En agosto de 2013 se estrenó la película 3D Metallica: Through the Never que contó con la actuación de Dane DeHaan mientras que Nimród Antal la escribió y la dirigió. Fue publicada bajo el sello de Blackened Records. El 8 de diciembre de 2013 la banda realizó un concierto en la base argentina Carlini, para «concienciar sobre la importancia de la Antártida para el planeta». Hubo aproximadamente un centenar de asistentes, incluyendo personal de otras bases cercanas como Uruguay, Chile, Polonia, Corea del Sur, Rusia, Brasil y Alemania. Se siguió un riguroso protocolo sobre impacto ambiental y no se usaron amplificadores durante el recital, el público pudo escuchar a través de auriculares. Lars Ulrich en una entrevista hecha por Metal Hammer reveló que la banda planea lanzar un nuevo álbum para finales de 2016 o comienzos del 2017, sin especificar detalles, tan sólo diciendo que el nuevo material «...se siente pesado, enérgico, ruidoso, es veloz, es rock, una locura...». El álbum será vendido bajo el sello discográfico de la banda. El 20 de junio de 2014 Metallica lanzó su nuevo sencillo «Lords of Summer», el cual estrenaron el 16 de marzo durante una gira por Sudamérica en la ciudad de Bogotá, Colombia llamada "Metallica By Request", basada en la idea de que los mismos asistentes a los conciertos, meses antes del recital, reciben un código para votar en línea por las canciones que deseaban escuchar. La idea tuvo una gran acogida entre los seguidores de la banda, y la misma gira se extendió hacia América del Sur, Europa y Canadá, visitando por primera vez países como Ecuador y Paraguay, y presentándose dos veces en Buenos Aires, Argentina. El 18 de agosto de 2016, se dio a conocer el nombre del álbum de estudio llamado Hardwired... to Self-Destruct, el cual fue publicado el 18 de noviembre de 2016. Metallica anunció que viajarían a Estados Unidos en el verano de 2017 para el WorldWired Tour . La gira del estadio también incluye Avenged Sevenfold, Volbeat y Gojira como actos de apoyo. El 7 de agosto de 2017, Metallica fue invitada nuevamente por los Gigantes de San Francisco para la quinta "Noche de Metallica" anual con Hammett y Hetfield interpretando el himno nacional. En enero de 2018, la banda anunció que volverían a emitir el EP $ 5.98: Garage Days Re-Revisited el 13 de abril para el Record Store Day , y la sexta "Noche Metallica" anual también se anunció unas semanas más tarde, esta vez en abril, con todos los ingresos destinados a la Fundación All Within My Hands, que la banda creó a fines de 2017. En febrero de 2018, la banda anunció un segundo conjunto de fechas de gira por América del Norte, la mayoría de las cuales no habían visitado en treinta años. En marzo de 2019, Metallica anunció que su WorldWired Tour continuaría en Australia y Nueva Zelanda en octubre con Slipknot y Ratt en apoyo. Más tarde ese mes, la banda anunció que actuaría en la gran inauguración del nuevo Chase Center de San Francisco con la Orquesta Sinfónica de San Francisco en septiembre para celebrar el vigésimo aniversario del álbum S&M. Los espectáculos conmemorativos, titulados S&M2, contarán con arreglos de los conciertos originales del S&M, así como nuevos arreglos para canciones grabadas desde entonces, y serán conducidos por el director Edwin Outwatery el director musical de la Sinfónica de San Francisco, Michael Tilson Thomas. En julio, la banda anunció que los espectáculos se proyectarían en más de 3000 teatros en todo el mundo el 9 de octubre, y las entradas saldrán a la venta en agosto. Más tarde ese mes, Metallica anunció un conjunto de fechas de gira sudamericana para abril de 2020 con Greta Van Fleet en apoyo. En una entrevista con la revista australiana The Music en de marzo de 2019, Robert Trujillo dijo que Metallica había comenzado a trabajar en nuevo material para su próximo álbum de estudio. "Estoy entusiasmado con el próximo disco porque creo que también será la culminación de los dos discos [anteriores] y otro viaje. No faltan ideas originales, esa es la belleza de estar en esta banda". Estimó que el álbum se lanzaría "mucho antes de lo que hicieron los dos anteriores. Esta vez creo que podremos saltar más rápido y saltar al estudio y comenzar a trabajar. Todos hemos prometido poner esto en marcha más temprano que tarde". En una entrevista con la revista australiana Mixdown al mes siguiente, Kirk Hammett dijo que la banda tenía planes tentativos para ingresar al estudio después de la conclusión de la WorldWired Tour. Dijo: "Estamos en nuestro tercer año desde Hardwired. Tal vez podamos enfocarnos un poco más e ir al estudio un poco antes". Después de no escribir nada en Hardwired ... to Self-Destruct, Hammett dijo sobre sus ideas para el nuevo álbum: "Tengo un montón de material. He compensado en exceso, así que estoy listo para ir en cualquier momento". A pesar de que en un principio Metallica tocaba thrash metal o a veces speed metal, especialmente en Kill'em All, a lo largo de los años se ha ido modificando su sonido, en especial en Metallica (The Black Album), en el que tomaron un sonido más mainstream. Sin embargo, el cambio más importante se da a partir de 1996, con la publicación de Load, en el que se puede oír un sonido mucho más arreglado y cercano al hard rock y al metal alternativo, además de poder apreciarse el claro cambio estético de la banda, mucho más pulcramente vestidos abandonando sus melenas y sus vaqueros rotos y desgastados.Las influencias musicales del grupo se pueden apreciar en el disco de versiones Garage Days Re-Visited, donde versionan canciones de bandas como Diamond Head, posiblemente su mayor influencia, o The Misfits, aunque también hay que incluir dentro de sus influencias bandas como , Black Sabbath, Judas Priest, Iron Maiden, Venom, Quiet Riot, Kix, Ratt, Nazareth, UFO, Queen, Led Zeppelin, Praying Mantis, Exodus, Accept, Kiss, Motörhead, Van Halen, Saxon , AC/DC, Mercyful Fate, entre otras. Además Metallica ha influenciado a bandas como Apocalyptica, Vain Pantera,Kreator, Ratt Machine Head, Death, Cannibal Corpse, Sepultura, Winger, The Darkness, Slipknot, Korn, System of a Down, Dream Theater, As I Lay Dying, Avenged Sevenfold, Steelheart, Trivium, Pretty Boy Floyd, Mastodon y Tesla Con la publicación del álbum Ride the Lightning, muchos seguidores de la banda quedaron desencantados por la balada "Fade to Black", ya que para los más extremos seguidores del género, las bandas de thrash metal no deberían componer canciones orientadas hacia el "mainstream" como es el caso de dicho tema; sin embargo, con la publicación del álbum homónimo de la banda, dicha polémica se recrudece debido al sonido más cercano al Heavy Metal que al Thrash Metal presente en el álbum, ya hasta entonces en los trabajos anteriores de la banda abundaba un sonido más rápido y frenético en la gran mayoría de los temas. El cambio de sonido del grupo vino de la mano de Bob Rock, el productor del disco, quien había trabajado anteriormente con bandas como Bon Jovi, Tankard o Mötley Crüe, todos ellos con una gran cantidad de discos vendidos a sus espaldas. A pesar de dicha polémica, este fue el trabajo más exitoso en ventas de la banda, con más de 7 millones de copias vendidas solo en EE. UU., a pesar de que éstos seguidores los calificasen como "vendidos" por este hecho. Aún con Bob Rock en sus filas, el grupo graba Load y ReLoad, dos discos que presentan un sonido mucho más accesible al público en general, lo que acabó por romper las relaciones de los seguidores más intransigentes de la formación dado el carácter cercano al hard rock de ambos trabajos. Además, el hecho de que la banda encabezase festivales alternativos como Lollapalooza ayudó a que ganasen detractores. St. Anger proporcionaba un sonido mucho más duro bajo la producción nuevamente de Bob Rock, quien además toca el bajo debido a la dificultad de la banda por encontrar un bajista que supliese la marcha de Jason Newsted. Este álbum tampoco convenció a la mayoría de los seguidores de la banda debido a su orientación hacia el nu metal, a la escasez del virtuosismo de Kirk Hammett, quien no realiza ningún solo en todo el disco, y al sonido de la batería. Sin embargo, el álbum de 2008, Death Magnetic fue, en su mayoría, criticado positivamente debido a que este contiene una mayor influencia al Thrash Metal que cualquier otro álbum desde The Black Album. Dicha recepción volvió a repetirse con álbum de estudio llamado Hardwired... to Self-Destruct, el cual fue publicado el 18 de noviembre de 2016 y recibió elogios por parte de la crítica y fanes. Jason Newsted se introdujo en la banda como sustituto del fallecido Cliff Burton, idolatrado por los fanes, por lo que muchos de estos seguidores no vieron con buenos ojos la llegada de otro bajista al seno del grupo. Además, su manera de tocar fue criticada al ser comparada con el virtuosismo de Burton, ya que este último tocaba el bajo con los dedos en lugar de con una púa, como hacía Newsted. Después de su llegada, el grupo publicó ...And Justice for All, en el cual el sonido del bajo de Newsted resulta casi inaudible. En una ocasión, durante la gira de presentación de dicho trabajo, los restantes miembros del grupo arrojaron todos sus objetos personales por la ventana del hotel en el que se alojaban. Según sus propias declaraciones, Newsted explicó: "Era mi sueño hecho realidad. Si vas a llenar los zapatos de Cliff Burton, tienes que ser resistente". Este recibió numerosas críticas por ello, que recibió con paciencia hasta el año 2001, en el que decide abandonar la banda para ingresar en Voivod y, posteriormente, fundar su propio proyecto, que llamó Echobrain. Su sustituto fue Robert Trujillo, que añadió al grupo un sonido más duro al haber pertenecido a bandas de hardcore punk como Suicidal Tendencies o Infectious Grooves, aunque quizá el factor principal para la contratación de Trujillo fuese su estilo y capacidad de tocar el bajo, con los dedos al igual que Burton. James Hetfield diría en una entrevista que "sus dedos parecían púas, eran como los de Burton". En unas declaraciones posteriores a su salida de la banda, Newsted expuso: "Metallica tiene dos monstruos que controlan, y es muy difícil conseguir algo bueno en ese monopolio". La más famosa controversia en la carrera de la banda vino dada por el despido de Dave Mustaine, primer guitarrista del grupo y luego fundador de Megadeth, después de conductas violentas e irresponsables en el seno de la banda. En 1983, en Nueva York, Mustaine tiene una discusión con Hetfield y Ulrich cuando la banda iba a reunirse con el productor Jon Zazula. La banda ya harta de las adicciones de Mustaine lo sorprendieron recién levantado en la mañana diciendo que estaba fuera de la banda, siendo despedido y embarcado en un viaje de dos días hasta Los Ángeles, durante el cual decide fundar una nueva banda para vengarse de su despido. Declaró: "Después de ser despedido de Metallica, todo lo que recuerdo es que quería sangre, la suya. Quería ser más rápido que ellos". Poco antes de este, Mustaine tuvo varios problemas con Ron McGovney, primer bajista de Metallica, que acabaron con la marcha de este antes de la salida del guitarrista. En aquel momento, Mustaine provocaba todo tipo de contratiempos a los restantes miembros del grupo debido a su adicción al alcohol y a las drogas, con lo que fue despedido de Metallica, introduciendo ésta a Kirk Hammett. Las hostilidades entre Megadeth y Metallica duraron varios años. En una entrevista realizada a James Hetfield en 1999, este dijo: "No somos enemigos y no somos amigos, y creo que es mejor dejarlo así. Durante aquellos años todos estábamos borrachos y pasándolo bien, pero él lo llevó todo demasiado lejos. Era una persona realmente excesiva que tenía que llevarlo todo al límite, lo que incluía el alcohol y las drogas". Cuando la banda le pidió a Mustaine que apareciese una entrevista entre él y Lars Ulrich en el documental Some Kind of Monster de 2004, el guitarrista se negó a ello, pero Metallica incluyó dicha entrevista. Mustaine dijo que eso fue "la traición final", y ha abandonado la esperanza de grabar algo con los miembros de la banda. Sin embargo, en el festival de Sonisphere en 2010, Dave Mustaine se presentó en el escenario junto a Metallica, los músicos de Megadeth, Slayer y Anthrax para tocar una versión del tema de Diamond Head "Am I Evil?". Megadeth ha empezado a girar por el mundo con estas 3 bandas bajo el nombre "The Big 4". Pero hay que aclarar que Dave Mustaine dijo que en ese tiempo tenía una terapia por los problemas que sufría en el cuello y tenía que estar en reposo, Dave había rechazado la oportunidad de tocar junto a las demás bandas solo por los problemas, pero el mánager de Metallica lo llamó "m*ricón" lo cual le molestó y dijo que las terapias podían esperar, entonces le dijo al mánager que tocaría en ese festival. Y en 2011, Mustaine hizo varias apariciones especiales en los actos de Metallica cuando celebraban su 30 aniversario, donde Mustaine se abrazaba con los otros miembros y tocó temas como Phantom Lord, Jump in the Fire, Metal Militia y Seek & Destroy. Desde 2009 Metallica contribuye activamente en la investigación para el esclarecimiento del crimen de Morgan Harrington, una adolescente de 19 años, fan de la banda, que desapareció ese año durante el concierto que dieron en Charlottesville, Virginia. Su cuerpo fue encontrado meses después y su asesino aún no ha sido identificado. Dos días luego de la desaparición de Harrington, James Hetfield se puso en contacto con los padres de ella y ofreció su ayuda. Desde entonces, ha encabezado anuncios públicos y videos pidiendo testigos para el caso, y colaborado con el FBI en la búsqueda. Asimismo la banda en conjunto sumó US$50.000 a la recompensa, cifra que ascendió a $150.000, creó un fondo estudiantil de $50.000 en memoria de la fallecida, y donó $40.000 al fondo estudiantil del ala de medicina del Instituto Politécnico y Universidad Estatal de Virginia creado en honor a Morgan Harrington. Esta última suma provino de la venta especial de camisetas con la leyenda «Enter Sandman». En 2017, crearon la Fundación "All Within My Hands", la cual se dedica a crear comunidades sostenibles mediante el apoyo a la educación para habilitación laboral, la lucha contra el hambre, entre otros aspectos críticos. Pagina Oficial: https://www.metallica.com/Escucha este episodio completo y accede a todo el contenido exclusivo de Biblioteca Del Metal - (Recopilation). Descubre antes que nadie los nuevos episodios, y participa en la comunidad exclusiva de oyentes en https://go.ivoox.com/sq/308558