CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:49).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 6-16-22.
CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:52).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 6-3-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the weeks June 6 and June 13, 2022. MUSIC – ~11 sec – instrumental. That's part of “Driving Rain,” by the Charlottesville- and Nelson County-based band, Chamomile and Whiskey. The storm-themed music sets the stage for our annual preview of a potential bunch of rainy, windy, and storm-surge-causing summer and fall visitors. Have a listen for about 35 seconds to some more of the music accompanying 21 names that we hope will NOT become infamous this year. MUSIC and VOICES ~36 sec – Music lyrics: “In the driving rain”; then instrumental. Voices: “Alex. Bonnie. Colin. Danielle. Earl. Fiona. Gaston. Hermine. Ian. Julia. Karl. Lisa. Martin. Nicole. Owen. Paula. Richard. Shary. Tobias. Virginie. Walter.” Those were the names planned for storms that may occur during this year's Atlantic basin tropical cyclone season. The Atlantic basin includes the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic tropical cyclone season runs officially from June 1 through November 30. Most Atlantic tropical cyclones occur within this period, but not all of them do. In fact, 2022 is the first year since 2014 in which there was NOT a named Atlantic basin storm before June 1, although it was close: as of June 3, the remnants of Pacific basin Hurricane Agatha, which formed in late May and made landfall in southern Mexico, were predicted to re-form in the Gulf of Mexico as the Atlantic basin's first named storm. [Editor's note, not in the audio: Pre-June named Atlantic storms in the previous seven years were Ana in 2015, Alex in January 2016 and Bonnie in May 2016, Arlene in April 2017, Alberto in May 2018, Andrea in May 2019, Arthur and Bertha in May 2020, and Ana in May 2021. The first named storm in 2014 was in July. The National Hurricane Center upgraded Potential Tropical Cyclone One to Tropical Storm Alex around 2 a.m. EDT on June 5, 2022.]Tropical storms and hurricanes are two categories of tropical cyclones, which are rotating storm systems that start in tropical or sub-tropical latitudes. A tropical cyclone is called a tropical storm—and gets a name—when sustained wind speeds reach 39 miles per hour; at 74 miles per hour, a tropical cyclone is considered a hurricane. Tropical depressions—with wind speeds below 39 miles per hour—don't get named if they never reach tropical storm wind speed,* but they can still bring damaging rainfall and flooding. Hurricane-force storms are called typhoonsin northwestern areas of the Pacific Ocean. [Editor's note, not in the audio: A tropical system that never gets above the tropical depression wind-speed level won't be given a name, but a lingering tropical depression that previously was at the wind speed of a tropical storm or hurricane will have a name associated with it.]Before a tropical system of any speed or name barges into the Old Dominion, here are five important preparedness steps recommended by the National Weather Service.1. Know your zone – that is, find out if you live in a hurricane evacuation area by checking the Virginia Department of Emergency Management's “Hurricane Zone Evacuation Tool,” available online at vaemergency.gov/prepare, or by contacting your local emergency management office. 2. Assemble an emergency kit of food, water, flashlights, first aid materials, a battery-powered radio, and other items that would be useful in a power outage.3. Have a family emergency plan, including plans for evacuating and for getting in touch with one another in an emergency. 4. Review your insurance policies to ensure that you have adequate coverage for your home and personal property. And 5. Establish ways to stay informed, especially if the power goes out. Detailed safety tips for hurricanes and other severe weather are available from the “Safety” link at the National Weather Service Web site, www.weather.gov; from the Virginia Department of Emergency Management, online as noted earlier at vaemergency.gov/prepare; and from various other sources. Thanks to eight Blacksburg, Va., friends for lending their voices to this episode. Thanks also to Chamomile and Whiskey for permission to use this week's music, and we close with about 20 more seconds of “Driving Rain.” MUSIC – ~21 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment. For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624. Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode. In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS “Driving Rain,” from the 2012 album “The Barn Sessions,” is copyright by Chamomile and Whiskey and by County Wide Records, used with permission. More information about Chamomile and Whiskey is available online at http://www.chamomileandwhiskey.com/. This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 579, 5-31-21. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES Satellite photo of Tropical Storm Alex off the southeastern Atlantic Coast of the United States at 2:51 p.m. EDT (18:51 Z), on June 5, 2022. Photo from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), “GOES Image Viewer: GOES-East/U.S. Atlantic Coast/Band 1 (Blue Visible)”, online at https://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/goes/sector.php?sat=G16§or=eus; specific URL for the photo was https://cdn.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/GOES16/ABI/SECTOR/eus/01/20221561851_GOES16-ABI-eus-01-500x500.jpg, as of June 6, 2022.Predictions for the 2022 Atlantic tropical storm season. Graphic from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), “NOAA predicts above-normal 2022 Atlantic Hurricane Season; Ongoing La Niña, above-average Atlantic temperatures set the stage for busy season ahead,” May 24, 2022, online at https://www.noaa.gov/news-release/noaa-predicts-above-normal-2022-atlantic-hurricane-season.Map showing the names, dates, and tracks of named Atlantic basin tropical cyclones (tropical storms and hurricanes) in 2021. Map from the National Hurricane Center, “2021 Atlantic Hurricane Season,” online at https://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/index.php?season=2021&basin=atl.“5 Things to Know About Having and Evacuation Plan” poster from the National Weather Service, “What to Do Before the Tropical Storm or Hurricane,” online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/hurricane-plan. The site also has posters with “5 Things to Know About…” hurricane hazard risks, strengthening one's home, getting information, and insurance. EXTRA INFORMATION ON TROPICAL CYCLONE PREPAREDNESS The following information is quoted from the National Weather Service, ‘Hurricane Safety,” online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/hurricane, as of June 6, 2022. Plan for a Hurricane: What to Do Before the Tropical Storm or Hurricane(online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/hurricane-plan) “The best time to prepare for a hurricane is before hurricane season begins on June 1. It is vital to understand your home's vulnerability to storm surge, flooding, and wind. Here is your checklist of things to do BEFORE hurricane seasons begins.Know your zone: Do you live near the Gulf or Atlantic Coasts? Find out if you live in a hurricane evacuation area by contacting your local government/emergency management office or, in Virginia, by visiting https://www.vaemergency.gov/hurricane-evacuation-zone-lookup/. Put Together an Emergency Kit: Put together a basic emergency kit; information to do so is online at https://www.ready.gov/kit. Check emergency equipment, such as flashlights, generators, and storm shutters.Write or review your Family Emergency Plan: Before an emergency happens, sit down with your family or close friends and decide how you will get in contact with each other, where you will go, and what you will do in an emergency. Keep a copy of this plan in your emergency supplies kit or another safe place where you can access it in the event of a disaster. Information to help with emergency plan preparation is online at https://www.ready.gov/plan. Review Your Insurance Policies: Review your insurance policies to ensure that you have adequate coverage for your home and personal property.Understand NWS forecast products, especially the meaning of NWS watches and warnings.Preparation tips for your home are available from the Federal Alliance for Safe Homes, online at https://www.flash.org/. Preparation tips for those with chronic illnesses are available from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, online at https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/infographic/emergency.htm. Actions to Take When a Tropical Storm or Hurricane Threatens(online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/hurricane-action) “When a hurricane threatens your community, be prepared to evacuate if you live in a storm surge risk area. Allow enough time to pack and inform friends and family if you need to leave your home. Secure your home: Cover all of your home's windows. Permanent storm shutters offer the best protection for windows. A second option is to board up windows with 5/8 inch exterior grade or marine plywood, built to fit, and ready to install. Buy supplies before the hurricane season rather than waiting for the pre-storm rush. Stayed tuned in: Check the websites of your local National Weather Service office (online at https://www.weather.gov/) and local government/emergency management office. Find out what type of emergencies could occur and how you should respond. Listen to NOAA Weather Radio or other radio or TV stations for the latest storm news. Follow instructions issued by local officials. Leave immediately if ordered! If NOT ordered to evacuate: *Take refuge in a small interior room, closet, or hallway on the lowest level during the storm. Put as many walls between you and the outside as you can. *Stay away from windows, skylights, and glass doors. *If the eye of the storm passes over your area, there will be a short period of calm, but at the other side of the eye, the wind speed rapidly increases to hurricane force winds coming from the opposite direction.” After a Hurricane(online at https://www.weather.gov/safety/hurricane-after) Continue listening to a NOAA Weather Radio or the local news for the latest updates. If you evacuated, return home only when officials say it is safe. Once home, drive only if necessary and avoid flooded roads and washed-out bridges. If you must go out, watch for fallen objects in the road, downed electrical wires, and weakened walls, bridges, roads, and sidewalks that might collapse. Walk carefully around the outside of your home to check for loose power lines, gas leaks, and structural damage. Stay out of any building if you smell gas, if floodwaters remain around the building, if the building or home was damaged by fire, or if the authorities have not declared it safe. Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the leading causes of death after storms in areas dealing with power outages. Never use a portable generator inside your home or garage. Use battery-powered flashlights. Do NOT use candles. Turn on your flashlight before entering a vacated building. The battery could produce a spark that could ignite leaking gas, if present.”
CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:27).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 5-20-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the weeks of May 23 and May 30, 2022. This episode, marking the Memorial Day holiday observed this year on May 30, repeats an episode first done in 2015. MUSIC – ~17 sec – instrumental. That tune, composed during the U.S. Civil War, sets the stage for a water-related exploration of the origin of Memorial Day. Have a listen to the music for about 35 more seconds. MUSIC – ~35 sec – instrumental. You've been listening to a version of “All Quiet Along the Potomac Tonight,” recorded by Chloe Benner and Stewart Scales. The tune was composed in 1863 by John Hill Hewitt. The title, and the lyrics associated with the tune, are from “The Picket Guard,” a poem by Ethel Lynn Beers, published in 1861. The poem relates the loneliness, homesickness, and then sudden death of a rank-and-file soldier patrolling the dark, wooded, and deceptively quiet Potomac riverbank. As a similar tragic fate befell tens of thousands of Civil War soldiers along rivers, ridges, and battle lines in Virginia and elsewhere, surviving family and friends began honoring fallen soldiers by decorating their graves with flowers, especially during spring. The practice grew across both North and South, eventually becoming a spring tradition known as “Decoration Day.” On May 5, 1868, Gen. John Logan called for Decoration Day to be an annual, national holiday on May 30, and the first national ceremony was held that year in Arlington National Cemetery, near the banks of the Potomac. After World War I, the annual observance began to include honoring those who had died in all U.S. military conflicts. In 1971, Congress declared Memorial Day an official national holiday, to occur on the last Monday of May. Memorial Day invokes very personal and local expressions of honor and remembrance, true to the holiday's origin of individuals decorating Civil War graves with flowers. In that spirit, we close this tribute to Memorial Day with about 25 seconds of “Flowers of the Forest,” by No Strings Attached, from their 2002 album, “Old Friend's Waltz.” MUSIC – ~26 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment. For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624. Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this episode. In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 215, 5-25-15, and Episode 318, 5-30-16. The version of “All Quiet Along the Potomac Tonight” heard in this Virginia Water Radio episode was performed by Chloe Benner and Stewart Scales, used with permission. More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 619, 3-7-22. Another version of “All Quiet Along the Potomac Tonight,” by Bobby Horton, was featured in Episode 101, 3-5-12. Information on “All Quiet Along the Potomac,” about Ethel Beers, the author of the poem from which the song was derived, and about John Hill Hewitt, who composed the tune, is available from Bartleby.com, online at http://www.bartleby.com/270/13/474.html; from Britannica Encyclopedia, online at www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/58438/Ethel-Lynn-Beers; from Library of Congress, “All quiet along the Potomac to-night,” online at https://www.loc.gov/item/ihas.200002411/; and from Song of America, online at https://songofamerica.net/song/all-quiet-along-the-potomac-tonight/. “Flowers of the Forest” and “Old Friend's Waltz” are copyright by No Strings Attached and Enessay Music, used with permission. More information about the now-retired, Blacksburg/Roanoke-based group No Strings Attached is available online at https://www.enessay.com/index.html. This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 573, 4-19-21. Information on “Metsäkukkia,” the original Finnish tune on which the No Strings Attached selection was based, is available from Andrew Kuntz, “The Fiddler's Companion,” online at http://www.ibiblio.org/fiddlers/MER_MIC.htm; and from Jeremy Keith, “The Session,” online at http://thesession.org/tunes/4585. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGES(Unless otherwise noted, photographs are by Virginia Water Radio.) Looking towards the confluence of the Shenandoah River with the Potomac River at Harper's Ferry, West Va., August 14, 2008. Harper's Ferry was a strategic location and the site of a federal arsenal during the Civil War era.The confluence of Antietam Creek (foreground) with the Potomac River in Maryland, as seen from the C&O Canal Towpath, August 13, 2008. The confluence is several miles downstream of where the creek flows through Sharpsburg, Md., the site of a major Civil War battle in 1862. EXTRA INFORMATION ON THE HISTORY OF MEMORIAL DAYThe following information is quoted from the Library of Congress, “Today in History—May 30/Memorial Day,” online at https://www.loc.gov/item/today-in-history/may-30/. “In 1868, Commander in Chief John A. Logan of the Grand Army of the Republic issued General Order Number 11 designating May 30 as a memorial day ‘for the purpose of strewing with flowers or otherwise decorating the graves of comrades who died in defense of their country during the late rebellion, and whose bodies now lie in almost every city, village, and hamlet churchyard in the land.' “The first national celebration of the holiday took place May 30, 1868, at Arlington National Cemetery, where both Confederate and Union soldiers were buried. Originally known as Decoration Day, at the turn of the century it was designated as Memorial Day. In many American towns, the day is celebrated with a parade. “Southern women decorated the graves of soldiers even before the Civil War's end. Records show that by 1865, Mississippi, Virginia, and South Carolina all had precedents for Memorial Day. Songs in the Duke University collection Historic American Sheet Music include hymns published in the South such as these two from 1867: ‘Kneel Where Our Loves are Sleeping,' dedicated to ‘The Ladies of the South Who are Decorating the Graves of the Confederate Dead,' and ‘Memorial Flowers,' dedicated ‘To the Memory of Our Dead Heroes.' “When a women's memorial association in Columbus, Mississippi, decorated the graves of both Confederate and Union soldiers on April 25, 1866, this act of generosity and reconciliation prompted an editorial piece, published by Horace Greeley's New York Tribune, and a poem by Francis Miles Finch, ‘The Blue and the Grey,' published in the Atlantic Monthly. The practice of strewing flowers on soldiers' graves soon became popular throughout the reunited nation. “President Lyndon Johnson proclaimed Waterloo, New York, as the ‘Birthplace of Memorial Day,' because it began a formal observance on May 5, 1866. However, Boalsburg, Pennsylvania, also claims to have held the first observance, based on an observance dating back to October 1864. Indeed, many other towns also lay claim to being the first to hold an observance. “In 1971, federal law changed the observance of the holiday to the last Monday in May and extended the honor to all soldiers who died in American wars. A few states continue to celebrate Memorial Day on May 30. “Today, national observance of the holiday still takes place at Arlington National Cemetery with the placing of a wreath on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and the decoration of each grave with a small American flag. Protocol for flying the American flag on Memorial Day includes raising it quickly to the top of the pole at sunrise, immediately lowering it to half-staff until noon, and displaying it at full staff from noon until sunset. … “Many veterans of the Vietnam War, and relatives and friends of those who fought in that conflict, make a pilgrimage over Memorial Day weekend to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C., where they pay their respects to another generation of fallen soldiers.” SOURCES USED FOR AUDIO AND OFFERING MORE INFORMATION On the History of Memorial Day Library of Congress, “Today in History—May 30/Memorial Day,” online at https://www.loc.gov/item/today-in-history/may-30/. Smithsonian Institution/National Museum of American History, “You asked, we Answered: Why do we celebrate Memorial Day?”, by Ryan Lintelman, May 24, 2013; available online at http://americanhistory.si.edu/blog/2013/05/you-asked-we-answered-why-do-we-celebrate-memorial-day.html. Public Broadcasting System, “National Memorial Day Concert/History of Memorial Day,” online at http://www.pbs.org/national-memorial-day-concert/memorial-day/history/. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs:“America's Wars,” online (as a PDF) at http://www.va.gov/opa/publications/factsheets/fs_americas_wars.pdf;“Memorial Day,” online at https://www.va.gov/opa/speceven/memday; and“Memorial Day Order,” by Gen. John A. Logan, May 6, 1868, online at https://www.cem.va.gov/history/memdayorder.asp. On Rivers and Other Water Bodies in the U.S. Civil War The History PlaceTM, “The U.S. Civil War,” online at http://www.historyplace.com/civilwar/ USA Civil War Web Site, “Civil War Rivers and Streams,” online at http://usa-civil-war.com/CW_Rivers/rivers.html RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html). See particularly the “History” subject category. Following are links to some other episodes on Virginia waters in history related to military conflicts. Battle of Yorktown in the Revolutionary War – Episode 390, 10-6-17.Bull Run's present and Civil War past – Episode 223, 7-21-14. Civil War Battle of the Ironclads – Episode 412, 3-19-18.Lincoln's James River trip to Richmond at the end of the Civil War – Episode 459, 2-11-19.Potomac River in the Civil War – Episode 101, 3-5-12.Rivers and attempts to capture Richmond in the Civil War – Episode 164, 6-3-13 (for Memorial Day 2013).River origins of Virginia signers of Declaration of Independence – Episode 220, 6-30-14. Various waters involved in the Revolutionary War – Episode 168, 7-1-13. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2015 Social Studies SOLs Grades K-3 History Theme1.2 – Virginia history and life in present-day Virginia.1.4 – Lives of people associated with major holidays.2.5 – Lives of people associated with major holidays. Virginia Studies CourseVS.1 – Impact of geographic features on people, places, and events in Virginia history.VS.7 – Civil War issues and events, including the role of Virginia and the role of various ethnic groups. United States History to 1865 CourseUSI.2 – Major land and water features of North America, including their importance in history.USI.9 – Causes, events, and effects of the Civil War.Virginia and United States History CourseVUS.7 – Knowledge of the Civil War and Reconstruction eras.Virginia's SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/. Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade. Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade. Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten. Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade. Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade. Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade. Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics
CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:05).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 5-6-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the weeks of May 9 and May 16, 2022. This episode from is part of a series this year of episodes related to trees and shrubs. MUSIC – ~14 sec – instrumental. That's part of “New Spring Waltz,” by the late Madeline MacNeil, who was a well-known and highly regarded musician based in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley. Each new spring brings a chance to focus on the life cycles of wildlife. This mid-spring episode of Water Radio explores some connections among nesting birds, trees, and water. Have a listen for about 30 seconds to three mystery sounds, and see if you know these three bird species who nest in trees near water, either always or at least sometimes. And here's a hint: you'll be singing a melodious trill, if you hit this mystery out of the park. SOUNDS - 29 sec. If you guessed two warblers and an oriole, you're right! And you get bodacious bird bragging rights if you recognized, first, the Prothonotary Warbler; second, the Northern Parula, also a kind of warbler; and third, the bird for which Baltimore's baseball team is named, the Baltimore Oriole. All three of these songbirds are found in Virginia in the spring and summer breeding season. During that period, the Prothonotary Warbler is common in Virginia's central and southern Coastal Plain and can occasionally be found in some other parts of the Commonwealth; the Baltimore Oriole is common outside of the Coastal Plain; and the Northern Parula is common statewide. The three species show a range of attachment to water-side trees as their nesting habitat. The Prothonotary Warbler is particularly known for nesting in cavities in trees around water; in fact, the bird is sometimes called the “Swamp Warbler” in the southeastern United States. The Northern Parula typically nests in trees along rivers and wetlands, especially in areas where it can find the materials it prefers for making its hanging nests: Spanish Moss or a kind of stringy lichen; this bird is also known to make nests out of debris left in trees after floods. The Baltimore Oriole is the least water-attached of these three species, being found nesting high in trees in many areas outside of deep woods, including parks and yards; however, streamsides are among the species preferred areas for the bird's fibrous, hanging nests. If you're near streams, rivers, or wetlands and you see or hear any of these three birds, look to nearby trees for cavities or hanging materials that may be harboring the birds' next generation. Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use the bird sounds, from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs. Thanks also to Janita Baker of Blue Lion Dulcimers and Guitars for permission to use Madeline MacNeil's music, and we close with about 25 more seconds of “New Spring Waltz.” MUSIC – ~26 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment. For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624. Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode. In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS “New Spring Waltz” is from Madeline MacNeil's 2002 album “Songs of Earth & Sea”; copyright held by Janita Baker, used with permission. More information about Madeline MacNeil is available from Ms. Baker's “Blue Lion Dulcimers & Guitars” Web site, online at https://www.bluelioninstruments.com/Maddie.html. The sounds of the Baltimore Oriole, Northern Parula, and Prothonotary Warbler were from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott. Lang Elliot's work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode. More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES Baltimore Oriole at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife's National Conservation Training Center in Shepherdstown, W. Va., August 2015. Photo by Michelle Smith, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov; the specific URL for the photograph washttps://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/17342/rec/2, as of 5-9-22.Northern Parula at Kennebago Lake in Maine, July 2011. Photo by Bill Thompson, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov; the specific URL for the photograph was https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/12961/rec/1, as of 5-9-22.Prothonotary Warbler bringing food to its nest in South Carolina, March 2012. Photo by Mark Musselman, made available for public use by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library, online at http://digitalmedia.fws.gov; the specific URL for the photograph was https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/14152/rec/3, as of 5-9-22. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT THE BIRDS IN THIS EPISODE The scientific names of the birds in this episode are as follows: Baltimore Oriole – Icterus galbula;Northern Parula – Setophaga Americana (formerly Parula americana);Prothonotary Warbler – Protonotaria citrea. SOURCES Used for Audio Chesapeake Bay Program, “Birds,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/all/birds/all. The Baltimore Oriole entry is online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/entry/baltimore_oriole. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org.The Baltimore Oriole entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Baltimore_Oriole;the Northern Parula entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Northern_Parula/;the Prothonotary Warbler entry is online at https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Prothonotary_Warbler. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Birds of the World,” online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/home (subscription required). The Baltimore Oriole entry is online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/species/balori/cur/introduction; the Northern Parula entry is online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/species/norpar/cur/introduction; the Prothonotary Warbler entry is online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/species/prowar/cur/introduction. Merriam-Webster, “Warble,” online at https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/warble. Chandler S. Robbins et al. A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin's Press, New York, N.Y., 2001. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries):“Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/.The Baltimore Oriole entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040348&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19117;the Northern Parula entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040312&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19117;the Prothonotary Warbler entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040303&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19117. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “List of Native and Naturalized Fauna in Virginia, August 2020,” online (as a PDF) at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf. For More Information about Birds in Virginia and Elsewhere Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.” The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird. Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird,” online at https://ebird.org/home. Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations. Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, “Animal Diversity Web,” online at https://animaldiversity.org/. Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/. The Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth. Xeno-canto Foundation, online at http://www.xeno-canto.org/. This site provides bird songs from around the world. For More Information about Trees and Shrubs in Virginia and Elsewhere Center for Watershed Protection, “Trees and Stormwater Runoff,” online at https://www.cwp.org/reducing-stormwater-runoff/. Chesapeake Bay Program, “Field Guide: Plants and Trees,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/all/plants_trees/all. eFloras.org, “Flora of North America,” online at http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1. Sanglin Lee and Alan Raflo, “Trees and Water,” Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Virginia Water Central Newsletter, pages 13-18, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/49367. (A Virginia Cooperative Extension version of this article—“Trees and Water,” by Sanglin Lee, Alan Raflo, and Jennifer Gagnon, 2018—with some slight differences in the text is available online at https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/content/pubs_ext_vt_edu/en/ANR/ANR-18/ANR-18NP.html.) Texas A&M University AgriLife Extension, “How Trees Grow,” online at https://agrilife.org/treecarekit/introduction-to-tree-care/how-trees-grow/. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Forests of Virginia, 2018, Resource Update FS-264, Asheville, N.C., 2020; available online at https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/59963. U.S. Department of Agriculture/U.S. Forest Service, “State and Private Forestry Fact Sheet—Virginia 2022,” online (as a PDF) at https://apps.fs.usda.gov/nicportal/temppdf/sfs/naweb/VA_std.pdf. U.S. Department of Agriculture/Forest Service/Climate Change Resource Center, “Forest Tree Diseases and Climate Change,” online at https://www.fs.usda.gov/ccrc/topics/forest-disease. U.S. Department of Agriculture/Forest Service/Northern Research Station (Newtown Square, Penn.), “Forest Disturbance Processes/Invasive Species,” online at https://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/disturbance/invasive_species/.” U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)/Natural Resources Conservation Service, “PLANTS Database,” online at https://plants.usda.gov. Virginia Botanical Associates, “Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora,” online at http://www.vaplantatlas.org/index.php?do=start&search=Search. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation/Natural Heritage Division, online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural-heritage/. Virginia Department of Forestry, “Virginia's Forests,” online at https://dof.virginia.gov/. Some of the useful pages at that site are the following:“Benefits of Trees,”