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Virginia Water Radio
Episode 633 (8-1-22): Two Great Waterbirds

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Aug 2, 2022


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (3:58).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 8-1-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the weeks of August 1 and August 8, 2022.  This is a revised repeat of an episode from August 2015. SOUNDS – ~4 sec – call from Great Egret then from Great Blue Heron. In this episode, we feature two mystery sounds, and a guest voice, to explore two striking birds—striking in looks, and striking in how they hunt.  Have a listen for about 30 seconds, and see if you can guess these two long-necked, long-legged wading birds. SOUNDS AND GUEST VOICE – ~30 sec – Voice: “At once he stirs and steps into the water, wading with imperial self-possession on his three-pronged, dragonish feet.  The water could not tremble less at the passage of his stilt legs as he stalks his dinner.  His neck arches like the bending of a lithe bow, one of a piece with the snapping arrow of his beak.” If you guessed, egret or heron, you're right!  The first call was from a Great Egret and the second from a Great Blue Heron.  The guest voice was Alyson Quinn, reading part of her “Lesson from an Egret,” inspired by a September 2007 visit to the Potomac River.  The word “egret” derives from an old German word for “heron,” a fitting origin for the many similarities between these two big birds.  The Great Egret and the Great Blue Heron are the two largest of 12 North American species of herons, egrets, and bitterns.  The Great Egret is strikingly white, while the Great Blue has only a partially white head over a bluish-gray body.  But a white subspecies of the Great Blue, called the Great White Heron, occurs in Florida.  Great Egrets and Great Blues both typically feed in shallow water, taking fish, amphibians, and other prey by waiting and watching quietly, then quickly striking with their long, sharp beaks.  The two species also share a history of having been widely hunted for their long plumes in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the impact on their populations helped lead to nationwide bird-conservation efforts and organizations. Distinctive looks, behavior, and history make these two “Greats” a memorable and meaningful sight along Virginia's rivers, ponds, marshes, and other areas.  Thanks to Lang Elliott for permission to use this week's sounds, from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs, and thanks to Alyson Quinn for permission to share her “Lesson from an Egret,” which gets this episode closing words. GUEST VOICE – ~18 sec – “I want to be more like the egret, with the patience to be still without exhaustion, to never mind the idle currents or be dazzled by the glamour of light on water; but, knowing the good thing I wait for, to coil my hope in constant readiness, and to act in brave certitude when it comes.” SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 277, 8-10-15. The sounds of the Great Egret and the Great Blue Heron were taken from the Stokes Field Guide to Bird Songs-Eastern Region CD set, by Lang Elliott with Donald and Lillian Stokes (Time Warner Audio Books, copyright 1997), used with permission of Lang Elliott, whose work is available online at the “Music of Nature” Web site, http://www.musicofnature.org/. Excerpts of “Lesson from an Egret” are courtesy of Alyson Quinn, from her blog “Winterpast” (September 21, 2007, post), available online at http://www.winterispast.blogspot.com/, used with permission.  Ms. Quinn made the recording after a visit to Algonkian Regional Park, located in Sterling, Va. (Loudoun County), part of the Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority.  More information about the park is available online at https://www.novaparks.com/parks/algonkian-regional-park. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES (Except as otherwise noted, photographs are by Virginia Water Radio.) Upper two images: Great Egret along the New River near Parrott, Va. (Pulaski County); photos by Robert Abraham, used with permission.  Third image: Great Blue Heron in a marsh at Wachapreague, Va. (Accomack County), October 5, 2007.  Bottom image: Great Blue Heron in a stormwater pond on the Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg, July 28, 2015. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT GREAT EGRETS AND GREAT BLUE HERONS The following information is excerpted from the Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “Fish and Wildlife Information Service”: Great Egret “Life History” entry, online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040032&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19202; and Great Blue Heron “Life History” entry, online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040027&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19202. Great Egret Physical Description“Large, heavy, white heron with yellow-orange bill, black legs, long, slender neck, and long plumes extending beyond tail….” Behavior“Male selects territory that is used for hostile and sexual displays, copulation and nesting.  Adjacent feeding areas vigorously defended, both sexes defend.  …Migration occurs in fall and early spring along coast; winters further south than Virginia. …Foraging: alone in open situations; prefers fresh or brackish waters, openings in swamps, along streams or ponds; wader: stalks prey; known to participate in the 'leap-frog' feeding when initiated by cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis).  Prey are taken in shallow waters; prey usually includes insects, fish, frogs (adults and tadpoles), small birds, snakes, crayfish, and many others.  Nesting: in trees or thickets, 3-90 ft. above water in willows, holly, red cedar, cypress, and bayberry on dry ground in marshes.” Population Comments“Dangerously near extermination in early part of [20th] century due to plume hunting; population comeback hampered by loss of habitat, exposure to DDT and other toxic chemicals and metals. …[Predators include] crows and vultures….” Great Blue Heron Physical Description“Large grayish heron with yellowish bill, white on head, cinnamon on neck, and black legs,” Behavior“Territoriality: known to have feeding territory in non-breeding seasons, defended against members of same species.  Range: breeds from central Canada to northern Central America and winters from middle United States throughout Central America; in Virginia, is a permanent resident of the Coastal Plain. …Foraging: stands motionless in shallow water waiting on prey; occasionally fishes on the wing along watercourses, meadows and fields far from water.  They also take frogs, snakes, insects, and other aquatic animals.  Nesting: predominately in tall cedar and pine swamps, but may also be found on the ground, rock ledges, and sea cliffs; nests on platform of sticks, generally in colonies….” Aquatic/Terrestrial Associations“Salt or fresh shallow waters of lakes, ponds, marshes, streams, bays, oceans, tidal flats, and sandbars; feeds in surf, wet meadows, pastures, and dry fields.” SOURCES Used for Audio Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “All About Birds,” online at http://www.allaboutbirds.org. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Birds of the World,” online at https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/home  (subscription required). Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson, Life in the Chesapeake Bay, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2006. Merriam-Webster  Dictionary:“Egret,” online at https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/egret;“Heron,” online at https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/heron. National Audubon Society, “History of Audubon and Science-based Bird Conservation,” online at http://www.audubon.org/content/history-audubon-and-waterbird-conservation. Oxford Dictionaries/Oxford University Press:“Egret,” online at http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/egret;“Heron,” online at http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/heron. Chandler S. Robbins et al., A Guide to Field Identification of Birds of North America, St. Martin's Press, New York, 2001. Stan Tekiela, Birds of Virginia Field Guide, Adventure Publications, Inc., Cambridge, Minn., 2002. Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries), “Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/:Great Blue Heron entry, online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040027&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19202;Great Egret entry, online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=040032&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19202;“List of Native and Naturalized Fauna in Virginia, August 2020,” online (as a PDF) at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf.The Waterbird Society, online at https://waterbirds.org/. Joel C. Welty, The Life of Birds, W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Penn., 1975. For More Information about Birds in Virginia and Elsewhere Chesapeake Bay Program, “Birds,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/all/birds/all. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology, “Merlin Photo ID.”  The application for mobile devices allows users to submit a bird photograph to get identification of the bird. Information is available online at http://merlin.allaboutbirds.org/. Cornell University Lab of Ornithology and the Audubon Society, “eBird,” online at https://ebird.org/home.  Here you can find locations of species observations made by contributors, and you can sign up to contribute your own observations. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, “Animal Diversity Web,” online at https://animaldiversity.org. Virginia Society of Ornithology, online at http://www.virginiabirds.org/.  The Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the study, conservation, and enjoyment of birds in the Commonwealth. Xeno-canto Foundation, online at http://www.xeno-canto.org/.  This site provides bird songs from around the world.  RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Birds” subject category. Following are links to some other episodes on birds in the family of herons, egrets, night-herons, and bitterns.Episode 118, 7-9-12 – Summertime sampler of birds, including Great Blue Heron. Episode 127, 9-10-12 – Green Heron. Episode 235, 10-13-14 – Black-crowned Night Heron.Episode 381, 8-14-17 – Midnight sounds near water, including Great Blue Heron.Episode 430, 7-23-18 – Marsh birds in Virginia, including Great Blue Heron and Least Bittern.Episode 478, 6-24-19 – Little Blue Heron.Episode 603, 11-15-21 – Fall bird migration, including Green Heron and Snowy Egret. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post.2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-4: Living Systems and Processes1.5 – Animals, including humans, have basic life needs that allow them to survive. 2.5 – Living things are part of a system. 3.4 – Adaptations allow organisms to satisfy life needs and respond to the environment. 3.5 – Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems support a diversity of organisms. 4.2 – Plants and animals have structures that distinguish them from one another and play vital roles in their ability to survive. 4.3 – Organisms, including humans, interact with one another and with the nonliving components in the ecosystem. Grades K-5: Earth ResourcesK.11 – Humans use resources.1.8 – Natural resources can be used responsibly.3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems.4.8 – Virginia has important natural resources.

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Virginia Water Radio
Episode 632 (7-18-22): Checking on the Chesapeake's Condition

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 18, 2022


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (5:30).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments Images Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 7-15-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the weeks of July 18 and July 25, 2022. SOUNDS – ~6 sec Those sounds of shorebirds and Chesapeake Bay waves open an episode on the condition of that bay, which we last explored in an August 2020 episode.  We set the stage with the instrumental opening of a song whose title calls to mind some colors of the Chesapeake region's waters, lands, sky, and creatures.  Here's about 30 seconds of “The Deep Blue Green,” by Andrew VanNorstrand. MUSIC – ~31 sec – instrumental In June 2022, the University of Maryland's Center for Environmental Science issued its latest annual Chesapeake Bay and Watershed Report Card, for conditions in 2021.  For the report's first part, to assess Bay waters, the report compares the status of several physical, chemical, and biological indicators to established goals, in order to generate condition scores ranging from zero to 100%.  Combining the indicator scores, the overall score for 2021 was 50, an increase from the 45 score for 2020 data; the report characterized the 50 score as “moderate health” and gave it a letter grade of C.  The score when the Report Card started in 1986 was 48; the highest score since then was 55 in 2002, and the lowest was 36 in 2003. For the report's second part, the overall watershed assessment, the report for 2021 looked at three categories of indicators: ecological, societal, and economic.  These resulted in a score of 56, characterized as “moderate health” and given a letter grade of C+.  This was the first year that three categories of indicators were used for the watershed assessment, so the results aren't directly comparable to previous years. Besides the Maryland center's annual report, several other Bay condition reports are regularly available.  These include the Chesapeake Bay Program's annual “Bay Barometer” report; the Bay Program's “Chesapeake Progress” Web site, with updates on progress toward the goals of the 2014 Chesapeake Bay Agreement; the Chesapeake Bay Foundation's biennial “State of the Bay” report; and reports by various groups on specific Bay areas, such as the James River Association's “State of the James” reports.  All depend on data gathered by various sources, including universities; governmental agencies at the federal, state, and local levels; and non-governmental organizations. The Chesapeake Bay is the United States' largest estuary.  Monitoring its condition is a large part of decades-old efforts to improve and sustain this irreplaceable water body. Thanks to Andrew VanNorstrand for permission to use “The Deep Blue Green.”  We close with about 50 seconds of another musical selection, created for our previous episode on Chesapeake Bay conditions.  Here's “Chesapeake Bay Ballad,” by Torrin Hallett, a graduate student at the Yale School of Music. MUSIC – ~51 sec – instrumental SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The waves sound was recorded by Virginia Water Radio at the Chesapeake Bay on Kent Island, Maryland, June 22, 2010. The shorebirds sound was taken from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife National Digital Library, http://digitalmedia.fws.gov/cdm/; the specific audio file was “Shore birds close,” online at https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/audio/id/66/rec/8. “The Deep Blue Green,” from the 2019 album “That We Could Find a Way to Be,” is copyright by Andrew VanNorstrand, used with permission.  More information about Andrew VanNorstrand is available online at https://greatbearrecords.bandcamp.com/.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 504, 12-23-19. “Chesapeake Bay Ballad” is copyright 2020 by Torrin Hallett, used with permission.  Torrin is a 2018 graduate of Oberlin College and Conservatory in Oberlin, Ohio; a 2020 graduate in Horn Performance from Manhattan School of Music in New York; and a 2021 graduate of the Lamont School of Music at the University of Denver.  He is currently a graduate student at the Yale School of Music.  More information about Torrin is available online at https://www.facebook.com/torrin.hallett.  Thanks very much to Torrin for composing the piece especially for Virginia Water Radio.  This music was used previously by Virginia Water Radio most recently in Episode 604, 11-22-21. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGES (Unless otherwise noted, photographs are by Virginia Water Radio.) View of the Chesapeake Bay looking downstream from the Bay Bridge-Tunnel (between Virginia Beach and Northampton County), October 7, 2007.View of the Chesapeake Bay looking upstream from Sandy Point State Park in Anne Arundel County, Maryland, March 21, 2010.Summary charts for Chesapeake Bay waters (upper) and watershed (lower) from the “Chesapeake Bay & Watershed 2021 Report Card” (covering data through 2021; published in June 2022), University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science.  Images accessed from the report PDF, online at https://ecoreportcard.org/site/assets/files/2560/2021-chesapeake-bay-watershed-report-card.pdf, as of 7-18-22. SOURCES Used for Audio Chesapeake Bay Foundation, “State of the Bay,” online at https://www.cbf.org/about-the-bay/state-of-the-bay-report/. Chesapeake Bay Program, online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/.  Specific pages used were the following:“Slight improvements in Bay health and new economic data added in 2021 Chesapeake Bay Report Card,” June 7, 2022, news release by Caroline Grass;“Bay Barometer,” April 2021 (for 2019-20 data), online (as a PDF) at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/documents/Bay_Barometer_2019-2020_Web.pdf;“Chesapeake Bay Watershed Agreement” (signed June 16, 2014), online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/what/what_guides_us/watershed_agreement;“Chesapeake Progress,” online at https://www.chesapeakeprogress.com/;“The Estuary,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/the_estuary_system.Jeremy Cox and Timothy Wheeler, “Maryland, Virginia clamp down on crab harvests; cuts imposed as crab population hits record-low,” Bay Journal, June 30, 2022. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, “2022 Blue Crab Winter Dredge Survey,” online at https://dnr.maryland.gov/fisheries/Pages/blue-crab/dredge.aspx.Maryland Department of Natural Resources, “Eyes on the Bay,” online at http://eyesonthebay.dnr.maryland.gov/.See http://eyesonthebay.dnr.maryland.gov/eyesonthebay/whatsitmean.cfmfor “Data Available for Viewing” (dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, turbidity, algal blooms, and temperature).See http://eyesonthebay.dnr.maryland.gov/eyesonthebay/links.cfmfor links to other Bay water-quality data and information sources.University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, online at https://www.umces.edu/.The “Chesapeake Bay & Watershed Report Card” is online at https://ecoreportcard.org/report-cards/chesapeake-bay/; note links for “Bay Health,” “Watershed Health,” and “Indicators.”A June 6, 2022, news release on the report of 2021 data is online https://www.umces.edu/news/chesapeake-bay-health-score-held-steady-in-2021.A PDF of the report of 2021 data is online at https://ecoreportcard.org/site/assets/files/2560/2021-chesapeake-bay-watershed-report-card.pdf. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, “How big is the [Chesapeake] bay?”  Online at https://www.vims.edu/bayinfo/faqs/estuary_size.php. For More Information about the Chesapeake Bay and its ConditionChesapeake Bay Program, “Discover the Chesapeake,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover. Alice Jane Lippson and Robert L. Lippson, Life in the Chesapeake Bay, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md., 2006. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, “Chesapeake Bay Map,” online at https://coastalscience.noaa.gov/products/vmrc-chesapeake-bay-map/.Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Chesapeake Bay,” online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/chesapeake-bay. Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS):“Bay Info,” online at https://www.vims.edu/bayinfo/index.php;“SAV Program: Monitoring and Restoration,” online at https://www.vims.edu/research/units/programs/sav/index.php;“Virginia Coastal and Estuarine Observing System,” online at http://vecos.vims.edu/. Virginia Marine Resources Commission, online at https://mrc.virginia.gov/links.shtm. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Rivers, Streams, and Other Surface Water” subject category.  The previous episode on Chesapeake Bay conditions was Episode 537, 8-10-20, Following are links to some other episodes on the Chesapeake Bay. Bay Barometer and other reports – Episode 305, 2-29-16.Bay Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), Phase II Watershed Implementation Plan – Episode 115, 6-18-12.Bay TMDL, Phase III Watershed Implementation Plan – Episode 475, 6-3-19.Chesapeake Bay Commission – Episode 496, 10-28-19.Estuaries introduction – Episode 326, 7-25-16.Oysters and nitrogen (Part 1) – Episode 279, 8-24-15.Oysters and nitrogen (Part 2) – Episode 280, 9-7-15.“Smart” buoys – Episode 538, 8-17-20.Submerged aquatic vegetation (“Bay grasses”) – Episode 325, 7-18-16.Winter birds of the Chesapeake Bay area – EP565 – 2/22/21. Following are other music pieces composed by Torrin Hallett for Virginia Water Radio, with episodes featuring the music.“A Little Fright Music” – used in Episode 548, 10-26-20, on water-related passages in fiction and non-fiction, for Halloween; and Episode 601, 10-31-21, connections among Halloween, water, and the human body.“Beetle Ballet” – used in Episode 525, 5-18-20, on aquatic beetles.“Corona Cue” – used in Episode 517, 3-23-20, on the coronavirus pandemic. “Flow Stopper” – used in Episode 599, 10-18-21, on “Imagine a Day Without Water.”“Geese Piece” – used most recently in 615, 2-7-22, on Brant.“Ice Dance” – “Ice Dance” – used most recently in Episode 606, 12-6-21, on freezing of water.“Lizard Lied” – used in Episode 514, 3-2-20, on lizards. “New Year's Water” – used most recently in Episode 610, 1-3-22, on water thermodynamics and a New Year's Day New River wade-in.“Rain Refrain” – used most recently in Episode 559, 1-11-21, on record rainfall in 2020.“Runoff” – in Episode 585, 7-12-21 – on middle schoolers calling out stormwater-related water words.“Spider Strike” – used in Episode 523, 5-4-20, on fishing spiders.“Tropical Tantrum” – used most recently in Episode 580, 6-7-21, on the 2021 Atlantic tropical storm season preview.“Tundra Swan Song – used in Episode 554, 12-7-20, on Tundra Swans.“Turkey Tune” – used in Episode 343, 11-21-16, on the Wild Turkey.“Wade in the Water” (arrangement) – used most recently in Episode 616, 2-14-22.  FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-4: Living Systems and Processes2.5 – Living things are part of a system.3.5 – Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems support a diversity of organisms.4.3 – Organisms, including humans, interact with one another and with the nonliving components in the ecosystem. Grades K-5: Earth and Space Systems3.7 – There is a water cycle and water is important to life on Earth.4.7 – The ocean environment.Grades K-5: Earth Resources 1.8 – Natural resources can be used responsibly, including that most natural resources are limited; human actions can affect the availability of natural resources; and reducing, reusing, and recycling are ways to conserve natural resources.3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems.4.8 – Virginia has important natural resources. Grade 66.6 – Water has unique physical properties and has a role in the natural and human-made environment.6.8 – Land and water have roles in watershed systems.6.9 – Humans impact the environment and individuals can influence public policy decisions related to energy and the environment. Life ScienceLS.6 – Populations in a biological community interact and are interdependent.LS.8 – Change occurs in ecosystems, communities, populations, and organisms over time.LS.9 – Relationships exist between ecosystem dynamics and human activity.LS.11 – Populations of organisms can change over time. Earth ScienceES.6 – Resource use is complex.ES.8 – Freshwater resources influence and are influenced by geologic processes and human activity.ES.10 – Oceans are complex, dynamic systems subject to long- and short-term variations. BiologyBIO.2 – Chemical and biochemical processes are essential for life.BIO.7 – Populations change through time.BIO.8 – Dynamic equilibria exist within populations, communities, and ecosystems. 2015 Social Studies SOLs Grades K-3 Geography Theme1.6 – Virginia climate, seasons, and landforms.2.6 – Major rivers, mountains, and other geographic features of North America and other continents.3.6 – Major rivers, mountains, and other geographic features of North America and other continents. Grades K-3 Economics Theme2.8 – Natural, human, and capital resources.3.8 – Understanding of cultures and of how natural, human, and capital resources are used for goods and services. Grades K-3 Civics Theme3.12 – Importance of government in community, Virginia, and the United States. Virginia Studies CourseVS.1 – Impact of geographic features on people, places, and events in Virginia history.VS.10 – Knowledge of government, geography, and economics in present-day Virginia. United States History to 1865 CourseUSI.2 – Major land and water features of North America, including their importance in history. United States History: 1865-to-Present CourseUSII.9 – Domestic and international issues during the second half of the 20th Century and the early 21st Century. Civics and Economics CourseCE.6 – Government at the national level.CE.7 – Government at the state level.CE.8 – Government at the local level.CE.10 – Public policy at local, state, and national levels. World Geography CourseWG.2 – How selected physical and ecological processes shape the Earth's surface, including climate, weather, and how humans influence their environment and are influenced by it.WG.3 – How regional landscapes reflect the physical environment and the cultural characteristics of their inhabitants.WG.4 – Types and significance of natural, human, and capital resources. Government CourseGOVT.7 – National government organization and powers.GOVT.8 – State and local government organization and powers.GOVT.9 – Public policy process at local, state, and national levels.GOVT.15 – Role of government in Va. and U.S. economies, including examining environmental issues and property rights.Virginia's SOLs are available from the Virginia Department of Education, online at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/testing/. Following are links to Water Radio episodes (various topics) designed especially for certain K-12 grade levels.Episode 250, 1-26-15 – on boiling, for kindergarten through 3rd grade. Episode 255, 3-2-15 – on density, for 5th and 6th grade. Episode 282, 9-21-15 – on living vs. non-living, for kindergarten. Episode 309, 3-28-16 – on temperature regulation in animals, for kindergarten through 12th grade. Episode 333, 9-12-16 – on dissolved gases, especially dissolved oxygen in aquatic habitats, for 5th grade. Episode 404, 1-22-18 – on ice on ponds and lakes, for 4th through 8th grade. Episode 407, 2-12-18 – on snow chemistry and physics, for high school. Episode 483, 7-29-19 – on buoyancy and drag, for middle school and high school. Episode 524, 5-11-20 – on sounds by water-related animals, for elementary school through high school. Episode 531, 6-29-20 – on various ways that animals get water, for 3rd and 4th grade. Episode 539, 8-24-20 – on basic numbers and facts about Virginia's water resources, for 4th and 6th grade. Episode 606, 12-6-21 – on freezing and ice, for kindergarten through 3rd grade.

Virginia Water Radio
Episode 631 (7-4-22): Frogs and Fireworks

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Jul 1, 2022


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:22).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImageExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 6-30-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the weeks of July 4 and July 11, 2022.  This is a repeat of a 2016 episode celebrating the July 4th holiday.  The episode features Virginia Tech master's degree graduate Kriddie Whitmore as a guest voice. SOUNDS - ~ 4 sec – Gray Treefrogs and fireworks. This week, for Independence Day episode, we drop in on a most unusual July 4th conversation: two Gray Treefrogs, surrounded by fireworks, are debating U.S. water history.  Sound unimaginable?  Well, just have a listen. SOUNDS - ~2 sec – Frogs and fireworks. Frog 1 – There those humans go again, shootin' off their fireworks and makin' it hard for us frogs to hear each other's calls!  What's all the ruckus about, anyway? Frog 2 - Why, it's July 4th!  They're celebrating this country's Declaration of Independence in 1776 from Great Britain.  I think it's cool—at least it's a break from hearing YOU guys calling every evening. Frog 1 – And just why are YOU so excited about the birthday of this big, bustling, human country?  Seems to me that it's been nothing but trouble for aquatic habitats and creatures like us since those first ships came over here from that Europe place.  Everywhere we try to hop, there's polluted rivers and lakes, lost wetlands and other habitats, and hot, dry pavement. Frog 2 – Well, yeah, you're right, partly.  This country's waters have had a pretty hard history.  And we amphibians have had the worst of it in some cases and places, with this permeable skin we have.  But you're forgetting about some positive things.  The humans' Congress passed the Clean Water Act in 1972, and a bunch other important acts, too.  And right here in this state, Virginia, the constitution says it's the Commonwealth's policy to protect its atmosphere, lands, and waters from pollution, impairment, or destruction. Frog 1 - Have all those things done any good? Frog 2 – Well, not always or everywhere.  Just in Virginia, hundreds of water bodies are impaired and need expensive clean-up programs.  For instance, I've got cousins living near that Chesapeake Bay, and they tell me every year it's some things good, other things fair, and still others needing a ton of work.  But many rivers and lakes certainly are in better shape than they were 40 or 50 years ago; the Potomac River's one example.  Those humans have many competing interests, so sometimes what they do isn't so good for water, or lands, or creatures like us. But other times, it is.  People have learned a lot over the years about using and managing natural resources more sustainably, and all kinds of people work hard trying to do that. Frog 1 - Yeah, I guess you're right.  You know, it's not easy being a frog, but I guess it's pretty tough being a person, too. Frog 2 – Now that's a pretty realistic call! SOUNDS - ~3 sec – fireworks.Frog 2  – Hey, there's the fireworks finale.  And that sounds like the Air Force Concert Band playing one of my favorites, “The Washington Post,” by John Philip Sousa.  Let's have a quick listen, then we better get back under cover.  All the humans will be coming back from the fireworks soon. Both frogs – Happy July 4th!MUSIC - ~ 14 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode replaces Episode 323, 7-4-16, and Episode 427, 7-2-18. Virginia Water Radio thanks Kriddie Whitmore, a 2016 master's degree graduate in Forestry from Virginia Tech, for participating as the guest voice in this episode. Thanks also to Jennifer Gagnon, Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Conservation, for reviewing a draft of the episode. This episode's frog and fireworks sounds were recorded Blacksburg, Va., around 9:30 p.m. on July 4, 2015. This episode's music was an excerpt of “The Washington Post,” written by John Philip Sousa in 1889, and performed here by the United States Air Force Concert Band on their 2001 album “I Am An American,” accessed online at http://www.allmusic.com/album/i-am-an-american-mw0002256231, as of 6-29-22.  Information about “The Washington Post” is available from the United States Marine Band, “Sousa-The Washington Post” (3:30 video), online at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mxrh1CrMmTY; and “The President's Own/John Philip Sousa,” online at http://www.marineband.marines.mil/About/Our-History/John-Philip-Sousa/. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGE (Unless otherwise noted, photographs are by Virginia Water Radio.) Gray Treefrog (Hyla versicolor) on the deck of a residence in Blacksburg, Va., Sep. 23, 2009. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT CONSERVATION IN THE VIRGINIA CONSTITUTION Following are the four sections of Article XI, “Conservation,” of the Virginia Constitution, as accessed at the Virginia Legislative Information System, online at https://law.lis.virginia.gov/constitution/article11/, on June 30, 2022.Section 1. Natural resources and historical sites of the Commonwealth.To the end that the people have clean air, pure water, and the use and enjoyment for recreation of adequate public lands, waters, and other natural resources, it shall be the policy of the Commonwealth to conserve, develop, and utilize its natural resources, its public lands, and its historical sites and buildings.  Further, it shall be the Commonwealth's policy to protect its atmosphere, lands, and waters from pollution, impairment, or destruction, for the benefit, enjoyment, and general welfare of the people of the Commonwealth. Section 2. Conservation and development of natural resources and historical sites. In the furtherance of such policy, the General Assembly may undertake the conservation, development, or utilization of lands or natural resources of the Commonwealth, the acquisition and protection of historical sites and buildings, and the protection of its atmosphere, lands, and waters from pollution, impairment, or destruction, by agencies of the Commonwealth or by the creation of public authorities, or by leases or other contracts with agencies of the United States, with other states, with units of government in the Commonwealth, or with private persons or corporations.  Notwithstanding the time limitations of the provisions of Article X, Section 7, of this Constitution, the Commonwealth may participate for any period of years in the cost of projects which shall be the subject of a joint undertaking between the Commonwealth and any agency of the United States or of other states. Section 3. Natural oyster beds. The natural oyster beds, rocks, and shoals in the waters of the Commonwealth shall not be leased, rented, or sold but shall be held in trust for the benefit of the people of the Commonwealth, subject to such regulations and restriction as the General Assembly may prescribe, but the General Assembly may, from time to time, define and determine such natural beds, rocks, or shoals by surveys or otherwise. Section 4. Right of the people to hunt, fish, and harvest game. The people have a right to hunt, fish, and harvest game, subject to such regulations and restrictions as the General Assembly may prescribe by general law.SOURCES Used for Audio Chesapeake Bay Program, online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/; and “Slight improvements in Bay health and new economic data added in 2021 Chesapeake Bay Report Card,” June 7, 2022, news release, online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/news/blog/slight_improvements_in_bay_health_and_new_economic_data_added_in_2021_chesa.Commonwealth of Virginia, Constitution of Virginia, “Article XI Conservation,” accessed online at https://law.lis.virginia.gov/constitution/article11/. John D. Kleopfer and Chris S. Hobson, A Guide to the Frogs and Toad of Virginia, Special Publication Number 3, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (now Department of Wildlife Resources), Richmond, Va., 2011. Bernard S. Martof, et al., Amphibians and Reptiles of the Carolinas and Virginia, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1980. Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, “Water Quality Monitoring in the Potomac Estuary,” online at http://www.mwcog.org/environment/water/potomacestuary.asp.Thomas V. Cech, Principles of Water Resources: History, Development, Management, and Policy, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y., 2003.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency:“National Aquatic Resources Surveys,” online at https://www.epa.gov/national-aquatic-resource-surveys;“Summary of the Clean Water Act,” online at https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-clean-water-act.Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, “Water Quality Assessments/Integrated Report,” online at https://www.deq.virginia.gov/water/water-quality/assessments/integrated-report.Zygmunt J. B. Plater et al., Environmental Law and Policy: Nature, Law, and Society, West Publishing Co., St. Paul, Minn., 1998. For More Information about Amphibians in Virginia and Elsewhere AmphibiaWeb, https://amphibiaweb.org/index.html. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, “Animal Diversity Web,” online at https://animaldiversity.org. J.C. Mitchell and K.K. Reay, Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Virginia, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries/Richmond (1999); available online (as a PDF) at https://www.virginiaherpetologicalsociety.com/atlases/mitchell-atlas.pdf, courtesy of the Virginia Herpetological Society.  (Herpetology is the study of amphibians and reptiles.) Virginia Department of Wildlife Resources (formerly Department of Game and Inland Fisheries):“A Guide to Virginia's Frogs and Toads,” online at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wildlife/frogs-and-toads/;“A Guide to the Salamanders of Virginia,” online at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wildlife/salamanders/;“Fish and Wildlife Information Service,” online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/(the Gray Treefrog entry is online at https://services.dwr.virginia.gov/fwis/booklet.html?&bova=020007&Menu=_.Taxonomy&version=19173);“List of Native and Naturalized Fauna in Virginia, August 2020,” online (as a PDF) at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/virginia-native-naturalized-species.pdf;“Virginia is for Frogs,” online at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wildlife/virginia-is-for-frogs/;“Wildlife Information,” online at https://dwr.virginia.gov/wildlife/information/. Virginia Herpetological Society, “Frogs and Toads of Virginia,” online at https://www.virginiaherpetologicalsociety.com/amphibians/frogsandtoads/frogs_and_toads_of_virginia.htm. For More Information about Federal Environmental and Natural Resources LawsCornell University Law School/Legal Information Institute:“Environmental Law,” online at https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/environmental_law; “Natural Resources,” online at https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/natural_resources. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “Laws and Regulations,” online at https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations.  The section for the Clean Water Act is online at https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-clean-water-act; the section for the Endangered Species Act is online at https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-endangered-species-act; the section for the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is online at https://www.epa.gov/nepa. For More Information about Virginia Natural Resources Laws Virginia Secretary of Natural Resources Web site, online at http://naturalresources.virginia.gov/.  See the “Agencies” link to access the various Virginia state agencies involved with resources regulation and management. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Amphibians” and “History” subject categories. Following is the link to another episode on Gray Treefrogs.Episode 528, 6-8-20. Following are links to other episodes done for July 4th. Episode 168, 7-1-13 – Water and the Revolutionary War.Episode 220, 6-30-14 – Water origins of Virginia Declaration signers.Episode 273, 7-6-15 – The Great Road on the Virginia Peninsula.FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-4: Living Systems and ProcessesK.7 – Plants and animals have basic needs and life processes.1.5 – Animals, including humans, have basic life needs that allow them to survive.2.5 – Living things are part of a system.3.5 – Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems support a diversity of organisms.4.3 – Organisms, including humans, interact with one another and with the nonliving components in the ecosystem. Grades K-5: Earth and Space Systems3.7 – There is a water cycle and water is important to life on Earth. Grades K-5: Earth ResourcesK.11 – Humans use resources.1.8 – Natural resources can be used responsibly, including that most natural resources are limited; human actions can affect the availability of natural resources; and reducing, reusing, and recycling are ways to conserve natural resources.3.8 – Natural events and humans influence ecosystems.4.8 – Virginia has important natural resources. Grade 66.6 – Water has unique physical properties and has a role in the natural and human-made environment.6.8 – Land and water have roles in watershed systems.6.9 – Humans impact the environment and individuals can influence public policy decisions related to energy and the environment. Life ScienceLS.9 – Relationships exist between ecosystem dynamics and human activity. Earth ScienceES.6 – Resource use is complex.ES.8 – Freshwater resources influence and are influenced by geologic processes and human activity.ES.10 – Oceans are complex, dynamic systems subject to long- and short-term variations. Biology&

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Virginia Water Radio
Episode 625 (4-18-22): Ash Trees, Insect Impacts, and Water Consequences

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Apr 20, 2022


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:38).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments ImagesExtra Information Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 4-15-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of April 18, 2022.  This update of an episode from July 2017 is part of a series this year of episodes related to trees and shrubs. MUSIC – ~14 sec That's part of “The Ash Grove,” a traditional Welsh tune performed by Madeline MacNeil, on her 2002 album, “Songs of Earth & Sea.”  Born in Norfolk and raised in Richmond, Ms. MacNeil was a well-known and highly regarded musician based in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley until her passing in 2020. The music opens an episode where we revisit the status of North American ash trees and explore the water impacts of pest damage to trees generally. As noted in the July 2017 episode on ashes, North America is home to 16 native ash species, with six of those occurring naturally in Virginia.  The two most common ash species in Virginia are White Ash, which tends toward upland habitats, and Green Ash, which is often found along streams and rivers.  In those areas, Green Ash can be a significant portion of the vegetation and help create habitats, improve water quality, and stabilize flows.  Both species provide food for a variety of animals and both have been widely planted in cities and towns. Since the early 2000s, ash tree populations have been devastated by the spread of the Emerald Ash Borer, a beetle native to Asia.  As of April 2022, the insect had been found in at least 35 states and the District of Columbia, and in nearly all of Virginia.  In an affected tree, the insect's larvae create a network of tunnels that impair the tree's transport of water and nutrients, eventually killing the tree.  Once an area's invaded, ashes are unlikely to survive for more than a few years without expensive chemical treatment of individual trees.  At the scale of whole forests, researchers and managers are exploring the use of parasitoid wasps as a biological control method. The Emerald Ash Borer is only one of many pest species threatening different trees in Virginia and elsewhere.  Several of these pests have been the subject of research on their water-related, or hydrologic, impacts.  Researchers are interested in how loss of tree leaves or death of trees can affect evaporation, soil moisture, water-table levels, streamflows, water chemistry, and snowpack.  Those water-cycle processes are in turn connected to ecosystem pathways of carbon, nutrients, and energy, all being affected by climate changes.  From all of these connections, little ash-boring beetles become part of a biosphere-sized story. Thanks to Janita Baker of Blue Lion Dulcimers and Guitars for permission to use Madeline MacNeil's music,” and we close with about 25 more seconds of “The Ash Grove.” MUSIC – ~24 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Ben Cosgrove for his version of “Shenandoah” to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode builds upon and updates information in Episode 376, 7-10-17. “The Ash Grove/O Spirit Sweet of Summertime” is from Madeline MacNeil's 2002 album “Songs of Earth & Sea”; copyright held by Janita Baker, used with permission.  More information about Madeline MacNeil is available from Ms. Baker's “Blue Lion Dulcimers & Guitars” Web site, online at https://www.bluelioninstruments.com/Maddie.html. Virginia Water Radio thanks Daniel McLaughlin, of the Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation and the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, for his help with this episode. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (2 min./22 sec.) of the “Shenandoah” arrangement/performance by Ben Cosgrove that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Cosgrove is available online at http://www.bencosgrove.com. IMAGES Emerald Ash Borer-infected White Ash tree that cracked and fell in a Blacksburg, Va., neighborhood in 2021.  Photo taken April 19, 2022.Nationwide range maps for ash tree species and the Emerald Ash Borer, as of January 2021.  Map from the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, “Emerald Ash Borer,” online at https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth/plant-pest-and-disease-programs/pests-and-diseases/emerald-ash-borer/emerald-ash-borer.Adult Emerald Ash Borer.  Photo from the the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, “Emerald Ash Borer,” online at https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth/plant-pest-and-disease-programs/pests-and-diseases/emerald-ash-borer/emerald-ash-borer. EXTRA INFORMATION ABOUT THE EMERALD ASH BORER The following information is quoted from the Virginia Department of Forestry, “Emerald Ash Borer in Virginia—An Introduction,” online at https://vdof.maps.arcgis.com/apps/MapSeries/index.html?appid=e2660c30d9cd46cc988cc72415101590. From Background Tab: “After only 1-5 years of infestation, the larvae create extensive tunnels under the bark that disrupt the tree's ability to transport water and nutrients, which eventually girdles and kills the tree. The length of this process depends on tree age, health, and EAB density in the area but no ash tree is safe - 99% of infested ash will die.” From Distribution Tab: “In the U.S., EAB targets 16 species of native ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) and white fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus).  In Virginia, white ash (Fraxinus americana) and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) are the most commonly found, though there are four other species that have limited ranges (pumpkin, black, blue, and Carolina ash). In the wild, ash often prefers wetter environments and are dominant species along rivers and streambanks.  Ash decline and death may have a negative impact on streambank stabilization and waterways in these rural areas.  Though only a small percentage of Virginia's forests are composed of ash (2-3%), urban areas can have tree inventories tallying up to 13% ash.  This is where dead ash poses the most risk!” From Biological Control Tab: “Biological control (or “biocontrol”) is a management strategy that involves releasing natural enemies from the pest's native range to control the pest at a given location.  Researchers identified wasps in the early 2000s from Eastern Asia that had co-evolved with emerald ash borers as a parasite to control its populations.  They then conducted extensive research in quarantined U.S. labs to study their life cycle, environmental parameters, and host species.  After nearly a decade of trials, only four wasp species passed the strict requirements set by the USDA-APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) and were approved for release.  APHIS now rears these wasps in large quantities then collaborates with federal, state, and local governments, as well as land owners to release them at approved sites.  These tiny stingless wasps lay eggs in EAB eggs or larvae, effectively killing the EAB host, and are commonly called “parasitoids.” ...These wasps do not harm humans in any way, they only target emerald ash borer as a host. The use of these biocontrol agents in suppressing EAB has shown promising results, but it will take years of controlled releases and research before we see successful parasitism and a reduction of the EAB population.” SOURCES Used for Audio Samuel H. Austin, Riparian Forest Handbook 1: Appreciating and Evaluating Stream Side Forests, Virginia Department of Forestry, Charlottesville, 2000. J. A. Biederman et al., “Multiscale observations of snow accumulation and peak snowpack following widespread, insect-induced lodgepole pine mortality,” Ecohydrology, Vol. 7 (2014), pages 150-162. J. A. Biederman et al., Increased evaporation following widespread tree mortality limits streamflow response,” Water Resources Research, Vol. 50 (2014), pages 5295-5409. S. T. Brantley et al., “Changes to southern Appalachian water yield and stormflow after loss of a foundation species,” Ecohydrology, Vol. 8 (2015), pages 518-528. T. R. Cianciolo et al., “Hydrologic variability in black ash wetlands: Implications for vulnerability to emerald ash borer,” Hydrological Processes, Vol. 35 (2021), e14014. D. W. Clow et al., “Responses of soil and water chemistry to mountain pine beetle induced tree mortality in Grand County, Colorado, USA,” Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 26 (2011), pages 174-178. Anthony D'Amato et al., “Ecological and hydrological impacts of the emerald ash borer on black ash forests,” Northeast Climate Science Center, online at https://necsc.umass.edu/projects/ecological-and-hydrological-impacts-emerald-ash-borer-black-ash-forests. M. J. Daley et al., “Water use by eastern hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis) and black birch (Betula lenta): implications of effects of the hemlock wooly adelgid,” Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 37 (2007), pages 2031-2040. J. S. Diamond et al., “Forested versus herbaceous wetlands: Can management mitigate ecohydrologic regime shifts from invasive emerald ash borer?”  Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 222 (2018), pages 436-446. Emerald Ash Borer Information Network, online at http://www.emeraldashborer.info/index.php.  Virginia information is online at http://www.emeraldashborer.info/state/virginia.php.  Information by county for each state is available in the table online at http://www.emeraldashborer.info/state-dectection-table.php. Gary M. Lovett et al., “Forest Ecosystem Responses to Exotic Pests and Pathogens in Eastern North America,” Bioscience Vol. 56, No. 5 (May 2006), pages 395-405. Steven G. Pallardy, Physiology of Woody Plants, Third Edition, Elsevier/Academic Press, Burlington, Mass., 2008. D. E. Reed et al., “Bark beetle-induced tree mortality alters stand energy budgets due to water budget changes,” “Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol., 131 (2018), pages 153-165. W. M. Robertson et al., “Soil moisture response to white ash mortality following emerald ash borer invasion,” Environmental Earth Sciences, Vol. 77 (2018). Anita K. Rose and James S. Meadows, “Status and Trends of Bottomland Hardwood Forests in the Mid‑Atlantic Region,” USDA/Forest Service Southern Research Station, Asheville, N.C., November 2016; available online at https://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/53238. Scott Salom and Eric Day and Scott Salomn, “Hemlock Wooly Adelgid,” Virginia Cooperative Extension (Publication 3006-1451/ENTO-228NP), Blacksburg, Va., 2016, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/75419. U.S. Department of Agriculture/Forest Service/Northern Research Station [Newtown Square, Penn.], “Forest Disturbance Processes/Invasive Species,” online at https://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/disturbance/invasive_species/.” U.S. Department of Agriculture/Natural Resources Conservation Service, “Plants Data Base,” online at https://plants.usda.gov/java/nameSearch. U.S. Department of Agriculture/Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS):“Asian Longhorned Beetle,” online at https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/resources/pests-diseases/asian-longhorned-beetle;“Emerald Ash Borer,” online at https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth/plant-pest-and-disease-programs/pests-and-diseases/emerald-ash-borer;“Gypsy Moth,” online at https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth/plant-pest-and-disease-programs/pests-and-diseases/gypsy-moth. Virginia Departme

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Virginia Water Radio
Episode 622 (3-28-22): Tree Buds and Water

Virginia Water Radio

Play Episode Listen Later Mar 29, 2022


CLICK HERE to listen to episode audio (4:59).Sections below are the following: Transcript of Audio Audio Notes and Acknowledgments Images Sources Related Water Radio Episodes For Virginia Teachers (Relevant SOLs, etc.). Unless otherwise noted, all Web addresses mentioned were functional as of 3-25-22. TRANSCRIPT OF AUDIO From the Cumberland Gap to the Atlantic Ocean, this is Virginia Water Radio for the week of March 28, 2022.  This revised episode from December 2018 is part of a series this year of episodes related to trees and shrubs. MUSIC – ~ 10 sec – instrumental. This week, that excerpt of “Hiking in the Highland Firs,” by Timothy Seaman of Williamsburg, Va., opens an episode on a woody plant structure that's closed during wintertime and whose opening is a mark of spring.  Have a listen for about 15 seconds to some of the weather that trees and shrubs endure during a Virginia winter, and see if you can guess this structure.  And here's a hint: if you don't know this, you might ask a buddy. SOUNDS  - ~15 sec – March wind in previous year's oak leaves.If you guessed tree and shrub buds, you're right!  Buds are one of woody plants' adaptations for surviving winter's cold temperatures, drying conditions, and damaging winds.  Buds contain meristematic tissue, the tissue that will be future growing stems or flowers.  Sometimes woody plant buds include only the meristematic tissue, but more typically that tissue is covered by small, folded leaves and modified leaf structures called bud scales.  Just like tree and shrub leaves, buds have distinctive shapes and colors, often allowing identification when leaves are gone. Flowering trees and shrubs form both vegetative and flower buds.  The vegetative buds can be at the end of twigs or along the length of twigs in the axils where leaves attach.  Flower buds may look very different from vegetative buds, for example, as in the Flowering Dogwood.  Non-flowering trees and shrubs—that is, conifers, the cone-bearing woody plants, such as pines, spruces, and firs—also have vegetative buds that can develop into stems or into cones. In temperate climates, buds typically form at some point during the growing season and then become dormant—that is, stop actively growing—during the winter.  In spring, in response to hormones and environmental conditions, bud dormancy ends as the buds open and the enclosed tissues begin developing and growing.  But there's much variation among species, and even among individuals within a species, in patterns and timing of bud formation, dormancy, and activity. Now, what makes woody plant buds particularly a water story?  Here are three answers to that question. First, the availability of water during bud formation in one year can affect how much tissue is stored in the bud for growth and development the following spring.  Second, the meristematic tissue in a bud is protected from drying out by the covering bud scales and undeveloped leaves.  And third, while buds don't protect plant cells from freezing, their role in preventing dehydration contributes to the plant's ability to withstand injury from freezing temperatures. As spring unfolds in Virginia, some do the buds on the Commonwealth's woody plants, revealing some of the history—and water—of last summer, along with the future of this year's growing season. Thanks to Timothy Seaman for permission to use this week's music, and we close with about 20 more seconds of “Hiking in the Highland Firs.” MUSIC – ~ 22 sec – instrumental. SHIP'S BELL Virginia Water Radio is produced by the Virginia Water Resources Research Center, part of Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment.  For more Virginia water sounds, music, or information, visit us online at virginiawaterradio.org, or call the Water Center at (540) 231-5624.  Thanks to Stewart Scales for his banjo version of Cripple Creek to open and close this episode.  In Blacksburg, I'm Alan Raflo, thanking you for listening, and wishing you health, wisdom, and good water. AUDIO NOTES AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Virginia Water Radio episode revises and replaces Episode 449, 12-3-18. “Hiking in the Highland Firs,” from the 2001 album “Common Wealth,” is copyright by Timothy Seaman and Pine Wind Music, used with permission.  More information about Timothy is available online at http://www.timothyseaman.com/.   “Hiking in the Highland Firs,” written in honor of Virginia's Grayson Highlands State Park, was previously featured in Virginia Water Radio Episode 320, 6-13-16, on Virginia's state parks. The sound of wind in oak leaves was recorded by Virginia Water Radio in Blacksburg, Va., on March 15, 2013. Virginia Water Radio thanks Jen Gagnon, John Peterson, and John Seiler, all of the Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation, for their help with this episode in 2018 and 2022. Click here if you'd like to hear the full version (1 min./11 sec.) of the “Cripple Creek” arrangement/performance by Stewart Scales that opens and closes this episode.  More information about Mr. Scales and the group New Standard, with which Mr. Scales plays, is available online at http://newstandardbluegrass.com. IMAGES Yellow Buckeye bud opening and leaves emerging in Blacksburg, Va., April 1, 2010.Sawtooth Oak buds and previous year's leaves in Blacksburg, Va., March 29, 2022.White Pine bud among needles in Blacksburg, Va., March 29, 2022.Tulip Poplar bud opening and leaf emerging in Blacksburg, Va., March 29, 2022.Spruce bud among needles in Blacksburg, Va., March 29, 2022.Elm buds opening and leaves emerging in Blacksburg, Va., March 29, 2022.SOURCES Paul J. Kramer and Theodore T. Kozlowski, Physiology of Woody Plants, Academic Press, New York, 1979.  Steven G. Pallardy, Physiology of Woody Plants, Third Edition, Elsevier/Academic Press, Burlington, Mass., 2008.  (This book is a revision of the 1979 work by Kramer and Koslowski listed above.) John R. Seiler, John W. Groninger, and W. Michael Aust, Forest Biology Textbook, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Va., 2021.  Access requires permission of the Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Conservation, online at https://frec.vt.edu/; phone (540) 231-5483.Texas A&M University AgriLife Extension, “How Trees Grow,” online at https://agrilife.org/treecarekit/introduction-to-tree-care/how-trees-grow/. For More Information about Trees in Virginia and Elsewhere Center for Watershed Protection, “Trees and Stormwater Runoff,” online at https://www.cwp.org/reducing-stormwater-runoff/. Chesapeake Bay Program, “Field Guide: Plants and Trees,” online at https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/field-guide/all/plants_trees/all. Oscar W. Gupton and Fred C. Swope, Trees and Shrubs of Virginia, University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville, 1981. Sanglin Lee and Alan Raflo, “Trees and Water,” Viriginia Water Resources Research Center, Virginia Water Central Newsletter, pages 13-18, online at https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/49367.   (A Virginia Cooperative Extension version of this article—“Trees and Water,” by Sanglin Lee, Alan Raflo, and Jennifer Gagnon, 2018—with some slight differences in the text is available online at https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/content/pubs_ext_vt_edu/en/ANR/ANR-18/ANR-18NP.html.) U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Forests of Virginia, 2018,  Resource Update FS-264, Asheville, N.C., 2020; available online at https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/59963. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)/Natural Resources Conservation Service Plants Database, online at https://plants.usda.gov. Virginia Botanical Associates, “Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora,” online at http://www.vaplantatlas.org/index.php?do=start&search=Search. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation/Natural Heritage Division, online at https://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural-heritage/. Virginia Department of Forestry, “Virginia's Forests,” online at https://dof.virginia.gov/.  Some of the useful pages at that site are the following:“Benefits of Trees,” online at https://dof.virginia.gov/education-and-recreation/learn-about-education-recreation/benefits-of-tree/;“Common Native Trees of Virginia,” 2020 edition, online (as a PDF) at https://dof.virginia.gov/wp-content/uploads/Common-Native-Trees-ID_pub.pdf;“Trees for Clean Water Program,” online at https://dof.virginia.gov/urban-community-forestry/urban-forestry-community-assistance/virginia-trees-for-clean-water-grant-program/;“Tree Identification,” online at https://dof.virginia.gov/education-and-recreation/learn-about-education-recreation/tree-identification/. Virginia Native Plant Society, online at http://vnps.org/. Virginia Tech Department of Forest Resources and Conservation, “Virginia Tech Dendrology” online at https://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/vtree.htm.  At this site, one can search for trees by common or scientific name. A.S. Weakley, J.C. Ludwig, and J.F. Townsend, Flora of Virginia, Bland Crowder, ed.  Copyright by the Foundation of the Flora of Virginia Project, Inc., Richmond.  Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Fort Worth, 2012.  This is the first comprehensive manual of Virginia plants published since the 1700s.  The Flora of Virginia Project is online at http://www.floraofvirginia.org/. RELATED VIRGINIA WATER RADIO EPISODES All Water Radio episodes are listed by category at the Index link above (http://www.virginiawaterradio.org/p/index.html).  See particularly the “Plants” subject category. Following are links to other episodes on trees and shrubs [good as of Episode 621] Introduction to trees and water – Episode 621, 3-21-22.American Sycamore – Episode 176, 8-26-13.American Witch Hazel – Episode 238, 10-31-14.Ash trees – Episode 376, 7-10-17.Early spring wildflowers in woodlands – Episode 573, 4-19-21.Forestry as work and as an industry in Virginia – Episode 160, 5-6-13.Maple trees – Episode 503, 12-16-19.Photosynthesis – Episode 602, 11-8-21.Poison Ivy and related plants, including the shrub Poison Sumac – Episode 535, 7-27-20.Rhododendrons – Episode 574, 4-26-21.Tree colors and changes in fall, including to water movement – Episode 285, 10-9-15. FOR VIRGINIA TEACHERS – RELATED STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOLs) AND OTHER INFORMATION Following are some Virginia Standards of Learning (SOLs) that may be supported by this episode's audio/transcript, sources, or other information included in this post. 2020 Music SOLs SOLs at various grade levels that call for “examining the relationship of music to the other fine arts and other fields of knowledge.” 2018 Science SOLs Grades K-4: Living Systems and ProcessesK.7 – Plants and animals have basic needs and life processes.1.4 – Plants have basic life needs (including water) and functional parts that allow them to survive; including that plants can be classified based on a variety of characteristics.2.4 – Plants and animals undergo a series of orderly changes as they grow and develop, including life cycles. 2.5 – Living things are part of a system.3.5 – Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems support a diversity of organisms.4.2 –